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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Vacuum Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 6, Issue 4 - Nov 1997
Volume 6, Issue S1 - Oct 1997
Volume 6, Issue 3 - Aug 1997
Volume 6, Issue 2 - May 1997
Volume 6, Issue 1 - Feb 1997
Selecting the target year
Titanium Oxide Film : A New Biomaterial For Artificial Heart Valve Prepared by Ion Beam Enhanced Deposition
Liu, Xianghuai ; Zhang, Feng ; Zheng, Zhihong ; Huang, Nan ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 1~15
Titanium oxide films were prepared by ion beam enhanced deposition where the films were synthesized by deposition titianium atoms and simultaneously bombarding with xenon ion beam at an energy of 40 keV in an
environ,ent. Structure and composition of titanium oxide films were investigated by X-ray Doffractopm (XRD) Ritjerfprd Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and X-ray Diffraction(XRD) Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) The results show that thestructure of the prepared films exhibit a rutile phase structure wit high(200) orientation and the O/Ti ratio of the titanium oxide films was about 2:1 XPS anlysis shows that
chemical states exist on the titanium oxide films. the blood compatibility of the titanium oxide films was studied by measurements of blood clotting time and platelet adhesion. The results show that the anticoagulation property of titanium oxide films improved significantly and better than that of LTI-carbon which was widely used to fabricate artificial heart valve.
BIOCOMPATIBISITY OF ION BEAM PROCESSED FILMS DEPOSITED ON SURGICAL TI-6AI-4V
Lee, I-S ; Song and I-j Yu ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 16~22
ion beam processing of materials for medical application has gained increasing interest in the last decade and the implantation of nitrogen into TI-6AI-4V to improve corrosive-wear performance is currently used for processing of total hip and knee joints. Oxides and nitrides of Ti, Zr, Al, Cr were deposited on TI-6AI-4V substrates by DC magnetron sputtering dual ion beam sputtering and ion beam assisted deposition. The cytotoxicity of these films were investigated by MTT method and showed comparable to untreated TI-6AI-4V Plasm-sprayed hydroxyapatite(HAp) coatings showed excellent cytotoxicity regardless of heat treatment. intermediate layer coatings of nitrides and oxides increased the bond strength of HAp to substrate by intrdducing chemical bond at interface. Heat treatment of HAp coatings also improved the chemical bond at interfaces and increased the bond strength of untreated TI-6AI-4V to 16.4 kg/
but still lower than 33.1 kg./
of ir oxide as a imtermediate layer caoting.
Preparation of Nanophase Titania Film by Plasma Spraying
Zhu, Yingchun ; Huang, Minhui ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 23~26
Nanophase titania film was obtained by plasma spraying. The structure of titania film was investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found taht the film was composed of grains with mean particle size of 15nm. The crystal structure of nanophase titania film was found to be anatase phase by electron diffraction.
SIL VER-IMPREGNATED HAP-COATING ON ALUMINA SUBSTRATE FOR PREVENTION OF INFECTION
Kim, T.N. ; Q.L Feng ; J. Wu ; J.O kim ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 27~33
Recently ion beam assistant deposition (IBAD) was successfully used to produce a dense ultra-adherent and pinhole-free hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer on alumina substrate. After that the HAp-coated alumina was immersed in 20ppm and 100ppm
solution at room temperature for 48 hours to carry out the ions exchange between
in HAp. The obvious antimicrobial effect against E.Coli, P. Aeruginosa and S. Epidermidis was observed in the samples treated with 20ppm
Solution, In contrast to this the untreated samples did not show any bactericidal effect. Scanning electron microscope(SEM) study showed that Ag homogeneously distributed on the surface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated that the surface structure in the samples without Ag was HAp whereas with Ag is HAp and AgCaP. It appears that silver ions exchange with calcium ions in HAp does not cause significant changes in the structure of HAp coatings.
HgTe/Cdte superlattices grown on CdZnTe(211)B by MBE
Kang, T.W. ; Jeong, C.S. ; Leem, J.H. ; Ryu, Y.S. ; Hyun, J.K. ; Jeon, H.C. ; Lee, H.Y. ; Han, M.S. ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 34~42
Hg-Te-CdTe superlattices have received much interests over the last several years as a potential material for its applications for detecting devices and optoelectronics. We have grown the HgTe-CdTe superlattice using MBE. in our lab. We have carried out DCRC spectroscopy after growth of HgTe-CdTe superlattice with varying the superlattice periods and controlling the barrier thickness and we have that the presence of the main peak and the satellite peaks. We obtained 20 arcsec of FWHM over 100 periods of superlattice. We also note that high peak intensity shows the high quality of the sample and each layer of superlattice has abrupt interfaces. The angular separation between the main peak(m=0) and the first satellite peak(m=
1) is increased when the barrier layer thickness in superlatice layers are decreased. The separation between the first setellite peak(m=
1) and the second satellite peak(m
2) is increased similarly. The number of the satellite peak is a qualitative measure of the interfacial abruptness of the superlattice.
