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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 29, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
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Recent Advances in Tyrosinase Research as An Industrial Enzyme
Kim, Hyerin ; Kim, Hyunmi ; Choi, Yoo Seong ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2014, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.1.1
Tyrosinases catalyze the hydroxylation of monophenolic compounds and the conversion of o-diphenols to oquinones. The enzymes are mainly involved in the modification of tyrosine into L-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-alanine (L-DOPA) and DOPA/DOPAquinone-drived intermolecular cross-linking, which play the key roles of pigmentation to the cells. It is ubiquitously distributed in microorganisms, plants, and animals all around the nature world. They are classified as copper- containing dioxygen activating enzymes; two copper ions are coordinated with six histidine residues in their active sites and they are distinguished as met-, deoxy-, and oxy-form depending on their oxidative states. Natural extraction and recombinant protein approaches have been tried to obtain practical amounts of the enzymes for industrial application. Tyrosinases have been widely applied to industrial and biomedical usages such as detoxification of waste water containing phenolic compounds, L-DOPA as a drug of Parkinson's disease, biomaterials preparation based on the cross-linking ability and biosensors for the detection of phenolic compounds. Therefore, this review reports the mechanism of tyrosinase, biochemical and structural features and potential applications in industrial field.
Recent Researches for Diatom as Inorganic and Bioenvironmental Materials
Jang, Eui Kyoung ; Shin, Hyun Kyeong ; Pack, Seung Pil ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2014, Pages 9~21
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.1.9
One of the most abundant microalgaes, diatom is characterized by its unique cell wall structures composed of nano-patterned silica. Due to its highly ordered porosity, these silica frustules, which are found as sediments called diatomite, were used as a cheap adsorption material for water purification. Recently, new emerging nanotechnology compels many researchers to have interest in such diatom's unique properties (eg, nano-scale mesoporosity, photo luminescence, light transparency, etc.) as biogenic inorganic materials as well as the biomass resource (conventional usage of microalgae). In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge about the diatoms research and the possibility of its applications.
Effect of Pretreatment Method on Lipid Extraction from Enteromorpha intestinalis
Jeong, Gwi-Taek ; Park, Don-Hee ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2014, Pages 22~28
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.1.22
In this study, we investigate the effect of pretreatment method on lipid extraction from Enteromorpha intestinalis using physical, thermo-chemical, and enzymatic process such as ultrasonication, high temperature treatment, freezing, microwave irradiation, osmotic shock, pH shock, homogenizing, and enzymatic treatment. In pretreatment with separated lipid extraction, the high extraction yield was obtained by high temperature treatment (
for 5 min) with 0.1 N HCl, which is 1.4 times higher than that of control. In pretreatment with direct lipid extraction, the high extraction yields were obtained by 0.1 N HCl pretreatment, microwave irradiation (700W, 1 min with twice), and 10% NaCl pretreatment, which is 1.45 times higher than that of control. In the result of enzymatic pretreatment with 17 kinds of enzymes, Cellic CTec II showed the high extraction yield of 5.3%, and which is 1.9 times higher than that of control. Moreover, the extraction yield was increased by the increase of enzyme amounts. In 10% enzyme amount, about 5.8% yield was obtained.
Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Combined Extracts of Galla rhois, Achyranthes japonica Nakai, Terminalia chebula Retz and Glycyrrhiza uralensis
Cho, Hong-Suk ; kang, Se-Won ; Kim, Ju-Hee ; Choi, Min-Joo ; Yu, Hye-Won ; Park, Euteum ; Chun, Hong Sung ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2014, Pages 29~35
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.1.29
In this study, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic crude extract and its five different solvent subfractions (namely, ethyl acetate fraction, n-butanol fraction, chloroform fraction, n-hexane fraction and the aqueous fraction) from a mixture of four different medicinal herbs (Galla rhois, Achyranthes japonica Nakai, Terminalia chebula Retz and Glycyrrhiza uralensis) were investigated. Among all the tested mixture combination of four medicinal herbs, 5:3:1:1 ratio of Galla:Achyranthes : Terminalia : Glycyrrhiza had the best antimicrobial effects against four strains of microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and exhibited the highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity. Further sub-fractions with solvents were screened for antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Antioxidant activity in order was ethyl acetate fraction > n-butanol fraction > chloroform fraction > nhexane fraction > aqueous fraction. The n-butanol extracted fraction showed the highest level of antimicrobial activity in com- parison to other fractions. In addition, all those fractions did not show any cytotoxicity against human skin cell CCD-986sk. These results suggest that 5:3:1:1 combination extracts of medicinal herbs (Galla : Achyranthes : Terminalia : Glycyrrhiza) may be potentially used as a safe natural antimicrobial preservative.
