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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 29, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Industrial Applications of Saccharification Technology for Red Seaweed Polysaccharide
Hong, Chae-Hwan ; Kim, Se Won ; Kim, Yong-Woon ; Park, Hyun-Dal ; Shin, Hyun-Jae ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 5, 2014, Pages 307~315
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.5.307
Recently seaweed polysaccharides have been extensively studied for alternative energy application. Because their producing cost is high and efficiency low, their industrial applications have been limited. The main component of cell wall of red algae represented by Gelidiales and Gracilariales is agar. Red-algae agar or galactan, consisting of D-galactose and 3, 6-anhydro-L-galactose, is suitable for bio-product application if hydrolyzed to monomer unit. For the hydrolysis of algae, chemical or enzymatic treatment can be used. A chemical process using a strong acid is simple and efficient, but it generates together with target sugar and toxic compounds. In an enzymatic hydrolysis process, target sugar without toxic compounds generation. The objective of this review is to summary the recent data of saccharification by chemical and enzymatic means from red seaweed for especially focused on automobile industry.
Xylanase Activity of Bacillus pumilus H10-1 Isolated from Ceratotherium simum Feces
Yoon, Young Mi ; An, Gi Hong ; Kim, Jung Kon ; Ahn, Seung-Hyun ; Cha, Young-Lok ; Yang, Jungwoo ; Yu, Kyeong-Dan ; Moon, Youn-Ho ; Ahn, Jong-Woong ; Koo, Bon-Cheol ; Choi, In-Hoo ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 5, 2014, Pages 316~322
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.5.316
Xylanase have been used to convert the polymetric xylan into fermentable sugars from the production of ethanol and xylitol from plant biomass. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify xylanolytic bacterium from herbivore feces and was to used the xylanase for enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. Xylanolytic strains were isolated from 59 different feces of herbivores from Seoul Grand Park located in Gwacheon Gyeonggi-do. The xylanolytic strains were selected by congo red staining and DNS method. Total 67 strains isolated from the herbivores feces were tested for xylanase activity. Among the strains, H10-1, which has the highest xylanase activity, was isolated from feces of Ceratotherium simum. The H10-1 strain was identified as Bacillus pumilus based on its morphological/biochemical characteristics and partial 16S rDNA gene sequences. Culture conditions of B. pumilus H10-1 such as initial medium pH, incubation temperature and incubation time were optimized for maximum xylanase production. And also xylanase produced by B. pumilus H10-1 was applied for the saccharification of Miscanthus sacchariflorus cv. 'Geodae 1', which was pretreated with 1.5M NaOH. The optimized culture conditions of B. pumilus H10-1 were pH 9,
incubation temperature, and 7 day incubation time, respectively. This xylanase activity under the optimized conditions was
. The crude xylanase produced by B. pumilus H10-1 was used for the saccharification of xylan derived from pretreated 'Geodae 1'. The saccharification conditions were
, 200 rpm, and 5 days. Saccharification efficiency of pretreated 'Geodae 1' by B. pumilus H10-1 was 8.2%.
Isolation and Characterization of Calcite Forming Bacteria from Various Environments in Korea
Kim, YongGyeong ; Kang, Chang-Ho ; Oh, Soo Ji ; So, Jae-Seong ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 5, 2014, Pages 323~327
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.5.323
Microbially induced calcite precipitation is a naturally occurring biological process in which microbes produce calcite on the surface of the microorganisms by urease activity. In order to collect calcite forming bacteria (CFB) in Korea, we isolated 343 putative CFB strains from various environments over three year period (2011~2013) and selected 100 CFB strains. Average of calcite productivity was 10.56 mg/mL. And average of ammonium concentration by urease activity was
. Two useful CFB strains of the others were analyzed by 16S rRNA and identified as Sporosarcina sp. and Viridibacillus arenosi. The CFB strains presented in this study are indigenous microorganisms in Korea and they are expected to be applicable to a variety of environments in the country.
Uptake of Fibroin Microspheres by 3T3 Cells
Lee, Jin Sil ; Go, Nam Kyung ; Lee, Shin Young ; Hur, Won ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 5, 2014, Pages 328~335
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.5.328
Vehicle toxicity is one of the main obstacles for intracellular delivery of bioactive compounds. Silk fibroin is a natural polymer proven to have high biocompatibility since being used as suture material. In this report, fibroin microspheres were prepared without any chemical modification or cross-linking not to affect its biocompatibility. The microspheres were taken up by more than 90% of 3T3 cells. Cellular uptake continued after medium replenishment with a different-colored fluorescent microsphere, suggesting that simultaneous ingestion and exocytosis occurred. Cellular uptake of fibroin microspheres did not affect cell viability. Intracellular trafficking of the microspheres using lysosome-specific fluorescent dye revealed that fibroin microspheres were localized both in the cytoplasm and in the lysosome. Accordingly, fibroin microspheres can be a potential vehicle for intracytoplasmic delivery of large cargos, such as mixtures of proteins, nutrients or artificial organelles.
