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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Dec 2000
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Oct 2000
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Aug 2000
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Jun 2000
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Apr 2000
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Feb 2000
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Chiral Resolution Using Enzymes
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 5, 2000, Pages 415~422
Enzymatic resolution is becoming increasingly important in the production of optically active pharmaceutical drugs and is now challenging the traditional synthetic methods for production of a variety of chiral intermediates and products. This article reviews the recent advances in chirotechnology using enzymes as a catalyst to resolve chiral compounds. The review focuses on the recent trends in chirotechnology and the application of enzymes to the production of industrially valuable pharmaceutical drugs.
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 5, 2000, Pages 423~427
Intense research on biosensors has been performed in a number of different institution over the past 15 years, but relatively few commercial products have resultingly, the blood glucose sensor is a good example of a product which penetrated the market. However recently, the development of electrochemical and optical technologies has accelerated the turnover of the research as is illustrated by a rapid increase in the number of point-of-care diagnostic systems and analytical devices. Examples of such biosensors used in the fields of medical diagnostics, bioprocess control, and environmental monitoring are described, and summarized in an introduction to their characteristics, structures, and functions, given.
Enhanced Production of Anticancer Agent Camptothecin by Double Elicitors in Suspension cultures of Camptotheca acuminata
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 5, 2000, Pages 428~433
Cell cultures of Camptotheca acuminata, which is known to produce the anticancer indole alkaloid camptothecin and its dervatives, were made to enhance the productivity of camptothecin. In suspension cultures, the maximum cell growth rate in exponential growth phase was
which was correlated to 2.58days of cell doubling time. The production of camptothecin was non-growth associated. The camptothecin production was the highest at 11th day form inoculation and then it decreased. Various elicitors were applied to enhance the production of camptothecin. Both of jasmonic acid and cellulase increased the production of camptothecin. The optimal dosing time of elicitor was the beginning of the cultures. The combination of two elicitors was more effective to produce camptothecin than single applications.
of camptothecin was obtained with combined application of two elicitors in two days.
Analysis of Alkaloid Contents in Korean Plumyew [Cephalotaxus Koreana]: Variation with Location and Season
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 5, 2000, Pages 434~437
The contents and composition of alkaloids homoharringtonine, harringtonine, and cephalotaxine were determined in Korean native plumyew tree (Cephalotaxus koreana) collected from 17 different sites in Korea. The alkaloid contents of C. koreana varied with locations and plant populations from 11.8 mg/g to 195.2 mg/g of dry weight while C. koreana in southern area had higher alkaloid contents. The alkaloid compositions in C. koreana were highest with homoharringtonine (40%) and followed harringtonine (32%) and cephalotaxine (28%). Total alkaloids and homoharringtonine contents in needles were higher than those of stem by 2 fold. Alkaloid contents of C. koreana were the highest in winter, and the lowest in summer. Comparison of alkaloid contents and composition with other species of Cephalotaxus revealed that C. koreana was different to C. harringtonia, and contents of homoharringtonine were higher than other species. C. koreana could be potential source for homoharringtonine and related alkaloids.
Development of Continuous Beer Maturation Precess Using Immobilized Yeast
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 5, 2000, Pages 438~443
Continuous processes using immobilized yeast were investigated in order to shorten beer maturation time. Three silica-based ceramic media and one cellulose-based medium were used. Diacetyl (DA) was one of the most distinctive compounds causing immature flavors. Heat treatment of green beer (GB) to convert a-acetolactate to DA was essential to shorten the time for beer maturation. The longer heat treatment time was needed at the lower temperature. Oxygen concentration in GB had a large influence on the conversion of a-acetolactate to DA. The lower the oxygen concentration in GB, the lower conversion ratio to DA. Heat treated GB was fed continuously to four kinds of immobilized yeast columns. DA concentration after immobilization columns was reduced to less than 0.1ppm at
180∼150 minutes retention time in all columns tested. This concentration is enough to fit the quality speification of commercialized product. Formation of a-acetolactate from residual sugars was higher in ceramic media column than cellulose media cloumn. The taste of beers from test processes were not the same as that of traditionally produced beer, but no off-flavors were detected in test samples, which shows that immobilized yeast columns have potentials as rapid processes for beer maturation.