Dislocation Density Estimation and mosaic Model for GaN/SiC(0001) by High Resolution x-ray Diffraction
Yang, Quankui ; Li, Aizhen ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 43~46
High resolution x-ray diffraction and two dimensional triple axis mapping were used to characterize a group of GaN layers of about 1.1
m grown by direct current plasma molecular beam epitaxy technique on 6H-SiC(0001). A FWHM of 11.9 arcmins for an
scan and 1.2 arcmins for an
scan were observed. A careful study of the rocking curves showed there were some large mosaics in the GaN layer and a tilt of
between the GaN layer and the SIC substrate was detected. The two dimensional triple axis mapping showed that the GaN mosaica were disoriented in the (0001) plane but rather uniformed in direction perpendicular to the plane. A mosaics were disoriented in the (0001) plane but rather uniformed in direction perpendicular to the plane. A mosaic model was deduced to explain the phenomenon and the dislocation density was estimated to be about~
acc ding to the model.
Strain conservation in implantation -doped GeSi layers on Si(100)
Im, S. ; Nicolet, M.A. ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 47~52
Metastable pseudomorphic GeSi layers grown by vapor phase epitaxy on Si(100) substrates were implanted at room temperature. The implantations were performed with 90 KeV As ions to a dose of
layers and 709 keV
ions to a dose of
layers. The samples were subsequently annealed for short 10-40 s durations in a lamp furnace with a nitrogen ambient or for a long 30 min period in a vacuum tube furnace. For
samples annealed for a 30 min-longt duration at
the dopant activation can only reach 50% without introducing significant strain relaxaion whereas samples annealed for short 40s periods (at
) can achieve more than 90% activation without a loss of strain, For
samples annealed for either 40s or 30min at
full electrical activation of the boron is exhibited in the GeSi epilayer without losing their strain. However when annealed at
the strain in both implanted and unimplanted layers is partly relaxed after 30min whereas it is not visibly relaxed after 40s.
SPIN POLARIZED PHOTOEMISSION AND MAGNETIC CIRCULAY DICHROISM STUDY OF FeAl THIN FILMS
Kim, K. W. ; Y, V. Kudryavtsev ; G. S. Chang ; C. N. Whang ; Lee, Y. P . ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 53~58
It is well known that the equiatomic FeAl alloy crystallizes in a paramagnetic CsCl structure and is very stable in a wide temperature range owing to a significant charge transfer from Al to Fe. A presence of structural defects normally enhances the magnetic and magneto-optical properties of this alloy. In this study spin-resolved photoemission and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) were carried out on both ordered and disordered
alloy films. The disordered state in the alloy films was obtained by a vapor quenching deposition on cooled substrates. It is shown that the order-disorder transition in the Fe0.52Al0.48 alloy films leads to a significant change in the spin polarization. Form the MCD results the orbital and spin magnetic moments of the constituent atoms are obtained. According to the sum rule the spin and orbital magnetic moments of Fe in the disordered FeAl film are
respectively. The spin magnetic moment is also evaluated to be
by the branching ration method employing a photon polarization of 90%.
Si(100) ETCHING BY THERMAL-ENERGY HYDROGEN ATOMS
Kang, Joo-Hyun ; Jo, Sam-Keun ; John G. Ekerdt ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 59~65
Efficient Si(100) etching by thermal H atoms at low substrate temperatures has been achieved. Gas-phase etching product
(g) upon H atom bombardment resulting from direct abstraction of
(a) by impinging H atoms was detected with a quadrupole mass spectrometer over the substrate temperature range of 105-408 K Facile depletion of all surface silyl (
) groups the dissociative adsorption product of disilane (
) at 105K from Si(100)2
1 by D atoms and continuous regeneration and removal of
(a) were all consumed. These results provide direct evidence for efficient silicon surface etching by thermal hydrogen bombardment at cryogenic temperatures as low as 105K We attribute the high etching efficiency to the formation and stability of
(a) on Si(100) at lowered surface temperatures allowing the
(a) abstraction reaction by additional H atom to produce
Measurement of Porosity by EPMA-EDS Image Processing
Hung, Minhui ; Li, Xiangting ; Xia, Jiyu ; Ding, Chuanxian ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 66~69
Porosity is one important characteristic feature and structural index of sprayed coatings. A method of measurement of porosity, EPMA-EDS image processing is developed in the paper. The characteristics of pores can be determined by processing of the image obtained from an electron microscope via VISTA, Not only the porosity can be presented but also the statistical result of pore size distribution. Finally it can be drawn from this paper that EPMA-EDS is a quite effective method to completely characterize the pores in plasma sprayed coatings.
