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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 5 - Dec 1993
Volume 8, Issue 4 - Dec 1993
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Sep 1993
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Jun 1993
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Mar 1993
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Studies on the Induction of Cytoplasts from the Protoplasts of CMS(Cytoplasmic Male Sterility) Line of Nicotiana and the Fusion of the Cytoplast and the another Protoplasts
KSBB Journal, volume 8, issue 2, 1993, Pages 97~103
This study was investigated as a step for the purpose of successful introduction of cytoplasmic inherited characters between the different plants. Cytoplasts were separated from the protoplasts of CMS(cytoplasmic male sterility) line such as MS Burley 21 which carried from Nicotiana megalosiphon. The cytoplasts were fused to protoplasts derived from Nicotiana tabacum Br 64 with PEG(polyethylene g1yco1). The cytoplasts were separated by density gradient centrifugation. Efficient separation of cytoplasts depended on the difference of specific density of gradient solution. However, the iso-osmolality of gradient solution was not important to separate the cytoplasts. The cells for a cybrid were fused with 50% concentration of PEG.
Rice Transformation by DNA Imbibition and Construction of Plant Vector
KSBB Journal, volume 8, issue 2, 1993, Pages 104~109
A vector for plant transformation which had two reporter genes(Gus and Hpt genes) in a single plasmid was constructed. After rice embryos imbibed DNA solution, DNA uptake and gene expression in rice were monitored. Main expression sites of the Gus gene were meristem of root and coleoptiles. There was no difference in Hpt gene expression between a single Hpt vector and the constructed vector in viability of rice in the hygromycin medium after DNA imbibition, The genomic DNA and total RNA extracted from rice transformant survived in the hygromycin medium were subjected to PCR and RT PCR analysis, respectively. As a result, we found the existence of the Hpt gene and its expression in rice.
Production of Vinblastine by Chemical Coupling of Vindoline Extracted from Cultivated Plants and Catharanthine from Hairy Root Cultures in Vinca(Catharanthine roseus)
KSBB Journal, volume 8, issue 2, 1993, Pages 110~114
Vinblastine, an anticancer agent was produced by chemical coupling of two different monomeric indole alkaloids, vinblastine and catharanthine in the presence of ferric ion. Vindoline was efficiently extracted from the leaves of vinca (Cafharanthus roseus) by using supercritical carbon dioxide, whereas catharanthine was chemically extracted from the in vitro cultured hairy roots. The extracted crude monomeric precursors were purified by a two-step preparative TLC. The coupling reaction was carried out in the 0.1M glycine buffer(pH 2.0, 5ml) containing 40mM FeC13 with purified vindoline(0.3mg) and catharanthine(0.3mg) at 4
. The production yields (weight %) of vinblastine and 3', 4'-anhy-drovinblastine in the products were 23.2 and 26.0, respectively. The produced vinblastine was confirmed by FAB-MS.
Studies on the Effect of Polyamine on Chlorophyll Contents and Chloroplast Peroxidase Activities in Rice Leaf Segments
KSBB Journal, volume 8, issue 2, 1993, Pages 115~121
The effect of polyamine on chlorophyll amount, chloroplast peroxidase and chloroplast thylakoid protein in rice leaf segments which were grown for 10 days(16 hrs, light : 8 hrs, dark) in a hormone-free MS medium containing polyamine was studied. Polyamine treatment increased the chlorophyll contents compared with the control in rice leaf segments. Especially spermine was most effective. Also, in rice leaf segments treated with polyamine chloroplast peroxidase activity was higher than in the control. The treatment with lmM of spermidine increased the enzyme activity by 100%. In polyamine treatment and control two major polypeptide bands corresponding to 56 and 25Kd molecular weight were clearly resolved with other minor bands by SDS-PAGE in the insoluble protein fraction. However, in these bands (56, 25Kd), the total area of protein in treating with polyamine were higher than that of the control. These results suggest that polyamine was an important factor in the chloroplast development of rice seedlings.
Taxol Content in Various Parts of Yew Trees in Korea
KSBB Journal, volume 8, issue 2, 1993, Pages 122~125
Taxol is the promising diterpene alkaloid with antineoplastic activities. The taxol content in various parts of yew trees in Korea, Mt. Deokyu, Mt. Sobaek, Mt. Taebaek and Suwon area, have been determined. The highest taxol content was observed in yew trees of Mt. Soback. In various parts of trees the taxol content in bark was highest and the taxol content in twig was higher than that in leaves.
Study on the development of preventive agent of dental caries from biological active materials Development of disc PAHA for an artificial tooth and preventive effect on dental caries from plant extracts
KSBB Journal, volume 8, issue 2, 1993, Pages 126~132
The objective of this study was to develop an artificial dentin for easy handle and accurate observation of the mechanism on dental caries and to screen biologically active materials from the extracts of traditional plants and fruits for prevention of early dental cares. In order to produce disc PAHA (artificial dentin), the powdered hydroxylapatite was immobilized in a 20% polyacrylamide gel. The characteristics of disc PAHA was very similar to the surface, figure and lattice of human enamel. After decalcification in 0.1M citric acid based on observation with SEM. The critical point of decalcification of disc PAHA by acids was found to be pH 5.0-5.5, which was hi agreement with human enamel. The degree of decalcification from disc PAHA in 0.1M citric acid solution was sixfold higher than that of human enamel. This result suggested that disc PAHA would be useful as a substitute of human enamel for in vitro experiment. The extracts of garlic and Flower Apple A, B seemed to inhibit growth of S. mutans. Especially, when the 300
of its extracts added to the medium to incubate S. mutans, F. apple B showed strongly an inhibitory effect in both the growth of S. mutans and the synthesis of insoluble glucan.
