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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 16, Issue 5 - Oct 2001
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Aug 2001
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Jun 2001
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Apr 2001
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2001
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Development and Applications of Proteomics Technology
KSBB Journal, volume 16, issue 2, 2001, Pages 99~106
Proteomics research includes identification and quantitation of single protein and/or protein complex, profiling of protein expression changes in response to biological perturbations, characterization of protein functions and interactions, and elucidation the linkage between proteins and diseases. In this review paper, recent developments in the basic technologies involved in the proteomics research such as 2-dimensional PAGE and mass spectrometry are discussed. Also, the application areas of proteomics technology such as protein expression mapping and cell map proteomics are introduced with the focus on new drug development.
Directed Evolution in Protein Functionality Improvement
KSBB Journal, volume 16, issue 2, 2001, Pages 107~114
The dynamic evolution process has resulted in the myriad shapes, functions, and systems evident in every living organism. For centuries, people have been harnessing the power of evolution to produce new varieties of plants and animals, such as producing tomatoes from berries and Chihuahuas from wolves. Now scientists are using it to produce better molecules, ranging from drugs to industrial chemicals, and doing it in days or weeks rather than eons. The ingenious process, which creates genetic diversity and selects those with desired features in the laboratory, is called directed evolution or test tube evolution. In this paper, concepts of directed molecular evolution and some examples will be discussed.
Design and Applications of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Selective Separations
KSBB Journal, volume 16, issue 2, 2001, Pages 115~122
Molecular imprinting has now been established as a technique which allows the creation of tailor-made binding sites for many classes of compounds. MIPs were prepared by covalent and non-covalent chemical bonding systems, by interactions between functional monomer and template. The shape of MIP is divided to particle and membrane. MIP membranes can be prepared by surface imprinting, in-situ polymerization, wet phase inversion and the dry phase inversion method. MIPs have been mainly used for analytical separation and biosensor systems to separate and detect chiral compounds and materials with similar structures. However the application of MIP by the chemical industries is still in its infancy stages. This review summarizes the preparative characteristics and applications of MIP with respect to chiral separations and biosensors.
Antimicrobial Activity Assessment of Functional Plastics which Contained Ag-Hydroxyl Apatite Agent
KSBB Journal, volume 16, issue 2, 2001, Pages 123~127
For testing antimicrobial activity of functional plastics containing antimicrobial agent. We have used Escherichia. coli (ATCC 25922) and Staphylococcus. aureus (ATCC 6538P) with plastics which contained a Ag-hydroxyl apatite agent. In this paper, effect of antimicrobial test on plastics containing silver complex agent which accomplished by using test condition that Trypticase Soy Broth (TSB solution have diluted 500 times with 0.1 M phosphate buffer), pH7.2, Temp.
and 120 rpm for 24 hr. the condition give the opportunity to better perform the antimicrobial active effect of individual functional plastics. As result. the test conditions were best effect of antimicrobial by using plastic contained minimum 0.5% with Ag-hydroxyl apatite agent.
Recovery of Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase by Adsorption to Starch
KSBB Journal, volume 16, issue 2, 2001, Pages 128~132
Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (EC 22.214.171.124 : 1,4-
-D-(1,4-glucano) transferase, cyclizing; CGTase) was recovered by starch adsorption. The adsorption and desorption of CGTase to starch was studied as a function of pH, temperature, and starch type. The optimal pH, temperature, and starch for adsorption were, 8.0,
, and 1% (w/v) corn starch, respectively, per 205 U/mL enzyme activity in the presence of 25% (w/v) ammonium sulfate. The maximum adsorption ratio was 95%. On the other hand, the optimal pH, temperature, and starch type for desorption were 8.0 (tris-buffer),
, and oxidized starch, respectively. The maximum desorption ratio was 98% by tris-buffer solution at pH 8.0. The efficiency of adsorption and desorption were affected slightly by the removal of cells from the fermentation broth.
Removal of Ammonia Nitrogen and Organics from Piggery Wastewater Using BACC Process-I. Comparison of Activated Sludge Process
KSBB Journal, volume 16, issue 2, 2001, Pages 133~139
To treat piggery wastewaters containing refractory compounds including nitrogen, biological treatments were investigated. In biological treatment, the removal efficiencies of organics and nitrogen by the activated sludge process and bioreactor using a BACC (Biological Activated Carbon Cartridge) media filled with granular activated carbon were examined. The results were as follows; in the biological process, when the approximate influent BOD concentration of 620 mg/L, through dilution, was treated by the activated sludge process, the process should be operated at a HRT of over 8 days to maintain an effluent BOD concentration of lower than 100 mg/L. In the treatment of piggery wastewater using a BACC bioreactor, when the HRT was 200 hours, the BOD, COD(sub)cr, and TKN removal efficiency of the effluent were 94, 75 and 64.3%, respectively. Comparing the BACC bioreactor with the activated sludge process, when the volumetric loading rate was 0.3 g BOD/L.day, the specific substrate removal rate of BOD was 0.14 g BOD removed/L.day in the activated sludge process which compared with 0.27 g BOD removed/L
day in the BACC bioreactor. The BACC bioreactor showed on average a 2-fold higher removal rate and was superior to the activated sludge process in wastewater treatment in terms of variations of loading time and high loading time. Therefore, the BACC process can effectively treat piggery wastewater containing high concentrations of nitrogen and organic compounds.
