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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Dec 2000
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Oct 2000
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Aug 2000
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Jun 2000
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Apr 2000
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Feb 2000
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Separation of Chiral Compound Using SMB Chromatography
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 541~547
Simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography has been investigated in order to separate chiral compounds for pharmaceutical use. SMB utilizes the principle of true moving bed (TMB) chromatography, and has the advantages of low solvent usage, flexible configuration of columns and hardwares, and high productivity of the chiral compounds over the TMB. Large scale separation of xylene isomers and saccharides has been conducted since 1960s. However, the application of SMB in the fine chemical industries is still in the infant stage. The study of SMB for the chiral compounds production was initiated in the mid 1990s and further researches are actively undergoing. This review summarizes the principle of SMB as well as the chemistry of chiral stationary phase and chiral compounds.
Characterization of a pH/Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogel Synthesized at Different pH and Temperature Conditions
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 548~555
A hydrogel, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N, N-dimethylaminopropylmethacrylamide), sensitive to both pH and temperature, was synthesized and characterized at
and pH of 10.3∼12.3. The gel was more transparent and mechanically stronger at lower preparation temperature and pH. Large pores observed in scanning electron microscope seem to be responsible for the lower biomolecular separation efficiency. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) decreased at a higher polymerization temperature. At
, which is lower than the LCST, the gel was swollen regardless of the solution pH. At
, however, the gel was swollen at neutral and acidic pHs even though the temperature was higher than the LCST. The gel collapse pH, defined as the point at which the gel made its largest volume decrease per unit pH increment, increased as the gel preparation temperature increased.
Separation and Recovery of Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase Using Aqueous Two-Phase Systems
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 556~559
Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase(EC 22.214.171.124 : 1,4-
-glucano) transferase, cyclizing; CGTase) can be separated and recovered in an aqueous two-phase system composed of poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)/dextran and PEG/salt. In an aqueous two-phase system consisting of PEG 35000 (5%) and dextran T2000 (7%), all cell and debris were collected at the interphase. CGTase partitioned to the denser dextran phase at an yield of 83.4%. On the other hand, in an aqueous two-phase system consisting of PEG 35000 (10%) and sodium phosphate (15%), CGTase partitioned to the denser salt phase at an yield of 95.5%. In order to recover CGTase using an aqueous two-phase system, the PEG/salt system proved to be more efficient than the PEG/dextran system in terms of yield and cost.
Isolation and Identification of 13-Deacetyl-taxchinin I, a New Taxoid from Plant Cell Cultures of Taxus chinensis
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 560~565
13-Deacetyl-taxchinin I, a taxoid having a rearranged 11(15\longrightarrow1)-abeo-taxane skeleton, has been isolated and identified from plant cell cultures of Taxus chinensis. The compound has not previously been encountered in nature. Its structure was elucidated by 1-and 2D NMR techniques including H-H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC experiments. This taxoid also provides information for better understanding of structure-activity relationships and biosynthesis, as well as improving the quality control of paclitaxel production.
Development of Osmotolerant Mutant, Candida magnoliae M26 and the Determination of the Optimum Concentrations of Carbon and Nitrogen Sources to Improve Erythritol Yield
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 566~572
Experimental studies were carried out to develop an osmotolerant mutant of Candida magnoliae JH and to determine the optimum concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources to improve erythritol yield and productivity. Mutants of C. magnoliae JH were prepared by treatment with ethylmethane sulfonate, and osmotolerant mutants were isolated from the agar plate colonies containing 2.5 M KCI. Among the mutants isolated, one mutant M26 was finally selected based on erythritol yield and productivity. In shake flask culture, glucose proved to be the best carbon source and the optimum yeast extract concentration was 5 g/L based on 100 g/L glucose. The erythritol yield and productivity of mutant M26 were greater than wild type in 100 g/L glucose medium. in the fermentation experiments, erythritol production increased with increased glucose concentration, up to a limit of 250 g/L. The maximum concentration of erythritol achieved 127.5 g/L, and the yield and productivity of erythritol production were 51.0% and 0.63 g/L-h, respectively.
