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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
Selecting the target year
A Trend in Research and Development of Natural Gardenia Pigments
Shin, Hyun-Jae ;
KSBB Journal, volume 22, issue 5, 2007, Pages 271~277
Natural pigments have many applications like colouring agent, pigments, food additives, and antiseptics. At present, instead of synthetic pigments that have contributed to the development of industry, many kinds of natural pigments have been developed. The constituents of gardenia fruits, Gardenia jasminoides ELLIS, are traditionally known as herb medicine and natural dyes/pigments due to the customer is needs. The fruits produce yellow carotenoid pigments and iridoid compounds. The two main components in the yellow pigments are called crocin and crocetin. The extraction mode of yellow pigment from Gardenia is depended upon the extraction time, temperature, and volume of solvent. Red pigments or blue pigments formed from geniposide and amino acids have been reported a lot. Geniposide, the principal iridoid glucoside contained in gardenia fruit, was hydrolyzed to genipinic acid or genipin as a precursor for the pigment by enzymatic or chemical reaction. These red or blue pigments prepared with materials hydrolyzed of geniposide and amino acid and had properties governed by the electrostatic character of the amino acid. The pigments showed good stability to heat and pH but were gradually bleached by light while the other natural pigments are unstable in light, heat, acid, and base solution. The safety of the pigments was considered to be of little virulences in comparison to synthetic pigments.
Analysis of Mineral, Amino Acid and Vitamin Content of Pleurotus nebrodensis
Cha, Wol-Suk ; Nam, Hyung-Geun ; Um, Ik-Jae ;
KSBB Journal, volume 22, issue 5, 2007, Pages 278~281
The nutritional composition of Pleurotus nebrodensis fruiting body has been analyzed for medicinal and edible uses. Minerals of P. nebrodensis were found to be as follows potassium (1,612.96 mg/100 g), phosphorus (644.52 mg/100 g), magnesium (100.32 mg/100 g), sodium (97.84 mg/100 g), calcium (13.8 mg/100 g), iron (4.77 mg/100 g), zinc (4.32 mg/100 g), copper (0.88 mg/100 g) and manganese (0.55 mg/100 g) based on dry weight. Eighteen amino acids were found in P. nebrodensis. Among total amino acid, glutamic acid content was the highest (353 mg/100 g) and aspartic acid, leucine, arginine and alanine were followed. Concerning free amino acids, tryptophan, proline, alanine and isoleucine were dominant. The vitamin E content was the highest (285.31 mg/100 g), then vitamin C, niacin and vitamin
PKA Inhibitor KT5720, Suppressed Cytoskeletal Components Effect by Vesicular Stomatitis Virus, but did not Affect the Viral Replication
Kim, Young-Sook ;
KSBB Journal, volume 22, issue 5, 2007, Pages 282~287
The antiviral mechanism of KT5720 is known to inhibit the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), on the VSV infection in BHK-21 cell cultures. The virus inducted CPE (cell rounding) was almost completely suppressed by KT5720 at 5 uM. The inhibitor, however, did not affect the replication of the virus and the synthesis of viral macromolecules. Immunological studies showed the viral matrix (M) protein displayed intimate association with the cytoskeletal components and probably the cell rounding. KT5720, did not block the cytoskeletal disruption, while the cell rounding was suppressed. These observations suggest that the interaction between the viral M protein and the cytoskeletal components may not be enough to cause the morphological change of the cell. And, the KT5720-sensitive function may be involved in developing the VSV-induced CPE, but not essential for the virus replications.
Optimization of Production Medium by Response Surface Method and Development of Fermentation Condition for Monascus pilosus Culture
Yoon, Sang-Jin ; Shin, Woo-Shik ; Chun, Gie-Taek ; Jeong, Yong-Seob ;
KSBB Journal, volume 22, issue 5, 2007, Pages 288~296
Monascus pilosus (KCCM 60160) in submerged culture was optimized based on culture medium and fermentation conditions. Monacolin-K (Iovastatin), one of the cholesterol lowing-agent which was produced by Monascus pilosus may maintain a healthy lipid level by inhibiting the biosynthesis of cholesterol. Plackett-Burman design and response surface method were employed to study the culture medium for the desirable monacolin-K production. As a result of experimental designs, optimized production medium components and concentrations (g/L) were determined on soluble starch 96, malt extract 44.5, beef extract 30.23, yeast extract 15,
0.5, L-Histidine 3.0,
1.0, respectively. Monacolin-K production was improved about 3 times in comparison with shake flask fermentation of the basic production medium. The effect of agitation speed (300, 350, 400 and 450 rpm) on the monacolin-K production were also observed in a batch fermenter. Maximum monacolin-K production with the basic production medium was 68 mg/L when agitation speed was 500 rpm. And it was found that all spherical pellets (average diameter of
) were dominant during fermentation. Based on the results, the maximum production of 185 mg/L of monacolin-K with the optimized production medium was obtained at pH (controlled) 6.5, agitation rate 400 rpm, aeration rate 1 vvm, and inoculum size 3%.