Study for Possibility of N,N,N-Trimethylphytosphingosine (TMP) for Management of Chronic Skin Diseases
Seo, Won-Sang ; Oh, Han-Na ; Park, Woo-Jung ; Um, Sang-Young ; Kang, Sang-Mo ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2014, Pages 36~41
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.1.36
Skin disease is one of the most common diseases and its incidence is increasing dramatically in modern society. Specially, many attempts have been made to treat chronic skin inflammation diseases, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, but effective therapies for the immune cell-mediated skin diseases, including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis have not been developed. Until recently, several drug candidates which were claimed to be effective for skin diseases have been reported, but most of them are not used to treat chronic skin disease. Especially, Psoriasis is characterized by excessive growth and aberrant differentiation of keratinocytes, but is fully reversible with appropriate therapy. The trigger of the keratinocyte response is thought to be activation of the cellular immune system, with T cells and various immune-related cytokines. Formation of new blood vessels starts with early psoriatic changes and disappears with disease clearance. Several angiogenic mediators are up-regulated in psoriasis development. Contact- and mediator-dependent factors derived from keratinocytes, mast cells and immune cells may contribute to the strong blood vessel formation of psoriasis. New technologies and experimental models provide new insights into the role of angiogenesis in psoriasis pathogenesis. TMP and its derivatives themselves effectively inhibited in vitro cell migration, tube formation, and the expression of angiogenic factors. However, TMP and its derivatives induced side effects including hemolysis and local side effects. Therefore, in an attempt to reduce the toxicity and the undesirable side effects of TMP and derivatives, a liposomal formulation was prepared and tested for its effectiveness. TMP and derivatives liposomes retained the effectiveness of TMP in vitro while side effects were reduced. These results support the conclusion that TMP effectively inhibits in vitro angiogenesis, with the possibility that use as a psoriasis relief agent.
Application of a Composite Skin Equivalent using Collagen and Acellular Dermal Matrix as the Scaffold in a Mouse Model of Full-thickness Wound
Lee, Dong Hyuck ; Youn, Jin Chul ; Lee, Jung Hee ; Kim, In Seop ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2014, Pages 42~49
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.1.42
The aim of this study was to develop a composite human skin equivalent for wound healing. Collagen type1 and acellular dermal matrix powder were utilized as the scaffold with dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes for the development of a composite human skin equivalent. Fibroblast maintained the volume of composite skin equivalent and also induced keratinocytes to attach and proliferate on the surface of composite skin equivalent. The composite human skin equivalent had a structure and curvature similar to those of real skin. Balb-C nu/nu mice were used for the evaluation of full-thickness wound healing effect of the composite human skin equivalent. Graft of composite skin equivalent on full-thickness wound promoted re-epithelialization and granulation tissue formation at 9 days. Given the average wound-healing time (14 days), the wound in the developed composite skin equivalent healed quickly. The overall results indicated that this three-dimensional composite human skin equivalent can be used to effectively enhance wound healing.
Study on the Anti-inflammatory Effect and Mechanism of Prunus mume Extract Regarding NF-κB
Seo, Won-Sang ; Oh, Han-Na ; Park, Woo-Jung ; Um, Sang-Young ; Lee, Dae-Woo ; Kang, Sang-Mo ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2014, Pages 50~57
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.1.50
is a transcriptional factor which is involved in many biological processes including immunity, inflammation, and cell survival. Many investigators studied on the mechanism involved in activation of NF-
signalling pathway via ubiquitination and degradation of
regarding skin disease. Some specific molecules including Akt, MEK, p38 MAP Kinase, Stat3, et al. represent convergence points and key regulatory proteins in signaling pathways controlling cellular events such as growth and differentiation, energy homeostasis, and the response to stress and inflammation. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation has many adverse effects on skin, including inflammation, alteration in the extracellular matrix, cellular senescence, apoptosis and skin cancer. Prunus mume, a naturally derived plant extract, has beneficial biological activities as blood fluidity improvement, anti-fatigue action, antioxidative and free radical scavenging activities, inhibiting the motility of Helicobacter pyolri. Previous reports on various beneficial function prompted us to investigate UVB-induced or other immunostimulated biological marker regarding P. mume extract. P. mume extract suppresses UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in mouse skin epidermal JB6 P+ cells. The activation of activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-
induced by UVB was dose-dependently inhibited by P. mume extract treatment. This results suggest that P. mume extracts might be used as a potential agents for protection of inflammation or UVB induced skin damage.
