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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 12, Issue 5 - Nov 2001
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Oct 2001
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Sep 2001
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Aug 2001
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Jul 2001
Volume 11, Issue 6 - Jun 2001
Volume 11, Issue 5 - May 2001
Volume 11, Issue 4 - Apr 2001
Volume 11, Issue 3 - Mar 2001
Volume 11, Issue 2 - Feb 2001
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Jan 2001
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Post-peak behavior and flexural ductility of doubly reinforced normal- and high-strength concrete beams
Pam, H.J. ; Kwan, A.K.H. ; Ho, J.C.M. ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 12, issue 5, 2001, Pages 459~474
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2001.12.5.459
The complete moment-curvature curves of doubly reinforced concrete beams made of normal- or high-strength concrete have been evaluated using a newly developed analytical method that takes into account the stress-path dependence of the constitutive properties of the materials. From the moment-curvature curves and the strain distribution results obtained, the post-peak behavior and flexural ductility of doubly reinforced normal- and high-strength concrete beam sections are studied. It is found that the major factors affecting the flexural ductility of reinforced concrete beam sections are the tension steel ratio, compression steel ratio and concrete grade. Generally, the flexural ductility decreases as the amount of tension reinforcement increases, but increases as the amount of compression reinforcement increases. However, the effect of the concrete grade on flexural ductility is fairly complicated, as will be explained in the paper. Quantitative analysis of such effects has been carried out and a formula for direct evaluation of the flexural ductility of doubly reinforced concrete sections developed. The formula should be useful for the ductility design of doubly reinforced normal- and high-strength concrete beams.
Remeshing techniques for r-adaptive and combined h/r-adaptive analysis with application to 2D/3D crack propagation
Askes, H. ; Sluys, L.J. ; de Jong, B.B.C. ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 12, issue 5, 2001, Pages 475~490
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2001.12.5.475
Remeshing strategies are formulated for r-adaptive and h/r-adaptive analysis of crack propagation. The relocation of the nodes, which typifies r-adaptivity, is a very cheap method to optimise a given discretisation since the element connectivity remains unaltered. However, the applicability is limited. To further improve the finite element mesh, a combined h/r-adaptive method is proposed in which h-adaptivity is applied whenever r-adaptivity is not capable of further improving the discretisation. Two and three-dimensional examples are presented. It is shown that the r-adaptive approach can optimise a discretisation at minimal computational costs. Further, the combined h/r-adaptive approach improves the performance of a fully r-adaptive technique while the number of h-remeshings is reduced compared to a fully h-adaptive technique.
A new piezoelectric shell element and its application in static shape control
Chen, Su Huan ; Yao, Guo Feng ; Lian, Hua Dong ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 12, issue 5, 2001, Pages 491~506
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2001.12.5.491
In this paper, a new three-dimensional piezoelectric thin shell element containing an integrated distributed piezoelectric sensor and actuator is proposed. The distributed piezoelectric sensor layer monitors the structural shape deformation due to the direct effect and the distributed actuator layer suppresses the deflection via the converse piezoelectric effect. A finite element formulation is presented for static response of laminated shell with piezoelectric sensors/actuators. An eight-node and forty-DOF shell element is built. The performance of the shell elements is improved by reduced integration technique. The static shape control of structure is derived. The shell element is verified by calculating piezoelectric polymeric PVDF bimorph beam. The results agreed with those obtained by theoretical analysis, Tzou and Tseng (1990) and Hwang and Park (1993) fairly well. At last, the static shape control of a paraboloidal antenna is presented.