Characteristics of Cellulose Production by Acetobacter sp. A9 in Static Culture
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 573~577
The optimum fermentation conditions for the production of cellulose by a newly isolated Acetobacter sp. A9 were determined in static cultures. The strain was able to produce cellulose at
with a maximum at
. Cellulose production occurred at pH 6.5-8.0 with a maximum at pH 6.5. The optimal culture medium was found to consists of 1.0% glucose, 1.0% yeast extract, 0.7% polypeptone, 0.15% acetic acid and 0.02% succinic acid. Cellulose production by Acetobacter sp. A9 followed the growth curve. Highest cellulose production, under optimum conditions, was
, although this strain typically produced only
in the basic medium. Cellulose production also depended on the depth and volume of the medium.
연속식 고정층 탑내에서의 휘발성 유기 화합물[VOCs]의 흡착 특성에 관한 연구
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 578~583
Biofiltration has been identified as a promising method of odor, VOCs and air toxic removal from waste gas streams because of low capital and operating cost, low energy requirements and an absence of residual products requiring further treatment of disposal. Because biofiltration units are microbial systems in-corporationg microorganisms grown on a porous solid media like compost, peat, soil and mixtures of these materials, there is a need to study of the adsorptive behavior of these supports. The purpose of this study was to investigate the major parameters of adsorptive process. We adsorbed VOCs onto peats and bark, and examined the correlations between the interphase mass transfer coefficients and transfer units, at different stream flow rates, VOCs inlet concentrations and bed lengths.
Optimization of the Production of a Thermostable Antifungal Antibiotic
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 584~588
The optimum conditions for the production of an antifungal antibiotic from Bacillus sp. YJ-63 were investigated. The oprimumized medium consisted of 1.5% soluble starch, 1% tryptone and 0.5% yeast extract, and temperature and initial medium pH for production were optimal at 35
and pH 6.0, respectively. Production yield was significantly improved by shaking culture using 50 ml medium in 500 ml flasks. Under these conditions, the production of the antifungal antibiotic was growth-dependent, from 35hrs into cultivation to the stationary phase and endospore formation.
Identification and Optimal Characteristics of Burkholderia sp. SKK381 Degrading Benzene
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 589~593
Several bacterial strains growing on benzene minimal medium were isolated from soil by enrichment culture, Burkholderia sp. SKK381 was identified and selected. In order to determine the ability of Burkholderia sp. SKK381 to degrade benzene. Changes in substrate concentration, cell growth, and pH were monitored from start-up in bath culture. At 30
, 1000 ppm of benzene was degraded 100% within 28hours. Cell growth conditions were best at an initial pH of 7.0 and a benzene concentration of 1000 ppm at 30
Adsorption and Thermostability of Antimicrobial Agents on Synthetic Ceramic Powder
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 594~599
The adsorption of the antimicrobial agents and their heat-resistance were investigated for the packaging film manufacture, wherein, the antimicrobial agents were adsorbed on a ceramic component. The naturally sourced antimicrobial agents were produced by methylotropic actinomycetes strains MO-16 and MO-17, extracted with ethylacetate. Antimicrobial action was stable to
and 1 atm. for 30 min., showing wide-ranging activity to the Gram(+) and the Gram(-) bacteria. Antimicrobial agents, adsorbed on ceramic Ce-1, retained activity to the Gram(+) and the Gram(-) species at
heat treatment, and methanol extracted antimicrobial agents from Ce-1 treated at
for 30min., retained activity to Gram(+) bacteria. In the presence of oxygen during the heat treatment process, antimicrobial agents adsorbed on ceramic Ce-1 showed antimicrobial activity to Gram(+) and the Gram(-) bacteria.
Antimicrobial Activity and Food Storage of LDPE Ceramic Film Containing Antimicrobial Agents
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 600~604
Low density polyethylene(LDPE) film was fabricated with the addition of synthetic ceramic which contained a natural antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial agents used were isolated from culture broths of methylotropic actinomycetes strains MO-16 and MO-17, and Streptomyces sp. No. 31, which was newly isolated from soils as an antifungal agent. Four-day old culture broth of Streptomyces sp. No. 31 showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergilus niger, a test strain, and retained antimicrobial activity after heat treatment at
for 15 min. The ceramic LDPE film reduced the growth of total aerobic bacteria in packaged minced pork compared with commercial film. The film revealed a 40 to 50% growth inhibition of E. coli on a contained agar plate. In the storage testing of various packaged foods at room temperature for 30 days, the ceramic LDPE film showed excellent preservation compared with commercial film.