A Simple Temperature Dependent Model to Predict the Bloom of Aurelia Aurita Polyps
Jin, Hong Sung ; Oh, Choon Young ; Choi, Il Soo ; Hwang, Doo Jin ; Yoon, Yang Ho ; Han, Dong Yeob ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 5, 2014, Pages 336~342
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.5.336
Asexual benthic polyp reproduction plays a major role in the jellyfish bloom. Recent studies found that temperature is the most important factor to regulate the budding rate of the polyps. We established a simple dynamic model to count the number of polyps depending on the variation of temperature with two data sets from different places. The population of polyps was counted through the budding rate and the number of budding times by Fibonacci sequence. It is assumed that the budding rate depends on the temperature only. The budding rate of the asexual reproduction shows very sensitive to the distribution of the seawater temperature. The model was tested to the temperature data of Ansan located in the west sea of Korea. The results indicate that this model can be useful to predict the blooms of Aurelia aurita polyps, which may have considerable influence on the bloom of medusa. The shape of temperature curve plays a key role in the predicting the bloom of Aurelia aurita polyps.
Antioxidant and Nitric Oxide Inhibitory Activities of Pigments from Chionoecetes japonicas Rathbun
Park, Byungju ; Baek, Seung Oh ; Song, Young-Sun ; Seo, Youngwan ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 5, 2014, Pages 343~352
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.5.343
In the present study, antioxidant activities of two crude pigments (acetone and MeOH) and their solvent fractions (n-hexane, 85% aq.MeOH, n-BuOH, and water fractions) from red crab shell were evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), peroxynitrites, and degree of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HT 1080 cells as well as the extent of oxidative damage of genomic DNA purified from HT 1080 cells. From comparative analysis, 85% aq.MeOH fraction showed the strongest scavenging effect on both peroxynitrite in vitro and intracellular ROS in HT 1080 cells. Protective activities of these samples against hydroxyl radical-mediated genomic DNA damage were also investigated. 85% aq.MeOH and n-BuOH fractions significantly inhibited oxidative damage of purified genomic DNA. On the other hand, we investigated their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. All samples significantly reduced NO production. Among the samples, n-hexane and water solvent fractions most effectively inhibited NO.
A Study on the Characteristics of Pollutant Removal in Secondary Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plant Using Silver Nanoparticles on Activated Carbon
Seon, Yong-Ho ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 5, 2014, Pages 353~360
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.5.353
This study targets the pollutant removal of secondary effluent from final clarifiers in wastewater treatment plant using silver nanoparticles on activated carbon. The removal efficiency and treatment characteristics of pollutant are anlayzed by perfoming experiments using granular activated carbon with silver nanoparticles and ordinary granular activated carbon. The specific surface area of granular activated carbon with silver nanoparticles is smaller than that of ordinary granular activated carbon. However, the removal efficiency of
, T-N and T-P in experiments using activated carbon with silver nanoparticles are higher than that in experiment using ordinary granular activated carbon. That means the case of activated carbon with silver nanoparticles is much better at treatment activity. In addition, activated carbon with silver nanoparticles has antimicrobial activity because there is no microbe on the surface of it after experiments.
TaqMan Probe Real-Time PCR for Quantitative Detection of Mycoplasma during Manufacture of Biologics
Lee, Jae Il ; Kim, In Seop ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 5, 2014, Pages 361~371
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.5.361
Mycoplasma is well recognized as one of the most prevalent and serious microbial contaminants of biologic manufacturing processes. Conventional methods for mycoplasma testing, direct culture method and indirect indicator cell culture method, are lengthy, costly and less sensitive to noncultivable species. In this report, we describe a new TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR method for rapid and quantitative detection of mycoplasma contamination during manufacture of biologics. Universal mycoplasma primers were used for mycoplasma PCR and mycoplasma DNA was quantified by use of a specific TaqMan probe. Specificity, sensitivity, and robustness of the real-time PCR method was validated according to the European Pharmacopoeia. The validation results met required criteria to justify its use as a replacement for the culture method. The established real-time PCR assay was successfully applied to the detection of mycoplasma from human keratinocyte and mesenchymal stem cell as well as Vero cell lines artificially infected with mycoplasma. The overall results indicated that this rapid, specific, sensitive, and robust assay can be reliably used for quantitative detection of mycoplasma contamination during manufacture of biologics.