Plasmid Propagation and Heterologous Gene Expression in Recombinant Yeast
KSBB Journal, volume 8, issue 2, 1993, Pages 133~142
The effects of genetic and environmental factors on productivity of a cloned protein were studied in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plasmid stability and copy level were very high for a
system(at ca. 10 generations, stability: 65-90%, plasmid copy number per cell: 40-200), whereas these were very low for a yep- system(at ca. 10 generations, stability: 30%, plasmid copy number per cell 20). In plasmids containing the
circle genome, a
strain was a preferred host cell since the plasmid stability and the copy number in a
strain were higher than in a
strain. Cloned gene expression was dependent on plasmid copy number and stability. The inducer (galactose) level played a very important role in cloned lacZ gene expression, showing that a galactose concentration of 0.8% was sufficient for induction of gene expression. Induction rate was very fast in the case of plasmids exhibiting high stability and copy number by a factor of 4 to 25. The time to reach the peak value of gene expression was longer when galactose was added at the start of fermentation (ca. 26 hours) than at the mid-exponential phase (ca. 6 hours). Glucose repression was reduced by a factor of 2 to 5 as the relative inducer level increased.
Color Removal of Culture Broth Containing Hyaluronic by Activated Carbon
KSBB Journal, volume 8, issue 2, 1993, Pages 143~149
Activated carbons were used to examine their performance for the separation of undesirable colored materials from culture broth containing hyaluronic acid. Six local samples and a NORIT ROX 08 were tested, whereas the latter was mainly studied under batch and continuous modes. The optimal wavelength for the detection of colored materials was 330nm. The optimal choice of NORIT ROX 08 provided 30% colored residuals with 96% hyaluronic acid recovery of original broth in batch experiments. The nonlinear adsorption behavior of protein and colored materials with activated carbon (C) was correlated by a Langmuir equation to give 18C/24+C and 500C/892+C for protein and colored materials, respectively. It appears that colored materials were composed of 78% protein and 22% glucose residuals on the basis of clearance results. A microscopic study using a scanning electron microscope suggests that regeneration of used activated carbon with 0.1N NaOH and hot water was not satisfactory. The present study proposes that the continuous monitoring of colored materials during purification can be accomplished by Installation of a UV monitor commonly used for continuous detection of protein during the process, as resulted from the significant correlation of color (A330)=0.353protein(mg/ml)+0.1(R=99.7%).
Biodegradation of Azo and Reactive Dyes with Pseudomonas strains
KSBB Journal, volume 8, issue 2, 1993, Pages 150~155
This study describes biodegradation of dyes which are used in textile industries. Dyes released into the environment from industrial waste water are considered to be a serious pollution problem because of the wide spread into environment with a variety of colors. The microorganisms used in this experiment were Pseudomonas species, which had been screened from aeration tank of waste water treatment. It was found that optimum concentrations for culture media were 14g of glucose, 6g of peptone, 160 mg of Na2HPO4, 200mg of KCl, 140mg of MgSO4,.7H2O,1.0g of KH2PO4, 400mg of NaCl, 200mg of CaCl2 and dye 10ppm per litre of distilled water. The high efficiency of dye degradation was obtained at pH 7-8 and
. Strains screened are excellent for removal of azo and reactive dyes, which are relatively stable and difficult to degrade. Dyes of 10ppm such as mono-azo (Lot No. 180), di-azo (Lot No. 138) and reactive red(Lot No. 2) were mostly decolorlzed within 2 days and di-azo (Lot No. 151) and reactive red(Lot No. 34, No. 00166) were decolorized within 5 days in the controlled fermenter. In the case of reactive dyes, oxygen supplies showed lower biodegradability compared to anaerobic culture.
Growth Characteristics and Optimal Culture Conditions of Bacterial Strains Degrading Ethylene Glycol and Terephthalic Acid in Polyester Weight Loss Wastewater
KSBB Journal, volume 8, issue 2, 1993, Pages 156~163
Strains degrading ethylene glycol(EG) and terephthalic acid(TPA) were isolated from water systems, and identified as Pseudomonas sp. They were named as Pseudomonas sp. EAW for EG and as Pseudomonas sp. TS2 for TPA. The optimal culture conditions of temperature, pH and nitrogen source were found to be
, 7.5 and ammonium sulfate, respectively. The growth of strains and removal efficiency was slightly promoted by trace elements such as niacin and biotin in case of EG, and by trace elements such as
and thiamin i case of TPA. With increasing inoculation sloe for batch culture, the removal efficiency of EG by the strain EAW was conspicuously increased, while the removal efficiency of TPA by the strain TS2 was not changed as much as that of EG. The growth rate of the strain EAW was much more decreased than that of the strain TS2 in the enrichment medium, as the frequency of repeated-batch culture in the rich-medium increased. in case of real wastewater, growth rate and removal efficiencies of EG and TPA were lower than those in the enrichment medium.
removal efficiencies after 48 hrs batch culture in real wastewater were 89% and 93%, respectively. The specific growth rate was inhibited when the initial concentration of EG or TPA was more than 25g/L.