Removal of Ammonia Nitrogen and Organics from Piggery Wastewater Using BACC Process-II. Effect of COD/N on Removal of NItrogen and Organics
KSBB Journal, volume 16, issue 2, 2001, Pages 140~145
To treat piggery wastewater containing refractory compounds including nitrogen, physical treatments using zeolite and biological processes were investigated. In biogical treatment, the removal efficiencies of organics and nitrogen in bioreador using BACC (Biological Activated Carbon Cartridge) media filled with granule activated carbon were examined. The best removal efficiencies achieved for TKN and COD(sub)cr were 82% and 53% respectively, when zeolite dosage was 300 g/L. Specific nitrogen removal ability was 3.2 mg/g at a zeolite dosage of 50 g/L, whereas specific nitrogen removal ability was 1.8 mg/g at a zeolite dosage of 300 g/L. The increased of C/N ratio resulting from the removal of nitrogen using zeolite led to an increase in removal efficiency of organics. As C/N ratio was increased to 2.0, 2.44 and 6.58 at a HRT of 48 hours in a BACC bioreactor, removal efficiencies of COD(sub)cr were increased to 53.5%, 57.4% and 80.6%. The removal efficiency of wastewater using a zeolite dosage of 399 g/L was increased by 27.1% compared to that of control treatment.
In Vitro Refolding of Inclusion Body Proteins Directly from E. coli Cell Homogenate in Expanded Bed Adsorption Chromatography
KSBB Journal, volume 16, issue 2, 2001, Pages 146~152
To avoid the intrinsic problem of aggregation associated with the traditional solution-phase refolding process, we propose a solid-phase refolding method integrated with expanded bed adsorption chromatography. The model protein used was a fusion protein of recombinant human growth hormone and a glutathione S transferase fragment. It was demonstrated that the EBA-mediated refolding technique could simultaneously remove cellular debris and directly renature the fusion protein inclusion bodies in the cell homogenate with much higher yields and less agregation. To demonstrate the applicability of the method, we successfully tested the three representative types of starting materials, i. e., rhGH monomer, washed inclusion bodies, and the E. coli homogenate. This direct and simplified refolding process could also reduce the number of renaturation steps required and allow refolding at a higher concentration, at approximately 2 mg fusion protein per ml of resin. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first approach that has combined the solid-phase refolding method with expanded bed chromatography.
Manufacture and Physiological Functionality of Wines and Liquors by Using Plum [Prunus salicina]
KSBB Journal, volume 16, issue 2, 2001, Pages 153~157
Alcohol fermentation conditions for the production of plum wine were investigated and further, sensory evaluation and physiological functionalities of the plum wines were also determined and compared with those of plum liquors made by soaking plums in a mixture of commercial soju and 10% sugar for 15, 30, 60 and 120 days. Ethanol was produced maximally when 5% Saccharomyces cerevisiae was added to red plum juices and fermented at 25
for 5 days. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity and fibrinolytic activity of the red plum wine were better than those of the plum liquors. However, the antioxidant activity, the SOD-like activity and the tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the plum liquors were better than those of the red plum wine. On comparing the red plum wine and the various kinds of plum liquors, the red plum wine was shown to be more acceptable by sensory evaluation.
Isolation of a Halotolerant Yeast and the Production of Extracellular Protease
KSBB Journal, volume 16, issue 2, 2001, Pages 158~162
A halotolerant and extracellular protease-producing yeast was isolated from traditional Meju and identified as a strain of Hansenular polymorpha by investigating its microbiological characteristics. The optimum pH, temperature and NaCl concentration reauired for the growth of Hansenular polymorpha S-9 were found to be pH 6.0, 30
and 0.5 M, respectively. Extracellular protease was produced maximally at 10 U ml(sup)-1 when Hansenular polymorpha S-9 was grown on the medium containing 1.0% beef extract and 0.1 M NaCl for 12 hr at 30
. About 13% of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was shown in the hydrolysates which were obtained from the digestion of soybean protein (6 mg) for 6 hr at 30
by the crude enzyme (1 U).