On the local stability condition in the planar beam finite element
Planinc, Igor ; Saje, Miran ; Cas, Bojan ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 12, issue 5, 2001, Pages 507~526
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2001.12.5.507
In standard finite element algorithms, the local stability conditions are not accounted for in the formulation of the tangent stiffness matrix. As a result, the loss of the local stability is not adequately related to the onset of the global instability. The phenomenon typically arises with material-type localizations, such as shear bands and plastic hinges. This paper addresses the problem in the context of the planar, finite-strain, rate-independent, materially non-linear beam theory, although the proposed technology is in principle not limited to beam structures. A weak formulation of Reissner`s finite-strain beam theory is first presented, where the pseudocurvature of the deformed axis is the only unknown function. We further derive the local stability conditions for the large deformation case, and suggest various possible combinations of the interpolation and numerical integration schemes that trigger the simultaneous loss of the local and global instabilities of a statically determined beam. For practical applications, we advice on a procedure that uses a special numerical integration rule, where interpolation nodes and integration points are equal in number, but not in locations, except for the point of the local instability, where the interpolation node and the integration point coalesce. Provided that the point of instability is an end-point of the beam-a condition often met in engineering practice-the procedure simplifies substantially; one of such algorithms uses the combination of the Lagrangian interpolation and Lobatto`s integration. The present paper uses the Galerkin finite element discretization, but a conceptually similar technology could be extended to other discretization methods.
Whole learning algorithm of the neural network for modeling nonlinear and dynamic behavior of RC members
Satoh, Kayo ; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiro ; Nakano, Yoshiaki ; Yang, Won-Jik ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 12, issue 5, 2001, Pages 527~540
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2001.12.5.527
A new sort of learning algorithm named whole learning algorithm is proposed to simulate the nonlinear and dynamic behavior of RC members for the estimation of structural integrity. A mathematical technique to solve the multi-objective optimization problem is applied for the learning of the feedforward neural network, which is formulated so as to minimize the Euclidean norm of the error vector defined as the difference between the outputs and the target values for all the learning data sets. The change of the outputs is approximated in the first-order with respect to the amount of weight modification of the network. The governing equation for weight modification to make the error vector null is constituted with the consideration of the approximated outputs for all the learning data sets. The solution is neatly determined by means of the Moore-Penrose generalized inverse after summarization of the governing equation into the linear simultaneous equations with a rectangular matrix of coefficients. The learning efficiency of the proposed algorithm from the viewpoint of computational cost is verified in three types of problems to learn the truth table for exclusive or, the stress-strain relationship described by the Ramberg-Osgood model and the nonlinear and dynamic behavior of RC members observed under an earthquake.
Nonlinear collision analysis of heavy trucks onto steel highway guard fences
Itoh, Yoshito ; Liu, Chunlu ; Usami, Koichi ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 12, issue 5, 2001, Pages 541~558
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2001.12.5.541
The design specifications of guard fences in Japan were reexamined and the revised specifications were implemented from April 1999. Because of the huge consumption in time and cost to test the performances of full-scale guard fences in the field, some assumptions are adopted while modifying the design specifications, and numerical analyses are necessary to confirm the impact performance and safety level of new types of steel highway guard fences. In this study, the finite element models are developed for the heavy trucks and steel highway guard fences to reenact their behaviors, and the solution approach is carried out using nonlinear dynamic analysis software of structures in three dimensions (LS-DYNA). The numerical simulation results are compared with the full-scale on-site testing results to verify the proposed analysis procedure. The collision process is simulated and it is also made possible to visualize the movement of the truck and the performances of guard fences. In addition, the energy shift of the truck kinetic energy to the truck and guard fence Internal energy, and the energy absorption of each guard fence component are studied for the development of a new design methodology of steel highway guard fences based on the energy absorption capacity.
A model for evaluating the fire resistance of contour-protected steel columns
Kodur, V.K.R. ; Ghani, B.A. ; Sultan, M.A. ; Lie, T.T. ; El-Shayeb, M. ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 12, issue 5, 2001, Pages 559~572
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2001.12.5.559
A numerical model, in the form of a computer program, for evaluating the fire resistance of insulated wide-flange steel columns is presented. The three stages associated with the thermal and structural analysis in the calculation of fire resistance of columns is explained. The use of the computer program for tracing the response of an insulated steel column from the initial pre-loading stage to collapse, due to fire, is demonstrated. The validity of the numerical model used in the program is established by comparing the predictions from the computer program with results from full-scale fire tests. Details of fire tests carried out on wide-flange steel columns protected with ceramic fibre insulation, together with results, are presented. The computer program can be used to evaluate the fire resistance of protected wide-flange steel columns for any value of the significant parameters, such as load, section dimensions, column length, type of insulation, and thickness of insulation without the necessity of testing.