Exopolysaccharide Production in Fed-batch and Continuous Culture by Methylomonas mucosa
KSBB Journal, volume 8, issue 2, 1993, Pages 164~171
The production of extracellular polysaccharide by Methylomonas mucosa (NRRL B-5696) was investigated. The microorganism uses methanol as the carbon source for their growth and produces exopolysaccharides. The productivity of exopolysaccharides was investigated under various culture modes: batch, fed-batch and continuous culture. In flask culture the growth of cell mass and the production of polysaccharide were inhibited at above 1% (v/v) methanol. At 1%(v/v) methanol maximum specific growth rate was obtained. As C/N ratio (g methanol/g ammonium sulfate) increased, polysaccharide production increased and cells mass decreased. Magnesium ion was also found to be essential for the polysaccharide production. In batch culture the production of polysaccharides was more affected by the specific growth rate than the cell concentration. In fed-batch culture the concentration of polysaccharide was 4 times higher than that of batch culture, but the yield was lower. The productivity of fed-batch with continuous feeding was higher than that of batch or fed-batch with intermittent feeding. This is due to no methanol limitation or inhibition that used to occur in fed-batch culture with intermittent feeding. In continuous culture pure oxygen was supplied to avoid the oxygen limitation. As the dilution rate in- creased up to 0.21 h-1, the yield and productivity increased. The solution viscosity of the produced polysaccharide obtained from above increased exponentially with the concentration of polysaccharide.
Production of Single Cell Lipid and Treatment of Wastewater Alcohol Manufactory
KSBB Journal, volume 8, issue 2, 1993, Pages 172~177
In order to reduce BOD of wastewater from alcohol distillery manufactory, the production of single cell lipid was attempted. Among five yeast strains tested, Rhodotorula glutinis was most desirable for lipid production. Wastewater was treated with 2N NaOH and used as a medium. The optimum pH and temperature for lipid production were found to be 5.0 and
, respectively. The addition of monobasic phosphate was good for cultivation of Rhodotorula glutinis. The C/N ratio was an important factor for lipid production and composition. The best C/N ratio was 50 for the production of single cell lipid. By cultivation Rhodctorula glutinis for 4 days, 4g/L of single cell lipid was harvested and BOD of wastewater reduced by 88.7%.
Process Development of Alcohol Production by Extractive Fermentation(III) -An Optimum Composition of PEG/Dx for Extractive Alcohol Fermentation-
KSBB Journal, volume 8, issue 2, 1993, Pages 178~184
Extractive fermentations with the extract of Jerusalem artichoke in an aqueous-two-phase-system of polyethyleneglycol(PEG) and dextran(Dx) were investigated to obtain the effects of composition of PEG and Dx on both fermentation ,characteristics and partition ratio of alcohol. The specific growth rate of K. Fraglis CBS 1555 increased with a decrease of concentration of PEG and Dx. It augmented along with concentration of initial sugar up to 80g/l but decreased thereafter. The specific production rate of alcohol showed a rising tendency up to 100g/lof initial sugar, whereafter represented a decreasing trend. The partition ratio of alcohol between two phases augmented according to decrease of Dx comic. and increase of PEG cone. regardless of initial sugar concentrations. The ratio, however, decreased with Increment of initial sugar concentration at constant composition of PEG and Dx. The partition coefficient of alcohol had an ascending effect to the increase of PEG cone, but it had little effect on the changes of concentrations of Dx and initial sugar. The present study suggests that the optimum composition of PEG and Dx in the aqueous-two-phase-system by extractive fermentation were around 6.5%(w/v) of PEG and 3%(w/v) of Dx in considerations of emulsion state, sedimentation and separation of two phases, alcohol partition ratio, and specific growth rate.
Photosynthetic Characteristics of Intact Cells and Thylakoid Membranes of Synechococcus PCC7002 with Polyvinyalcohol-Immobilization
KSBB Journal, volume 8, issue 2, 1993, Pages 185~191
-evolving cells and thylakoid membranes have been obtained from the cyanobacterium, Synechococcus PCC7002, by immobilization with polyvinylalcohol(PVA). The absorption peak showed the blue-shift of about 3 nm after immobilization of intact cells and thylakoid membranes as well as isolation of thylakoid membranes. Photosynthetic electron transport activities, especially PS II activity showed greater stability in the PVA-immobilized cells and thylakoid membranes when stored at
than in those at
. When the cells were threated at higher temperature, the level of Fo and Fv increased. After imobilization, however, Fo showed no change. This suggests that the immobilization can protect against the damages of PS II complex, especially a water-spiliting system, by heat treatment.