Characteristics of Lead Removal by Methanotrophic Biomass
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 5, 2000, Pages 444~451
Nonliving methanotrophic biomass was used as biosorbent to remove lead which is one of representative pollutants in metal-bearing wastewater. Solution pH, maximum uptake, biosorbent dose and ionic strength were considered as major factors for adsorption experiments. The optimum pH range for lead removal was increased 3.8∼11.0 for methanotrophic biomass compared to biosorbent-free control, pH of 8.4∼11.2. Removal efficiency of lead by methanotrophic biomass was pH dependent, but less sensitive than that of control. In isotherm experiments with 0.2g biosorbent/L at initial solution pH 5.0, methanotrophic biomass took up lead from aqueous solutions to the extent of 1085 mg/g biomass. Removal amount of lead increased with an increase of biomass dose. According to biomass dose for initial 1000 mg Pb/L at initial pH 5.0, the optimum amount of biomass for maximum lead removal per unit methanotrophic biomass was 0.2 g biomass/L. As a result of scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), lead removal by methanotrophic biomass seemed to be through adsorptions on the surface of methanotrophic biomass and exopolymers around the biomass. EDS spectra confirmed that lead adsorption appeared on the biomass and exopolymers that may be effective to lead removal comparing before and after contact with lead. Removal efficiency of lead was slightly affected by ionic strength up to 2.0 M of NaCl and NaNO
Modification of Retention Factor of Mononucleotides by Compositions of Buffers and Methanol in RP-HPLC
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 5, 2000, Pages 452~457
Due to the advantage of RP-HPLC with a variety of compositions of mobile phases, experiments on water-soluble charged species were examined. The samples were mononucleotides (5-CMP, 5-UMP, 5-GMP, 5-IMP, 5-AMP), and the buffers used were sodium phosphate monobasic and acetic acid. The concentrations of buffers ranged from 0.01 to 10 mM, while that of the methanol, an additive to the mobile phase was 5 to 20 vol.%. To predict the retention factor of a sample in terms of its methanol composition (M, vol.%) and buffer(C(sub)B, mM), the following nonlinear equation is suggested, k=
where a, b, c, and d were experimentally determined constants. The regression coefficients were above 0.96, and the agreement between experimental and calculated retention factors were relatively good.
Production of Acetic Acid from Cellulosic Biomass
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 5, 2000, Pages 458~463
Production of acetic acid from cellulosic biomass by Simultaneous Saccharification and Extractive Fermentation (SSEF) was investigated. The homoacetate organism used in this study was a strain of Clostridium thermoaceticum, ATCC # 49707. A batch operation of Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation(SSF) using
-cellulose at pH 5.5 and 55
yielded 40% conversion of cellulose to acetic acid, while a fed-batch SSF operation produced a maximum acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L, with 50% overall yield. In-situ extractive fermentation to reduce the end-product inhibition on both bacteria and enzyme was carried out. in a batch SSEF using 200 g/L IRA-400 resin, acetic acid concentration reached to 23.9 g/L and acetic acid yield and productivity were observed to be 48% and 0.20 g/L-hr, respectively.
Identification of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid with Antioxidative and Antimicrobial Activity from arachis hypogaea Shell
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 5, 2000, Pages 464~468
The methanol extract of Arachis hypogaea shell showed antioxidative and antimicrobial activity. The methanol extract was successively purified by solvent fractionation, silica gel adsorption column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and octadecylsilane column chromatography. The purified active substances were isolated by high performance liquid chromatography, and were identified as 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid by LC-MS and GC-MS. The amount of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid were 3.8mg and 9.8 mg per kg of shell, respectively.
Experimental Study on the Biofiltration of Toluene Gas
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 5, 2000, Pages 469~473
We studied the removal of toluene vapors in a lab-scale biofiter. Biofiltration was performed in a column fed in a downflow manner with contaminated air at ambient conditions. The column was packed with a mixture of peat and calstone(5:3 vol. Ratio), which was inoculated with microbes of selected stains(Pseudomonas putida type A). The microorganisms were immobilized on the filter media and biofilms were formed. The fiofilter was operated at various inlet toluene concentrations for days, and treated up to a maximum elimination capacity of
at an inlet load of
, which corresponds to removal efficiencies in the range 20∼90% and a gas retention time of 1 to 2 min. The pressure drop was almost negligible over the biofilter columns, amounting to only
and appreciably smaller than other studies. The effects of operating conditions such as flow rate, inlet toluene concentration and moisture content on the performance of the biofilter were sequentially investigated.
Effects of Growth Substrates on Cometabolic Biodegradation of Trichloroethylene by Burkholderia cepacia G4
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 5, 2000, Pages 474~481
The effects of growth substrates such as toluene and phenol on cometabolic biodegradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) by Burkholderia cepacia G4 were investigated. The dual effects of primary substrate on TCE biodegradation, stimulatory effects of toluene and phenol at low concentrations (0.5∼2 ppm & 0.1∼0.5 ppm, respectively) and a competitive inhibition at high concentration, were observed in batch experiments. These stimulatory effects of toluene and phenol were found to be due to the increments in the amount of reducing power like NADH which could be generated during the assimilation of toluene and phenol as the carbon and energy source. The efficiency of TCE biodegradation in trickling biofilm reactor (TBR) could be also enhanced up to the TCE removal efficiency of 58.1% by the supply of appropriate amounts of phenol (0.94∼4.7 ppm).