Separation Characteristics of Oligodeoxynucleotides by High-Performance Membrane Chromatography
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 605~608
Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) were separated by high-performance membrane chromatography (HPMC), a combined system of chromatography and membrane. The separation mechanism involved anion-exchange, and the stationary phase was cation CIM (Convective Interaction Media) DEAE disk (16
3 mm). Two types of mobile phase were used, buffer A (20mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4) and buffer B (buffer A + 1M NaCl). As the amount of NaCl dissolved in buffer linearly increased, the retention time shortened, which enabled a gradient elution mode. Based on the number of theoretical plates and resolution observed, the optimum mobile phase and operating condition (Buffer A/Buffer B=50/50 - 20/80 vol%, gradient time 2 min) were experimentally determined. In this experimental condition, ODNs were separated within 2 min at a mobile phase flow rate of 6 ml/min.
Effect of Cell Aggregation on Camptothecin Production in Suspension Cultures of Camptotheca acuminata
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 609~614
Suspension cultures of Camptotheca acuminata, which is known to produce the anticancer indole alkaloid camptothecin and its derivatives, were made to increase camptothecin production. The capability of camptothecin production in suspended cells is decreased by repeated subculturein. Aggregated cells produced more camptothecin than single cells. Optimal cell aggregation was achieved in hybrid medium supplemented with 4% sucrose. Aggregated cells in hybrid medium with 4% sucrose produced
of camptothecin. The control of shaking speeds was effective at inducing cell aggregation and camptothecin production. A shaking speed of 100 rpm was found optimum to increase the cell aggregation with a camptothecin production of
Production of the Quality Germinated Brown Rices Containing High
-Aminobutyric Acid by Chitosan Application
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 615~620
To obtain quality germinated brown rices containing high levels of
-aminobutyric acid (GABA), chitosan was applied during the brown rice germination. The GABA contents in germinated brown rices (1,035 nmole/g fresh weight) and brown rices germinated by water (771 nmole/g fresh weight) or by lactiv acid (728 nmole/g fresh weight). In addition to the enhancement of GABA, germination in the chitosan solution increased alanine concentration and decreased glutamic acid, aspartic acid and serine concentrations in the brown rices. The activity of glutamate decarboxylase was also enhanced by the chitosan treatment. Furthermore, germination by chitosan reduced fungal contamination markdely, compared with germination by water or germination by lactic acid. These results suggest that quality germinated brown rices containing high levels of GABA can be obtained by chitosan application.
Production and Characterization of Physiological Properties of Carotenoid from a Marine Bacterium Curtobacterium sp.
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 621~629
A marine bacterium producing carotenoid was isolated from the Yosu coastal area of South Korea, and has been recorded as MCPBK-1. It was identified as Curtobacterium sp.. The optimum conditions of marine carotenoid fermentation from Cutobacterium sp. were pH 7.0, a temperature of
, 4 mM fructose as a carbon source, 0.07% tryptone as a nitrogen source, 0.5 mM
ion as a mineral source and
of cyanocobalamine as a growth factor in a
jar-fermentor. 13.0 mg/ml of the marine carotenoid were produced under optimum conditions. The crude marine carotenoid isolated was composed of 5 different compounds, i.e : tunaxanthin(86.6%), diatoxanthin (7.1%),
(2.1%), canthaxanthin(1.9%) and cynthiaxanthin (1.9%). Physiological properties including antibacterial activity, cytotoxic effect, antioxidative effect and free radical scavenging activity were characterized with the crude carotenoid, which exhibited no antibacterial activity against E. coli and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, but a strong cytotoxic effect against cancer cells such as HepG2 (Hepatocellular carcinoma, human, ATCC HB-8065) and HeLa (Cervical carcinoma, human, ATCC CCL-2) cells, the ratios of impediment were 86.4% and 39.2%, respectively. This carotenoid, also, expressed a strong antioxidative effect (83%) against CCL-13 (diploid, monotypic hepatocyte, human, ATCC CCL-13) and exhibited free radical scavenging activity (43.4%) when using at a concentration of
of the crude carotenoid.