Mass Screening of Lovastatin High-yielding Mutants through Statistical Optimization of Sporulation Medium and Application of Miniaturized Fungal Cell Cultures
Ahn, Hyun-Jung ; Jeong, Yong-Seob ; Kim, Pyeung-Hyeun ; Chun, Gie-Taek ;
KSBB Journal, volume 22, issue 5, 2007, Pages 297~304
For large and rapid screening of high-yielding mutants of lovastatin produced by filamentous fungal cells of Aspergillus terreus, one of the most important stage is to test as large amounts of mutated strains as possible. For this purpose, we intended to develop a miniaturized cultivation method using
culture tube instead of traditional
flask (working volume
). For obtaining large amounts of conidiospores to be used as inoculums for miniaturized cultures, 4 components i.e., glucose, sucrose, yeast extract and
were intensively investigated, which had been observed to show positive effect on enhancement of spore production through Plackett-Burman design experimet. When optimum concentrations of these components that were determined through application of response surface method (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) were used, maximum spore numbers amounting to
spores/plate were obtained, resulting in approximately 190 fold increase as compared to the commonly used PDA sporulation medium. Using the miniaturized cultures, intensive strain development programs were carried out for screening of lovastatin high-yielding as well as highly reproducible mutants. It was observed that, for maximum production of lovastatin, the producers should be activated through 'PaB' adaptation process during the early solid culture stage. In addition, they should be proliferated in condensed filamentous forms in miniaturized growth cultures, so that optimum amounts of highly active cells could be transferred to the production culture-tube as reproducible inoculums. Under these highly controlled fermentation conditions, compact-pelleted morphology of optimum size (less than 1 mm in diameter) was successfully induced in the miniaturized production cultures, which proved essential for maximal utilization of the producers' physiology leading to significantly enhanced production of lovastatin. As a result of continuous screening in the miniaturized cultures, lovastatin production levels of the 81% of the daughter cells derived from the high-yielding producers turned out to be in the range of 80%
120% of the lovastatin production level of the parallel flask cultures. These results demonstrate that the miniaturized cultivation method developed in this study is efficient high throughput system for large and rapid screening of highly stable and productive strains.
Establishment of Miniaturized Cultivation Method for Large and Rapid Screening of High-yielding Monascus Mutants, and Enhanced Production of Monacolin-K through Statistical Optimization of Production Medium
Lee, Mi-Jin ; Jeong, Yong-Seob ; Kim, Pyeung-Hyeun ; Chun, Gie-Taek ;
KSBB Journal, volume 22, issue 5, 2007, Pages 305~312
It is crucial to develop a miniaturized cultivation method for large and rapid screening of high-yielding mutants of monacolin-K, a powerful anti-hypercholesterolemic secondary metabolite biosynthesized by the fungal cells of Monascus ruber. In order to investigate as many strains as possible in a short time, a miniaturized fermentation method especially suitable for the cultivation of the filamentous Monascus mutants was developed using
of working volume) instead of the traditional
of working volume). Generally, in filamentous fungal cell fermentations, morphologies in growth and production cultures should be maintained as thick filamentous and compact-pelleted (usually less than 1 mm in diameter) forms, respectively, for enhanced production of secondary metabolites in final production cultures. In this study, we intended to induce the respective optimal morphologies in the miniaturized culture system for the purpose of rapid screening of overproducers. Miniaturized growth culture system was successfully developed due to the mass production of spores in the statistically optimized solid medium. When large amounts of spores were inoculated into the growth cultures, and brown rice flour (20 g/L) was also supplemented to the growth medium, dense filamentous morphologies were successfully induced in the growth cultures performed with the 50 ml culture tubes. It was implied that the amounts of spores inoculated into the growth tube-cultures and the growth medium components should be the key factors for the induction of the filamentous forms in the growth fermentations. Furthermore, in order to statistically optimize production medium, multiple experiments based on Plackett-Burman design and response surface method (RSM) were carried out, resulting in more than 2 fold enhanced production of monacolin-K in the final production cultures with the optimized production medium. Notably, under the production culture conditions with the statistically optimized medium, optimal pellet sizes below 1 mm in diameter were reproducibly induced, in contrast to the thick and viscous filamentous morphologies observed in the previous production cultures.