SUBLAYER THICKNESS DEPENDENCE OF THE OPTICALPROPERTIES OF NI/TI AND Fe/Zr MULTILAERS
Lee, Y.P. ; Kim, K.W. ; Lee, G.M. ; Rhee, J.Y. ; B. Szymansky ; J. Dubowik ; A. Yu Kucherenko ; Y.V. Kudryavstezv ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 70~74
The study of the thickness dependence of the electron energy structure of Fe, Ni, Ti and Zr sublayers in Ni/Ti and Fe/Zr multilayers by using the experimental and computer simulated optical spectroscopy has been performed. A series of Ni/Ti and Fe/Ze multiayered films (MLF) with a bilayer period of 0.5 - 30 nm and constant (Ni/Ti) / different (Fe/Zr) sublayer thickness ratios were prepared by using computer-controlled double-pair target face-to-face sputtering onto a glass substrate at room temperature (RT) Computer simulation of the resulting optical properties of these MLF was carried out by solving of multireflection problem with a matrix method assuming either "sharp" interfaces resulting in rectangular depth profiles of the components or "mixed" (alloy-like) interfaces of variable thickness between pure-metal sublayers. Optical constants of pure bulk metals as well as equiatomic alloy interfaces were employed in these simulations. It was shown that the difference between experimental and simulated optical properties of the investigated MLF increases with decrease in sublayer thickness. This result allows to conclude that the electronic structures of sublayers below 4-5 nm thickness in mlf differ from the corresponding bulk metals.ponding bulk metals.
Ion assisted deposition of
optical thin films
H, J. Cho ; C.K. Hwangbo ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 75~79
Optical and mechanical characteristics of
thin films prepared by ion assisted deposition (IAD) were investigated. IAD films were bombarded by Ar or nitrogen ion beam from a Kaufman ion source while they were grown in as e-beam evaporator. The result shows that the Ae IAD increases the refractive index and packing density of
films close to those of the bulk. For
films the Ar IAD increases the average refractive index decreases the negative inhomogeneity of refractive index and reverses to the positive inhomogeneity. The optical properties result from improved packing density and denser outer layer next to air The Ar-ion bombardment also induces the changes in microstructure of
films such as the preferred (111) orientation of cubic phase increase in compressive stress and reduction of surface roughness. Inhomogeneous refractive index SiOxNy films were also prepared by nitrogen IAD and variable refractive index of
film was applied to fabricate a rugate filter.
Enhancement of Mechanical Properties in Microlaminate Composite materials Produces by Physical Vapor Deposition
Kwon, Sik-Chol ; Rha, Jong-Joo ; Beck, Woon-Seung ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 80~88
The attempt to enhance the strength of materials has been an important subject for materials engineering and scientists. The strength of materials is termed as the ability to support high load without excessive deformation and without breaking catastrophically. The control of dislocation densities and barriers to the movement of dislocations have been considered to be the important methods for the strengthening materials. One of the approaches is mechanical blocking of dislocations by alternately depositing material layers. The typical structure of materials is multilayered and laminated composites. The thickness of each layer is typically in the range of nanometer. Ton avoid confusion with other terminology they may be defined as microlaminate composite materials. The manufacturing process of multilayered laminate structure will be introduced. And the current theoretical theories will be reviewed in view of strengthening of microlaminte composite materials.
PZT membrane Piezoelectric Traveling Wave Motor
xin, Shen-De ; an, Zhang-Bao ; Lu jinan-guo ; qing, Yang-Gen ; yuan, Wang-Wei ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 89~95
A new type of piexoelectric membrane traveling wave motor has been designed and forbricated. The small motor is composed by the stator which is the combination of annular/circular membrane and metal elastic base using as the common electrode at some time and the rotor which is placed on the metal elastic body. Thus the motor structure is simple and easy to fabricate. The material of a piezoelectric membrane is fabricated by sol-gel method or wear-down method. A piezoelectric traveling wave motor has been fabricated with the stator diameter 8mm The total thickness of the stator is 350
m. Under the alternative excitation voltage 10-12V the revolving speed of the rotor is more than 100RPM.