Effects of Green and Taste Teas on the Growth and Vacuolating Toxin Titer of Helicobacter pylori
KSBB Journal, volume 16, issue 2, 2001, Pages 163~169
This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of green and taste teas on the in-vitro antimicrobial activity and vacuolating toxin titer of Helicobacter pylori. Crude aqueous extracts prepared by adding 2 g of tea leaf or powder to 100 ml of boiling distilled water, and sterilized by passing through a 0.22
membrane filter. Green tea, coffee, and ginger tea showed bactericidal activity on H. pylori within 3 hours. Black tea and ssangwha tea also showed bactericidal activity on H. pylori in 24 hours. Arrowroot tea show no bactericidal effect on H. pylori after 48 hours. Two fold diluted green tea and coffee decreased(1/10,000cfu) the growth of H. pylori in 24 hours, but the two fold diluted black tea, ssangwha tea, and ginger tea showed suppression effect upon of(1/10cfu) H. pylori in 24 hours. The two-fold and 10-fold diluted green tea, coffee and two-fold diluted black tea abrogated the vacuolating toxin titer of H. pylori, but the two-fold and 10-fold diluted ginger, ssangwha, ginseng, and arrowroot tea only reduced the vacuolating toxin titer of H.pylori from 1/2 to 1/8. These result suggest that green tea and coffee have effective antibacterial or bactericidal effects on H.pylori, and that they also have a neutralization effect upon the vacuolating toxin of H.pylori.
Glucose Binging Affinity of DPPC-ODA-asparagine and Stability of Liposomes Adding Cholesterol
KSBB Journal, volume 16, issue 2, 2001, Pages 170~173
Liposome-amino acid conjugates were prepared using dipalmitolyphosphatidylcholine(DPPC) and hydrophobically modified asparagine. A microdialyzer was used to measure glucose diffusion. The glucose binding affinity of DPPC-ODA-asparagine liposomes higher than that of DPPC liposomes and distilled water. The size of DPPC-ODA-asparagine was approximately 75-150 nm. Cholesterol increased the stability of liposomes, and reduced the size of liposome particles.
Optimum Conversion to the Aglycone Form Using
-glucosidase and Isoflavone Extraction from Soybean
KSBB Journal, volume 16, issue 2, 2001, Pages 174~178
Soybeans contain the phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein, their glucosides genistin and daidzin and coumesterol. These isoflavonoid compounds are capable of producing an estrogenic response in a number of diverse species. This study determined optimum conditions for the extraction of the main isoflavones(daidzin, genistin, daidzein, genistein) in defatted soybean meal using high-performance liquid chromatography. The best optimum extraction was achieved at 75% ethanol,
, pH4 and a three hour contact time. In addition, isoflavones with high purity were separated by adding up to 4%(w/v) of calcium chloride dihydrate. Most soybean extracts were composed of
-glucosidic conjugate(daidzin, genistin) which is difficult to adsorb in body. Therefore,
-glucosidase was used to convert as conjugate to aglycone form (daidzein, genistein) which is easy to adsorb. The optimal conditions of enzyme reaction involved to be 8.4 units of enzyme concentration, pH5.0,
and 40 minutes.
Enzymatic Bleaching of Kraft-pulp with Horseradish Peroxidase and Radical Mediator
KSBB Journal, volume 16, issue 2, 2001, Pages 179~182
The use of 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)(ABTS) as a radical mediator enhanced the bleaching efficiency of kraft pulp by horseradish peroxidase(HRP) and
. High concentrations of up to 20 mM
. were used. The bleaching of the kraft pulp increased as the amount of HRP and ABTS concentration were inceased up to 0.3 mg/90 mL and 2 mM, respectively. The bleaching of the kraft pulp was closely related with the HRPs activity and its adsorption onto the pulp. The activity of HRP and bleaching of kraft pulp were maximum at pH 7 and were reduced either in a acidic or alkaline solutions. The adsorption of HRP onto pulp was low in solutions of pH 6-8 and high in an acidic(pH5) and an alkaline solutions(pH 9). The adsorption of the enzyme was greater for alkali-lignin than for crystalline cellulose, the two major components of pulp.
Measurement of Biological Activity in Pharmaceutic Wastewater by Using Respirometer
KSBB Journal, volume 16, issue 2, 2001, Pages 183~187
The biological activities of wastewater and sludge taken from the wastewater treatment process of Hyangnam pharmaceutic factories in Hwaseong, Kyeonggi-Do was measured using a respirometer. Oxygen uptake rate (OUR) was used as a tool for measuring biological activity. OUR was measured for varying amounts of sludge and organic chemicals in wastewater, and its toxicity was evaluated. Maximum OUR was observed as 61, 75, and 89 mg O
/L/hr when sludge was added as 3, 5, and 10% of total volume, respectively. When the concentration of organic chemicals was changed to 1,486, 337, and 164 mg COD/L, maximum OUR was 53, 13, 8 mg O
/L/hr, respectively. The toxicity test results showed that there seemed that there seemed to be no observable toxic effect on microbes in pharmaceutic wastewater.