Effect of Pluronic F-68 on the Post-thaw Growth of Cryopreserved Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum Cells
Cheon, Su-Hwan ; Lee, Kyoung-Hoon ; Kwon, Jun-Young ; Ryu, Hyun-Nam ; Kim, Dong-Il ;
KSBB Journal, volume 22, issue 5, 2007, Pages 313~317
To enhance the growth of cryopreserved cells of transgenic Nicotiana tabacum, Pluronic F-68 was supplemented in a recovery medium during post-thaw period. As cryoprotective agents, 1 M sucrose, 0.5 M glycerol and 0.5 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were added before freezing steps. The post-thaw growth of the cells was improved with Pluronic F-68, ranged from 0.1 to 10 g/L. The interactions of Pluronic F-68 with the cells were confirmed by the changes of hydrophobicity or permeability of the cells. Pluronic F-68 did not show any effect on the activity of
-glucuronidase (GUS) in all treatments. Therefore, the addition of Pluronic F-68 in a recovery medium was found to be beneficial to enhance the post-thaw growth of cryopreserved transgenic tobacco cells without affecting the production of recombinant protein.
Screening of Photosensitizer for Photodynamic Therapy
Kim, So-Young ; Yoo, Gui-Jae ; Park, Keun-Hyoung ; Lim, Byung-Lak ; Kim, Shi-Surk ; Yom, Heng-Cherl ; Chae, Hee-Jeong ;
KSBB Journal, volume 22, issue 5, 2007, Pages 318~321
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a targeted-tumor treatment system using a photosensitizer, light and oxygen to treat malignant tumor. We have investigated the cytotoxicity of 4 types of phthalocyanine derivative (silver phthalocyanine, iron (III) phthalocyanine, copper (II) phthalocyanine, nickel (II) phthalocyanine) against lung and breast cancers based on photodynamic therapy. As a result, phthalocyanine derivatives indicated a higher anticancer activity on a breast cancer cell line. Among the tested phthalocyanines, silver phthalocyanine (AgPc) showed a lower cytotoxicity against a normal cell line. In addition AgPc gave a good color characteristic when it is solubilized in water. Finally AgPc was selected as a potential antitumor agent for breast cancer.
Production of Microbial-Transglutaminase [MTG] from Streptoverticillium mobaraense
Wang, Hong-Wei ; Kim, In-Hae ; Park, Chang-Su ; Lee, Jae-Hwa ;
KSBB Journal, volume 22, issue 5, 2007, Pages 322~327
Mineral salts in medium usually profoundly influence microorganism growth and protein synthesis. In order to produce microbial transglutaminase (MTG) with a high yield from Streptoverticillium mobaraense, we screened the minerals
for MTG fermentation. The results indicated that appropriate
concentrations could significantly promote cell growth and stimulate the production of MTG. With 15 mg/L of
added to medium, 58% improvements were noted in MTG productivity (2.24 U/mL). NaCl,
enhanced MTG productivity by less than 15%, and the optimal concentrations were determined as 1 g/L, 2 g/L, and 30 mg/L respectively. Furthermore, it was determined that 7.5 mg/L of
in medium could augment MTG productivity by 20% and induce the stationary phase for MTG production to a period 24 hr earlier. This basic and novel discovery should result in the development of a good complement to the previously defined culture media for MTG fermentation.
Preparation of Water-Soluble Solid Forms Containing Ursolic Acid Using Supercritical Fluid
Lee, Sang-Yun ; Jung, Ju-Hee ; Jung, In-Il ; Choi, Moon-Jae ; Park, Eui-Hoon ; Ryu, Jong-Hoon ; Lim, Gio-Bin ;
KSBB Journal, volume 22, issue 5, 2007, Pages 328~335
In this work ursolic acid (UA), a poorly water-soluble compound, was inclusion complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-
-CD) by various methods such as kneading, solvent evaporation and two types of supercritical fluid processes. The solubility and characteristics of these UA/HP-
-CD complexes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and HPLC. The water solubilities of the two complexes obtained from solvent evaporation and ASES processes were observed to increase up to 6
240 folds and 12
56 folds, respectively, compared with that of unprocessed UA. The stability of UA/HP-
-CD complex samples in cosmetic formulations was examined at various temperatures for one month. The UA/HP-
-CD complex prepared by solvent evaporation was found to be most stable among all the cosmetic formulations tested in our experiments.