Simulation of Neutron irradiation Corrosion of Zr-4 Alloy Inside Water Pressure reactors by Ion Bombardment
Bai, X.D. ; Wang, S.G. ; Xu, J. ; Chen, H.M. ; Fan, Y.D. ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 96~109
In order to simulate the corrosion behavior of Zr-4 alloy in pressurized water reactors it was implanted (or bombarded) with 190ke V
ions at liquid nitrogen temperature and room temperature respectively up to a dose of
The oxidation behavior and electrochemical vehavior were studied on implanted and unimplanted samples. The oxidation kinetics of the experimental samples were measured in pure oxygen at 923K and 133.3Pa. The corrosion parameters were measured by anodic polarization methods using a princeton Applied Research Model 350 corrosion measurement system. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray Photoelectric Spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to investigate the distribution and the ion valence of oxygen and zirconium ions inside the oxide films before and after implantation. it was found tat: 1) the
ion implantation (or bombardment) enhanced the oxidation of Zircaloy-4 and resulted in that the oxidation weight gain of the samples at a dose of
was 4 times greater than that of the unimplantation ones;2) the valence of zirconium ion in the oxide films was classified as
and the higher vlence of zirconium ion increased after the bombardment ; 3) the anodic passivation current density is about 2 ~ 3 times that of the unimplanted samples; 4) the implantation damage function of the effect of ion implantation on corrosion resistance of Zr-4 alloy was established.
ION BEAM AND ITS APPLICATIONS
Koh, S.K. ; Choi, S.C. ; Kim, K.H. ; Cho, J.S. ; Choi, W.K. ; Yoon, Y.S. ; Jung, H.J. ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 110~114
Development of metal ion source growth of high quality Cu metal film formation of non-stoichiometric
films of Si(100), and modification fo polymer surface by low enregy ion beam have been carried out at KIST Ion Beam Lab. A new metal ion source with high ion beam flux has been developed by a hybrid ion beam (HIB) deposition and non-stoichiometric
films are controlled by supplying energy. The ion assisted reaction (IAR) in which keV ion beam is irradiated in reactive gas environment has been deveolped for modifying the polymers and enhancing adhesion to other materials and advantages of the IAR have been reviewed.
ENHANCED ADHESION STRENGTH OF Cu/polyimide AND Cu/Al/polyimide BY ION BEAM MIXING
G. S. Chang ; Kim, T.G. ; K. H. Chae ; D. S. Zatespine ; E.Z. Kurmaev ; H. S.. Choe ; Lee, Y.P. ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 122~126
the Cu/polyimide system is known to be the best candidate for a multilevel interconnection system due to the low resistance of Cu and to the low dielectric constant of polyimide respectively. Ion beam mixing of Cu(40nm)/polyimide was carried out at room temperature with 80 keV Ar+ and N2+ form
1015 to 15
1015 ions/cm2. The quantitative adhesion strength was measured by a standard scratch test. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray emission spectrocopy are employed to investigate the chemical bonds and the interlayer compound formation of the films Cu/Al/polyimide showed more adhesion strength than Cu/polyimide after ion beam mixing and N2+ ions are more effective in the adhesion enhancement than Ar+ with the same sample geometry. The XES results shows the formation of interlayer compound of CuAl2O4 which can reflect more adhesive Cu/Al/polyimide which has not been reported previously. The latter results is understood by the fact that N2+ ions produce more pyridinelike moiety, amide group and tertiary amine moiety whcih are known as adhesion promotors.
MICROSTRUCTURAL STUDY OF
ALLOYS FORMED BY ION BEAM MIXING
Y. Jeon ; Y. S lee ; Park, B. S ; J. J. Woo ; C.N. Whang ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 127~132
Microstructure of the Fe-Ti system by ion beam mixing of multilayers at 300 K and 77 K has been studied in a wide composition range. The ion bombardment was carried out using
ions at 80 keV. Using grazing angle x-ray diffraction we find that the lattice parameters of these bcc solid solutions are very close to that of
-Fe. Extended x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy have been performed to investgate the short-range order in the ion-beam-mixed state. The structure parameters, such as the interatomic distance and the coordination number are estmated from the Fe K-edge Fourier filtered EXAFS spectra. The interatomic distance is independent of the alloy concentration and it is almost constant. The study of x-ray absorption near-edge structure gives information on the individual
components of the partial densityof states of the conduction band of the Fe and Ti We also find that a charge transfer from Ti to Fe atoms takes place.