Cloning and Characterization of a Gene Coding for a Dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-742CB
KSBB Journal, volume 16, issue 2, 2001, Pages 188~199
A gene encoding the dextransucrase(dsCB) that synthesizes mostly
linked dextran with low amount(10%) of
branching was cloned and sequenced from Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-742CB. The 6.1 kbp DNA fragment carrying dsCB showed one open reading frame(ORF) composed of 4,536bp. The deduced amino acid sequence shows that it begins from the start codon(ATG) at position 698 of the cloned DNA fragment and extends to the termination condon(TAA) at position 5,223. The enzyme is consisted of 1,508 amino acids and has an calculated molecular mass of 168.6kDa. This calculated Mw was in good agreement with an activity band of 170kDa on non-denaturing SDS-PAGE. A recombinant E. coli DH5
harboring pDSCB produced extracellular dextransucrase in 2% sucrose medium, and synthesized both soluble and insoluble dextran. To compare the properties of enzyme with B-742CB dextransucrase, the acceptor reaction, hydrolysis of dextran and methylation were performed. The expressed enzyme showed the same properties as B-742CB dextransucrease, but its ability to synthesize
branching was lower than that of B-742CB dextransucrase. In order to identify the critical amino acid residues known as conserved regions related to catalytic activity, Asp-492 was replaced with Asn. D492N resulted in a 1.6 fold decrease in specific activity.
Sythesis of Highly Branched Isomaltodextrin by Acceptor Reaction using Dextransucrases from L. mesenteroides B-742CB and B-512FMCM
KSBB Journal, volume 16, issue 2, 2001, Pages 200~206
In this study we tried to optimize the enzyme reaction conditions for the synthesis of highly branched isomaltodextrin (Mw > 2.5 kDa) using two dextransucrases from L. mesenteroides B-742CB and B-512FMCM that are dextransucrase constitutive mutants. As the concentration of sucrose or the ratio of maltose to sucrose increased, the amount of dextran decreased and the number and the amount of acceptor-products (of sucrose or maltose) increased. With high sucrose concentration (over 34%), there was more branched isomaltodextrin (as acceptor products) than dextran. When the ratio of sucrose to maltose was 2.5, there produced 86.7% of isomaltodextrin were produced. The Mw of dextrans, however, was over 2
10(sup)6 and there was no significant amounts of branched clinical dextran or high molecular weight oligosaccharides. With the combined activities of B-742CB dextransucrase and B-512FMCM dextransucrase we could synthesize high molecular weight branched isomaltodextrin (Mw>2.5 kDa). The high molecular weight dextran was composed of high branches as B-742CB dextran.
Optimization of Lactic Acid Production from Kitchen Refuses
KSBB Journal, volume 16, issue 2, 2001, Pages 207~211
Statistical experimental design methods were employed to select the cultivation factors influencing latic acid production during the fermentation of kitchen refuses. Working volume and pH swings were identified as the main factors affecting lactic acid production. Optimum pH swing was pH 7.8 and working volume was 125 mL in a 250 mL flask. Under optimum condition, lactic acid was produced at 21.8 g/L, which was 6.2 times higher than produced during uncontrolled fermentation.
Increase of the Thermostability of Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase
KSBB Journal, volume 16, issue 2, 2001, Pages 212~215
The effect of various additives on the thermostability of Bacillus sp. cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) was investigated. CaCl
, starch, and glycerol had a positive effect on the thermostability of the CGTase, which was very stable for 6 months with added starch (5%, w/v) and CaCl
(0.05 M) at 30
Development of Oil-Absorbent Using by Curdlan
KSBB Journal, volume 16, issue 2, 2001, Pages 216~219
Experimental studies were carried out to develop oil-absorbent using curdlan solution or gel. Curdlan sponge was prepared by freeze drying. Surface of curdlan sponge was observed with Scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Curdlan sponge absorbed more than 9 times oil and curdlan was recovered by gellation. Curdlan solution gelled at higher temperature than 50
and dissolved at pH 11.0 and viscosity of curdlan solution increased at 40∼50
Inhibitory Effect of Mugwort Extracts on Tyrosinase Activity
KSBB Journal, volume 16, issue 2, 2001, Pages 220~223
To determine the inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity, fresh and dried mugwort, Artemisia princeps was extracted initially with water and ethyl alcohol, and subsequently with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate in that order. The highest yield was obtained from the ethyl acetate (15.2%) and hexane (15.5%) fraction of the ethanolic extract of fresh and dried mugwort, respectively. For all fractions tested, the inhibition of tyrosinase activity by fresh mugwort was higher than that of dried mugwort, and the inhibition ratio of tyrosinase activity was 98.9% in the chloroform fraction and 96.7% in the hexane fraction.