Coffee Deodorization with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Lee, Joo-Hee ; Kim, Hyung-Bae ; Byun, Sang-Yo ;
KSBB Journal, volume 22, issue 5, 2007, Pages 336~340
Supercritical carbon dioxide was used to remove coffee odors. The odor removal efficiency was tested with coffee drink prepared by the espresso extraction method. Five typical odors in coffee were analyzed with GC and these odors in deodorized coffee were compared to those in control. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction conditions were optimized as 350 bar and 70
because the solvating power of supercritical fluid is depend on the density which is determined by temperature and pressure. A modified head space method was applied to collect coffee odors in coffee drink prepared by the espresso extraction method. Odors generated in coffee drink made with deodorized coffee powder were reduced by 73% in total mass of typical five coffee odors.
Anti-obesity Effects of Ginsenoside Rd via AMPK and PPAR Gamma
Kim, Myung-Sunny ; Lee, Myoung-Soo ; Kim, Soon-Hee ; Kim, Sung-Hee ; Kim, Hyun-Jin ; Sung, Mi-Jeong ; Kim, Hye-Young ; Kwon, Dae-Young ; Hwang, Jin-Taek ;
KSBB Journal, volume 22, issue 5, 2007, Pages 341~344
Obesity is a major obstacle for human health, which induces various diseases such as cardiac injury and type 2 diabetes. Ginsenosides, active components of ginseng extract, exert various physiological effects. However, There are still no evidence for their anti obesity effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of ginsenoside Rd on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our data show that ginsenoside Rd (80 uM) was effective in adipocyte differentiation inhibition. These inhibitory effects of ginsenosides on adipocyte differentiation were accompanied by PPAR gamma inhibition in rosiglitazone-treated cells. We also tested whether AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation was involved in the effects of these ginsenosides. AMPK is a master target for obesity, ginsenoside Rd significantly activated AMPK. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti obesity effects of ginsenoside Rd involve the AMPK signaling pathway and PPAR-gamma inhibition.
Production of Fructose 6-Phoschate from Starch Using Thermostable Enzymes
Kwun, Kyu-Hyuk ; Cha, Wol-Suk ; Kim, Bok-Hee ; Shin, Hyun-Jae ;
KSBB Journal, volume 22, issue 5, 2007, Pages 345~350
Phosphosugars are found in all living organisms and are commercially valuable compounds with possible applications in the development of a wide range of specialty chemicals and medicines. In carbohydrate metabolism, fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) is an essential intermediate formed by phosphorylation of 6' position of fructose in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway and Calvin cycle. In glycolysis, F6P lies within the glycolysis metabolic pathway and is produced by isomerisation of glucose 6-phosphate. For large-scale production, F6P could be produced from starch using many enzymes such as pullulanase, starch phosphorylase, isomerase and mutase. In enzymatic reactions carried out at high temperatures, the solubility of starch is increased and microbial contamination is minimized. Thus, thermophile-derived enzymes are preferred over mesophile-derived enzymes for industrial applications using starch. Recently, we reported the production of glucose 1-phosphate (G1P) from starch by Thermus caldophilus GK24 enzymes. Here we report the production of F6P from starch through three steps; from starch to glucose 1-phosphate (glucan phosphorylase, GP), then glucose 6-phosphate (phosphoglucomutase, GM) and then F6P (phosphoglucoisomerase, GI). Using 200 L of 1.2% soluble starch solution in potassium phosphate buffer, 1,253 g of G1P were produced. Then, 30% yields of F6P were attained at the optimum reaction conditions of GM : G1 (1 : 2.3), 63.5
, and pH 6.85. The optimum conditions were found by response surface methodology and the theoretical values were confirmed by the experiments. The optimum starch concentrations were 20 g/L under the given conditions.