Effects of Glucose and Acetic Acid on the Growth of Recombinant E.coli and the Production of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex-E2 Specific Human Monoclonal Antibody
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 5, 2000, Pages 482~488
The Fab fraction of PDC-E2 specific human monoclonal antibody was produced using recombinant E. coli, and the effects of glucose and acetate were investigated to develop an optimal strategy for recombinant human antibody production. Higher glucose concentration in the culture media resulted inn higher cell growth and glucose consumption rate, which in turn resulted in an increased acetate production rate. When glucose was depleted, cells began to consume acetate as an energy source, and this consumption rate depended on the glucose concentration. When the residual glucose concentration was high, the accumulation of acetate was accelerated due to an increase in the acetate production rate and a decrease in the acetate consumption rate. Futhermore, it was found that a high accumulation of acetate, accompanied by a high glucose concentration, inhibited human antibody formation; the critical acetate concentration was
. During production, a high glucose concentration enhanced cell growth, but inhibited antibody formation due to catabolic repression. Therefore, it is important to keep the concentration of both glucose and acetate as low as possible to increase antibody production after induction. Accordingly, it is important to accurately control the concentration of glucose and acetate in the culture media to obtain high cell densities and high productivity levels of recombinant human antibody.
Production of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex-E2 Specific Human Monoclonal Antibody in Fed-batch Culture Systems with High Cell Density Recombinant Escherichia coli
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 5, 2000, Pages 489~496
Several culture systems including batch, two-stage CSTR, semi-fed batch, and two-stage cyclic fed-batch were investigated for the efficient production of the Fab fraction of PDC-E2 specific human monoclonal antibody using high cell density recombinant E. coli. A two-phase batch system and a two-stage continuous system were examined to overcome plasmid instability problems, by separating the growth and the production stages. The cell density and productivity of the two-stage continuous culture was better than that of the two-phase batch fermentation. In the two-stage continuous culture system with DO-stat, the cell growth and the productivity were superior to those of the system without the DO control. Also, almost total plasmid stability was maintained in the two-stage continuous culture system. Modified M9 medium was selected as an optimum feeding medium for the fed-batch process, and the optimum C/N ratio determined to be 2:3. The optimum feeding rate was
for a constant feeding strategy in semi-fed batch system. When the feeding medium was fed by pulsing, it was observed that more frequent pulsing resulted in improved cell growth. The linear feeding method was the most efficient of the various feeding methods tested. Finally, high cell density culture using a two-stage cyclic fed batch system with pH-stat was tried because the linear feeding method showed limitations in terms of obtaining high cell densities, and a cell density of
was achieved. It was concluded that the two-stage cyclic fed batch system was the most efficient system for high cell density culture of the systems tested. However, productivity improvements were lower than expected due to the extremely high accumulations of acetate, although the low levels of residual glucose were maintained.
Analysis of Avidin-biotinylated Liposome Layers on Au Electrode by Quartz Crystal Analyzer
;;;;Chikashi Nakamura;Qing Yang;Jun Miyake;
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 5, 2000, Pages 497~500
Liposomes and proteoliposomes, artificial membranes, can interact with many solutes, such as drugs, peptides and proteins. The immobilization of (prot대)liposomes as supramolecular aggregates on gold surfaces have potential applications in nano and biosensor technology. We demonstrated a quartz crystal analyzer (QCA) based method to monitor the construction of multi-layers of unilamellar liposomes based on avidin-biotin binding on gold surfaces using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Thus, the QCA provides an on line and efficient method of detecting the construction of protein membranes, which has applications in biosensing systems.
Degradation of Volatile Organic Compound Mixtures Using a Biofiltration System
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 5, 2000, Pages 501~506
A bench-scale air biofilter was evaluated for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a gas stream. Compost and peat were used as the biological attachment media. Biofilter operating parameters such as incoming VOCs concentrations, temperature, and packing materials were examined. After 26 days of acclimation periods, at 25
, the biofilter removed more than 90% of 30 to 72 mg/㎥ of total VOC. After 40 days of operation, the concentrations of isoprene, toluene, and m-xylene were reduced to 96∼99, 91∼93, and 91∼93% of the original concentrations. VOC removal efficiency was not affected by the temperature. The medium pH was maintained near neutral (pH 6.5∼7.1). After 37 days of operation, the total bacteria count in the biofilter media increased to 1.12
10(sup)8 cells/g of medium.