Production of Chiral Styrene Oxide by Microbial Enantioselective Hydrolysis Reaction
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 630~634
Chiral epoxides are useful chiral synthons in organic synthesis, and various biological methods have been investigated for their production. In this work, the enantioselective resolution of racemic styrene oxide was investigated using Aspergillus niger sp. for the production of optically pure (S)-styrene oxide. The enantioselectivity and initial hydrolysis rates of the racemic substrate were highly dependent of the pH, temperature, and the volume ratio of cosolvent. Experimental sets of pH, temperature, and the volume ratio of cosolvent were investigated using a central composite experimental design, and reaction conditions were optimized by response surface analysis. The optimal conditions of pH, temperature, and the volume ratio of cosolvent were determined to be 7.78,
, and 2.4%(v/v), respectively, and optically pure (S)-styrene oxide (>99% ee) was obtained at 35% yield using this microbial enantioselective hydrolysis reaction.
Comparison of Antioxidative Activity on Fish and Bovine Skin Gelatin Hydrolysates Produced in a Three-Step Membrane Enzyme Reactor
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 635~643
To compare the antioxidative activities of fish skin and bovine skin gelatin hydrolysate, gelatin hydrolysates from Alaska pollack and bovine skin were prepared by various enzymatic hydrolysis methods (1st step, Alcalase; 2nd step, pronase E; 3rd step, collagenase) using a continuous three-step membrane reactor. The molecular weight distributions of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd step hydrolysates were 7∼10 kDa, 2∼5 kDa and 0.7∼0.9 kDa, respectively. The antioxidative activity of fish skin gelatin hydrolysate was stronger than that of bovine skin gelatin hydrolysate, and in particular, both of 2nd step hydrolysates showed more antioxidative activity than hydrolysates of any other step. The optimum antioxidative activity concentration of the 2nd step hydeolysates of fish and boving skin were 1% (w/w) in a linoleic acid water-alcohol emulsion. In cultured cells exposed to t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), the 2nd step hydrolysate of fish skin gelatin delayed cell death most. These results suggest that the antioxidative activity of fish skin gelatin hydrolysate is higher than that of bovine skin gelatin hydrolysate because of their different amino acid contents.
The Behavior of a
Fixation Process by Euglena Gracilis Z with a Photobioreactor
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 644~648
Biological fixation of carbon dioxide using microalgae is known as an effective CO
reduction technology. However, many environmental factors influence microalgal productivity. Optimal cultivation factors were determined for the green alga, Euglena gracilis Z, which offers high protein and vitamin E content for animal fodder. In batch culture in a photovioreactor, it was found that theinitial pH, temperature, CO
concentration in air, and light intensity during the optimal cultivating conditions were 3.5, 27
, 5-10% and 520
mol/㎡/s, respectively. When tap water and freshwater were used as cultivating media unsterilized tap water was found to be effective. A kinetic model was considered to determine the relationship between the specific growth rate and the light intensity. The half-velocity coefficient (K(sub)I) in the Monod model under photoautotrophic conditions was 978.9
A Study of the Factors Affecting the Backward Transfer of BSA from AOT Reverse Micellar Solutions
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 649~657
The factors affecting the back-extraction efficiency of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA, Mw. 65kDa, pl 4.9) solubilized in an AOT reverse micellar solution, prepared by the injection method, to an excess aqueous phase were investigated. In particular, the effects of pH, the types of salts, alcohols added as cosurfactants, and their concentrations in the aqueous phase were examined. Furthermore, by comparing the CD spectra of the back-extracted BSA and the feed BSA, the structural changes of BSA during the extraction process were determined. The addition of 1:1 salt such as KCl or NaCl to the aqueous phase resulted in almost a 100% extraction to the aqueous phase at a pH higher than its isoelectric point pl. This high efficiency of back-extraction might be due to the change in the interactions between the protein and micellar aggregates driven by the added salt. For 1:2 salts like
, BSA was back-extracted with lower than 20% extraction efficiency. Maximum extraction efficiencies were attained at about pH=7 and pH=8 for monovalent and divalent salts, respectively. The addition of alcohols as cosurfactants led to an improvement in monovalent and divalent salts, respectively. From the CD spectra of BSA extracted to the aqueous phase, it was observed that denaturation of BSA was not significant. In certain back-extraction conditions, the extracted BSA showed even higher activity than the feed BSA.