Isolation and Purification of Resveratrol from a Grape Twig
Shin, Hyun-Jae ; Kang, Byung-Sun ; Ahn, Jun-Bae ; Kim, Bok-Hee ;
KSBB Journal, volume 22, issue 5, 2007, Pages 351~355
Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound with antioxidative property, was purified from the grape's twig to be used as functional additives of food and/or cosmetics. Extraction of the grape's twig was performed using 80% ethanol in ultrasonic extractor for 60 min. The crude extract was purified up to 99% after elution through silica gel open column chromatography. The stability of the purified resveratrol was as follows: a half life of 90 days at 40
and 60 days at 25
. A sensory test of the commercial grape juice including the 1-10 ppm of purified resveratrol showed better preference than the grape juice without purified resveratrol additive. Color and smell test showed no difference between the samples. The grape twig can be used as a valuable resource for the extraction of resveratrol, which would be added to nutraceutical and cosmetic products.
Cyanobacteria and Secondary Metabolites
Kim, Gi-Eun ; Kwon, Jong-Hee ;
KSBB Journal, volume 22, issue 5, 2007, Pages 356~361
Cyanobacteria are a very old group of prokaryotic organisms that produce very diverse secondary metabolites, especially non-ribosomal peptide and polyketide structures. Although some cyanobacteria produce lethal toxins such as microcystins and anatoxins, some may be useful either for development into commercial drugs or as biochemical tools. Detection of unknown secondary metabolites was carried in the present study by a screening of 98 cyanobacterial strains from Cyanobiotech GmbH in order to establish a screening process, isolate pure substances and determine their bioactivities. A degenerated polymerase chain reaction technique as molecular approaches has been used for general screening of NRPS gene and PKS gene in cyanobacteria. A putative PKS gene was detected by DKF/DKR primer in 38 strains (38.8%) and PCR amplicons resulted from a presence of NRPS gene were showed by MTF2/MTR2 primer in 30 strains (30.6%), respectively. A screening of interesting strains was performed by comparing PCR screening results with HPLC analyses of extracts. HPLC analysis for a detection of natural products was performed in extracts from biomass. 5 strains were screened for further scale-up processing. 7 pure substances were isolated from the scale-up cultures and tested for bioactivities under consideration to purity, amount and molecular weight of substances. One substance isolated from CBT 635 showed cytotoxic activity. This substance may be regarded as Microcystin LR.
New Degenerate Primer for the Cyanobacterial Non-ribosomal Peptides
Kim, Gi-Eun ;
KSBB Journal, volume 22, issue 5, 2007, Pages 362~365
Cyanobacteria have been identified as one of the most promising group producing novel biochemically active natural products. Cyanobacteria are a very old group of prokaryotic organisms that produce very diverse secondary metabolites, especially non-ribosomal peptide and polyketide structures. Large multienzyme complexes which are responsible for the non-ribosomal biosynthesis of peptides are modular for the addition of a single amino acid. An activation of amino acid substrates results in an amino adenylate occuring via an adenylation domain (A-domain). A-domains are responsible for the recognition of amino acids as substrates within NP synthesis. The A-domain contains ten conserved motifs, A1 to A10. In this study, ten conserved motifs from A1 to A10 were checked regarding their amino acid sequence of the NRPS-module of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806. The part of the amino acid sequence chosen was that which contained as many conserved motives as possible, and then these amino sequence were compared between other cyanobacteria to design a new degenerate primer. A new degenerate primer (A3/A7 primer) was designed to detect any putative NP synthetase region in unkwon cyanobacteria by a reverse translation of the conserved amino acid sequence and a search for cyanobacterial DNA bank.
Reuse of Eluent by Controlling its Specific Gravity during the Chromatographic Purification of Paclitaxel
Kim, Jin-Hyun ;
KSBB Journal, volume 22, issue 5, 2007, Pages 366~369
In this study, the feasibility of reusing the eluent was confirmed by monitoring its specific gravity during the chromatographic purification of paclitaxel from plant cell cultures. The specific gravity of the eluent (methanol/water = 70/30, v/v) was measured prior to its elution through the hydrophobic resin column. The measurement showed a specific gravity of 0.853. The discharged eluent from the column outlet was first evaporated under vacuum pressure. The evaporated eluent was collected and condensed into a liquid eluent again, followed by the HPLC analysis in order to check the presence of any trace of impurity. Even if the specific gravity of the liquid eluent is varied from 0.853 as a result of the evaporation and condensation, the eluent can still be reused after it specific gravity is adjusted by the addition of methanol or water. The reuse of the eluent resulted in the paclitaxel yield of 86% with a purity of 95% which were closely similar to those of before the eluent reuse. These results indicate that the strategy of reusing the eluent on the basis of the specific gravity analysis was successfully implemented in this study.