INVESTIGATION OF MULTI-ARC PLASMA PLATING FILM EQUIPMENT BULAT-6 AND ITS TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Wen Xueya ; Ma Te2ngcai ; Hu Shejun ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 133~136
In this paper multi-arc plasma plating film equipment Bulat-6 and its technical characteristics were analyzed in detail. This machine is the first of its kind in China. Influential factors and reducing methods on microdroplets of titanium were investigated. By method of electromagnetic field control and ion beam enhanced deposition excellent titanium nitride film could be obtained. Bicrohardness and adhesion were 250Mpa and 6.5Kg respectively.
The Magnetic Filtering Vacuum Arc Film Deposition System and Its Applications
Wang, G.F. ; Zhang, H.X. ; Zhang, H.J. ; Zhu, H. ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 137~140
A cathodic arc with beam filter is employed for the deposition of metallic and hydrogen-free amorphous carbon films. A solenoid filter is used to prevent macropaticles and nonionized atoms from reaching the substrate. The detail transport characters of the filter are presented in the paper. With an optmum filter arrangement we are able to obtain a filter output of 18.4% of the total number of ions produced by the vacuum arc discharge. The deposited amorphous cabon thin film contains no hydrogen and a high fraction of
is determined by XPS. A dense Ti film deposited on H13 steel improves the corrosion resistance of the H13 steel and significant improvements of corrosion resistance were observed by implanting Ti, C in the film.
SUPPRESSION OF THE TETRAGONAL DISTORTION IN THIN Pb(Zr, Ti)
Kang, H.C. ; Noh, D.Y. ; Je, J.H. ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 141~153
The paraelectric cubic-to-ferroelectric tetragonal phase transition of the thin Pb(Zr, Ti)
(PZT) films grown on MgO(001) substrate was investigated in a series of synchrotron x-ray scattering experiments. As the thickness of the film decreases the transition temperature and the amount of the tetragonal distortion were decreased continuously Different from only the c-domains were existent in the thinnest 25nm thick film. Based on this we propose a model for the domain structure of the tetragonal PZT/MgO(100) film that is very different from the ones suggested in literature. We attribute the suppression of the transition to the substrate field that prefers the c-type domains near the interface and suppresses the tetragonal distortion to minimize the film-substrate lattice mismatch.
Preferred orientation of TiN thin films produced by Ion Beam Assist Deposition
J.Y. Won ; Kim, J.H. ; C.H. Baeg ; Park, S.Y ; Hong, J.W. ; M.Y.Wey ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 154~159
The crystal structure properties of TiN thin films deposited on SKD61 steel and Si(100) substrates by Ion Beam Assisted Deposition have been studied to clarify the thin film growth mechanism by using XRD, RBS, SEM, and AFM. The preferred orientation of TiN thin films changes from (111) to (100) as increasing the assisted energy. This tendency is independent of the substrate structure. The TiN thin film grow with (100) direction having surface free energy minimum as the assisted energy increases.
Influence of LPPS Spraying Parameters on Deposition Efficiency of Zirconia Powder
Shi, Jian-Min ; Hu, Zhong-Yin ; Huang, Jing-Qi ; Ding, Chuan-Xian ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 160~165
Yttria stabilized zirconia coating is an attractive material for several engineering applications. In order to produce coatings with consistent and reliable performance it is important to understand the influence of spraying parameters on the coating properties and optimize the spraying parameters. In this paper the low pressure plasma spray(LPPS) deposition of as-received zirconia powder has been investigated using simple one-factor-at-a-time approach. The deposition efficiency was chosen to evaluate the melting characteristics of the as-received zirconia powder. The results obtained indicated that the deposition efficiency of zirconia powder is very sensitive to the spraying parameters such as plasma gas flow rate and ranges from 24% to 57% The microstructure and the phase composition of zirconia coating deposited with the different plasma spraying parameters were also examined by SEM and XRD respectively. The relationship between deposition efficiency and the microstructure of zirconia coating was discussed.
Some Applications of Ion Beam Enhanved Deposition Techniques
Zhang, Fu-min ;
Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society, volume 6, issue S1, 1997, Pages 166~171
IBED is a very promosing thin film deposition method because of its many advantages, such as excellent adhesion property of films to substrates, room temperature processing, ease of control over the composition and thickness of films, and so on, over the conventional techniques, It has been widely applied in the field of surface modification of materials in the last decade. In our laboratory, many kinds of thin films, such as wear-resistant hard coatings, corrosion and oxidation protective coatings, biomaterial films, buffer layer for high temperature superconductor films, and oxygen sensitive film, have been synthesized by IBED, and several industrial applications of the IBED films have been conducted.