Quality and Availability Evaluation of Human Hepatocytes Isolated from Resected Partial Livers for Toxicology and Drug Metabolism Studies in Korea
Noh, Jeong-Kwon ; Jang, In Keun ; Kim, Hyo Eun ; Lee, Jong Eun ; Yang, Mal Sook ; Jang, Eun Mi ; Lee, Ji-Hyun ; Park, Hey-Jung ; Kim, Young-A ; Lee, Suk-Koo ; Jeong, Ho-Sang ; Ahn, Joon-Ik ; Lee, Doo-Hoon ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2014, Pages 58~66
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.1.58
Demand for in vitro pharmacological evaluation and toxicity test using human hepatocytes has been increasing. In USA and Europe, human hepatocytes obtained from donated whole liver unsuitable for transplantation were distributed to researchers and deposited in cell bank facility as cryopreserved vial. In Korea, however, incidence of transplantation- inappropriate whole liver has been quite low and the whole livers almost have so severe liver disease such as fatty or fibrotic liver that cannot meet the demand. In this study we aimed to isolate human hepatocytes from liver resection surgery-originated partial liver, and assure the isolated human hepatocytes and its cryopreserved hepatocytes to be qualified for the in vitro pharmacological evaluation and drug toxicity tests. We compared those with commercially available human hepatocyte, BD
by cell morphology, hepatic gene expression, urea synthesis, albumin secretion, ammonia removal, and cytochrome P450 induction activities. Changes in hepatotoxic gene expression after cryopreservation are evaluated with a typical hepatotoxic drug, acetaminophen. Consequently, the fresh hepatocytes from the partial liver and its cryopreserved hepatocytes expressed their intrinsic hepatic functions well and showed equal hepatotoxicity gene expression trend regardless to cryopreservation. Therefore, liver resection surgery-originated partial liver can be used as a useful source of human hepatocytes for various pharmacological and hepatotoxicity test.
Effects of Ukgansan (Yokukansan in Japanese, Yigansan in chinese) on the Locomotor Velocity and Glutamate-Induce Paroxysm in Planarian
Park, Woong ; Yoo, Du Man ; So, June No ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2014, Pages 67~71
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.1.67
Planaria were recently reported to be a simple and sensitive model to investigate the mechanistic aspect of seizure and to screen potential anticonvulsants. Using planarian model, we analyzed the pharmacological effect of ukgansan (UGS), an oriental herbal medicine containing seven medicinal herbs, on the planarian locomotor velocity (pLMV) and glutamate-induced seizure-like activity (pSLA). To test whether D. japonica is suitable for studying anti-seizure agents, we investigated the effect of glutamate on pLMV and pSLA in D. japonica. In the present study we first confirmed that pSLA in D. japonica was induced by L-glutamate. Glutamate significantly produced pSLA in a dose dependent manner, but did not affect pLMV. These glutamate-induced paroxysms were decreased by antiepileptic drug, topiramate. A similar inhibitory effect on glutamate-induced pSLA was observed after the treatment of UGS. The present results suggest that UGS and its active constituents possess useful substance inhibiting seizure in planarian and that D. japonica provides a convenient model to search active herbs containing anti-seizure activity.
Isolation and Nitrogen Removal Characteristics of Heterotrophic Nitrification-Aerobic Denitrifying Bacteria, Stenotrophomonas sp. CW-4Y
Lee, Eun Young ; Lee, Chang Won ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2014, Pages 72~80
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.1.72
CW-4Y was identified as Stenotrophomonas sp. by morphological and physiological characteristics, and phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rDNA gene sequence. Nitrogen removal by CW-4Y was analyzed in relation to the ammonium concentration, presence of organic carbon, carbon source, and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N). Stenotrophomonas CW-4Y has heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification abilities. Stenotrophomonas CW-4Y utilized only glucose as carbon sources, and heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification were observed regardless of the type of nitrogen source. The maximum ammonium removal rate of CW-4Y was 80
and its denitrification rate of 192
(about 280 ppm) in shake culture experiments at a C/N ratio of about 15 was about 30 times higher than those of other bacteria with the same ability.