Effect of Fermentation Conditions on the Production of Lovastatin by Aspergillus terreus
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 5, 2000, Pages 507~513
The biosynthesis of lovastatin, a cholesterol lowering agent formed by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus terreus, was examined in a 2.5 L jar fermenter. In batch bioreactor cultures conducted at various agitation rates, 400 rpm showed the best result in terms of lovastatin production. Notably, the effect of pH on lovastatin biosynthesis was found to be significant: when the pH was controlled at around 5.8 during the whole fermentation period, lovastatin concentration reached 598 mg/L, which is much hihger than the amounts obtained by pH-uncontrolled and pH 7.4-controlled fermentations. In addition, both L-histidine and L-tryptophan were observed to be favorable amino acids for the enhancement of lovastatin production when 6 g/L of the respective amino acids were supplemented at the beginning of the fermentation period. By further optimization of the production media and the physical environment, lovastatin production was increased to 836 mg/L (3.5 mg/L/hr) which is approximately 10 times higher than the productivity of the basic control culture.
Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification in a Fluidized Biofilm Reactor with a Hollow Fiber Double Layer Biofilm Media
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 5, 2000, Pages 514~520
Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification of ammonia and organic compounds-containing wastewater were performed in a fluidized bed biofilm reactor with polysulfone(PS) hollow fiber as a double layer biomass carrier. The PS hollow fiber fragment has both aerobic and anoxic environments for the nitrifiaction and denitrification at the shell and lumen-side respectively. The reactor system showed about 80% nitrification efficiency stably throughout the ammonia load conditions applied in the experiment. Denitrification efficiency depended on organic load and C/N ratio. High free ammonia concentration and low dissolved oxygen resulted in nitrite accumulation which leads to enhance organic carbon efficiency in denitrification when compared to nitrate denitrification. The simultaneous nitrification and denitrification reactor system has an economic advantages in reduced chemical cost of organic carbon for denitrification as well as compact reactor configuration.
Antibacterial Activity and the Stability of an Ag+ Solution made using metallic Silver
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 5, 2000, Pages 521~524
An Ag+ solution was made by supplying pure metal silver in filtrated distilled at constant voltage. the solution at an Ag+ concentration of 10 ppm showed specific activity against Gram positive and negative bacteria, and more than 90% activity against Candida albicans ATCC 102321 at the same concentration. The ionic solution produced was stable with regard to antibacterial activity and an Ag+ Concentration in the temperature range of 4
for more than 4 weeks. In addition, the no pH change was observed under there conditions and the solution was confirmed stable by adjusting pH from 5.5 to 6.5.
Monitoring of FCW/DCW ratio, Production of Protein and Peroxidase Activity During Suspension Culture of Taxus chinesis
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 5, 2000, Pages 525~528
Time course monitoring of FCW/DCW ratio, production of intra and extracellular protein, and peroxidase activity were performed during suspension culture of Taxus chinensis cells. The observed FCW/DCW ratio was 12 at day 14, which was the lowest value during cultivation, and the specific protein production, based on dry cell weight, was also the lowest at day 14, which showed 4.3 mg/g DCW. The pattern of POD activity was similar to that of protein production. The results in this report were obtained using actively growing cells in flasks, therefore it is possible to use those results to control the process and indicate the stresses imposed on cells during large-scale cultivation.
Modeling and Analysis of Extractive Butanol Fermentation with Pervaporation
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 5, 2000, Pages 529~536
Results from experiments and mathematical modeling were compared for pervaporative butanol fermentation. The developed model includes expressions to predict characteristics of butanol fermentation, such as, microbial growth, solvent (butanol, acetone, and ethanol) formation and organic acid (acetate and butyrate) production. Butanol diffusivity was 1.15
10(sup)-7 ㎡/hr at 1.5 L/min-tubing of air flow rate using a pervaporative module. The model correlated well with experimental results (cell growth, glucose consumption and concentrations of solvents and organic acids) for batch fermentation with and without pervaporation. Larger surface area and thinner module tubing resulted in an increased glucose consumption and a decreased residual butanol concentration. Optimum membrane area and thickness were 0.34 ㎡ and 120
Purification and Characterization of Paclitaxel from Plant Cell Cultures of Taxus chinensis in Large-Scale Process
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 5, 2000, Pages 537~540
In developing a HPLC purification process, it was hoped that a single chromatographic system would be sufficient to abtain pure paclitaxel in high yield. However, no such system was found, due in part to the complex taxoid profile of crude paclitaxel and to the rigorous nature of the product specification. A two step HPLC purification was adopted using reverse-phase separation on C(sub)18 as a first step, and normal-phase separation on silica as the final polishing step. Impurity profiles were established and maintained for paclitaxel, which identified and quantified each impurity observed in purified paclitaxel from these two steps, all impurities at or above 0.1% were identified. Results provide information for improving the quality control of paclitaxel production.