Effect of Pigmentation on Rainbow Trout Fed Carotenoid Diets from Halophilic Bacteria [Haloarcular sp. EH-1]
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 658~663
This study is aimed at evaluating the pigmentation of rainbow trout with carotenoid extracts from halophilic bacteria during 8 weeks feeding. Proximate composition of the sample were analyzed. Moisture content was 77% and 73% after 4 and 8 weeks feeding, respectively. Crude protein and lipid content was slowly increased after 8 weeks feeding. But minerals content were not affected with the feeding period and constituents. Muscle carotenoids content of rainbow trout was 0.0223 mg/100g tissue in control group after 4 weeks, and 0.1702 mg/100g tissue in carophyll pink group after 8 weeks. The carotenoids pigmentation content of halophilic bacteria extracts fed group was 0.1256, 0.1382 mg/100g tissue after 8 weeks. It means that the carotenoids of bacteria extracts are a good material for fish pigmentation. The main components of rainbow trout muscle and integuments with these diets were canthaxathin,, zeaxanthin, and
A Study on the Solubilization of
-Chymotrypsin Using AOT Reverse Micelles; Effects of pH and salts
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 664~669
Micellar aggregates are known to be useful for the selective isolation of biologically active materials such as amino acids, proteins, and enzymes from crude mixtures sparsely dispersed in water. In this study, the effects of pH, salt type and its concentration on the solubilization of
-chymotrypsin into the organic micellar phase, which consisted of AOT (sodium 야(2-ethylhexy)sulfosuccinate) and iso-octane, were comprehensively examined. It was found that maximum extraction efficiency was attained at a pH below the isoelectric point of
-chymotrypsin; at pH=5.0 for NaCl and KCl, and at pH=7.0 for
. In order to avoid complications stemming from the precipitationof protein at low pH interfaces, the protein concentrations in the organic and aqueous phases were directly measured. The size of the micelle water pool was estimated by measuring the molar ratio of the surfactant to the water, W(sub)o. The resulting values of W(sub)o were nearly constant at 30 and 19 for NaCl and KCl, respectively, and were independent of pH. The addition of 1:2 salts like
led to much lower, but a constant value of, W(sub)o than the 1:1 salts.
Growth Characteristics of Azotobacter vinelandii UWD Using Glucose and Organic Acids as Substrates
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 670~672
Azotobacter vinelandii UWD synthesizes poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), one of the biodegradable polymers, when odd and even number carbon sources are simultaneously added to a medium. In this study, we investigated the specific growth rate of Azotobacter vinelandii UWD on propionic acid and valeric acid. The specific growth rates were
at 1.0∼1.5 g/L of propionic acid and 1.0 g/L of valeric acid, respectively. When a mixture of 0.75 g/L of propionic acid and 0.5 g/L of valeric acid was added to the medium, the specific growth rate was 0.196 hr(sup)-1, which was equal to or higher than those of the individual organic acids. Among 10∼50 g/L of glucose cell growth was best at 20 g/L.
Characteristic of Carotenoid Component from Halophilic Bacteria, Haloarcular sp. EH-1
KSBB Journal, volume 15, issue 6, 2000, Pages 673~676
In order to identification of carotenoid pigments of Haloarcular sp. EH-1 as a food for fish were analyzed. The content of carotenoids cultured in 3 L and 5 L bioreactor were 83.1 and 82.7 mg%, respectively. Identification of each carotenoid was achieved by means of co-TLC and co-HPLC with authentic specimens, spectroscopic and instrumental analyses, and chemical treatments as usual. The main components identified were
-carotene(8.1%), 3-hydroxyechinenone(42.0%) and astaxanthin(25.0%).