Cosmetics Preservation and Moisturizing Effect by Methanol Extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis George and Liriope platyphylla
Yeo, Yun Hui ; Park, Chang-Ho ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 5, 2014, Pages 372~379
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.5.372
Methanol extract (1.0 wt%) of Scutellaria baicalensis George satisfied preservation standard of CTFA (The Cosmetics, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli which were inoculated in skin lotion. Even at a low concentration (0.01 wt%) the extract showed high superoxide dismutase-like activity. The CTFA standard could also be satisfied for the above four strains when methanol extract of Liriope platyphylla were combined with the 1.0 wt% extract of S. baicalensis George. This result suggests that extract of L. platyphylla does not hinder the preservation activity of S. baicalensis George. Moreover, skin moisture content could be maintained for 6 hours after the application of a cream containing the extract of L. platyphylla.
Peptide Hydrolysates from Astragalus membranaceus Bunge Inhibit the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Human Dermal Fibroblasts
Park, Sun Ki ; Van Hien, Pham ; Van Luong, Hoang ; Yan, Shao-Wei ; Byun, Sang Yo ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 5, 2014, Pages 380~384
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.5.380
Inhibition effects of peptide hydrolysates from Astragalus membranaceus Bunge. on the expression of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in human dermal fibroblasts were evaluated in vitro. Crude peptides were obtained by the hydrolysis of proteins extracted from A. membranaceus. Peptides were purified partially by the basis on the molecular weight using 40% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis before treatment with human dermal fibroblasts. Basis on the doseeffect experiments, expressions of MMPs including MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-13 in human dermal fibroblasts were evaluated. Expressions of MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-8 and MMP-13 were reduced in 43%, 5%, 22% and 57% respectively. The mass spectrometric analysis of partially purified peptides from A. membranaceus, which strongly inhibit expressions of MMPs, indicated that the peptides were composed of molecules below 1500 Da.
Effect of Storage Temperature on the Dispersion Stability of O/W Nano-emulsions
Lee, Ye-Eun ; Yoo, In-Sang ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 5, 2014, Pages 385~391
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.5.385
In this study, the emulsion dispersion stability of optimizing storage temperature was investigated. The system was based on oil/water (O/W) emulsions. In order to evaluate the stability, mean diameter of droplet was measured as a function of temperature with various mixed hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB). In addition, the correlations between phase inversion temperature (PIT) and the optimum storage temperature were probed. In this system, majority of the smallest droplet was shown at temperature of
below PIT. Whether the temperature was increased or decreased from the optimum, size of the droplet increased. According to the mixed HLB, the particle size and optimum storage temperature were also affected. As the concentrations of surfactant were increased, the size of particle decreased with lower optimum temperature for storage. If the surfactant (4 wt%) were mixed with HLB, the optimum storage temperature was
for maintaining the size of smallest droplet at 108.3 nm in diameter. At above optimum condition, increased size of particle was observed approximately 4 % increases from 108.2 nm to 112.3 nm after 600 hours. The size of particle in emulsion was maintained stably without any considerable effect of Ostwald ripening phenomena at the optimum storage temperature with low polydispersity index.
Investigation on the Cause of Malodor through the Reproduction of Chemicals
Park, Sang Jun ; Oh, Young Hwan ; Jo, Bo Yeon ; Lee, Jae Shin ; Kim, Eui Yong ;
KSBB Journal, volume 29, issue 5, 2014, Pages 392~398
DOI : 10.7841/ksbbj.2014.29.5.392
It was confirmed that malodor connected with an air-conditioner in an automobile is caused by microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) produced by microorganisms and through microorganisms coexisting with each other to form a biofilm on the evaporator surface. A bacterium, Methylobacterium aquaticum, can form a biofilm on the evaporator surface. The biofilm was composed of 45.79% C (Carbon), 42.36% O (Oxygen), 1.85% Na (Sodium), 5.42% Al (Aluminum), 1.39% P (Phosphorus), 0.74% Cl (Chlorine) and 2.45% K (Potassium). This result matches the composition of the biofilm formed on the surface of the used evaporator. It was determined that sulfur compounds (Hydrogen sulfide, Dimethyl sulfide) and organic acids (n-Butyric acid, n-Valeric acid, iso-Valeric acid) in the air which was blown into the automobile were generated by Methylobacterium aquaticum and Aspergillus versicolor, respectively. On the other hand, volatile organic compounds (Toluene, Xylene, 2-Ethylhexanol, 2-Phenyl- 2-propanol, Ethylbenzene) were not found. It is estimated that the reason is due to the low concentration of generated MVOCs or is caused by the change of some MVOCs depending on the nutrients (medium).