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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 12, Issue 5 - Nov 2001
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Oct 2001
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Sep 2001
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Aug 2001
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Jul 2001
Volume 11, Issue 6 - Jun 2001
Volume 11, Issue 5 - May 2001
Volume 11, Issue 4 - Apr 2001
Volume 11, Issue 3 - Mar 2001
Volume 11, Issue 2 - Feb 2001
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Jan 2001
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Inelastic displacement-based design approach of R/C building structures in seismic regions
Rubinstein, Marcelo ; Moller, Oscar ; Giuliano, Alejandro ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 12, issue 6, 2001, Pages 573~594
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2001.12.6.573
A two-level displacement-based design procedure is developed. To obtain the displacement demands, elastic spectra for occasional earthquakes and inelastic spectra for rare earthquakes are used. Minimum global stiffness and strength to be supplied to the structure are based on specified maximum permissible drift limits and on the condition that the structure responds within the elastic range for occasional earthquakes. The performance of the structure may be assessed by an inelastic push-over analysis to the required displacement and the evaluation of damage indices. The approach is applied to the design of a five-story reinforced concrete coupled wall structure located in the most hazardous seismic region of Argentina. The inelastic dynamic response of the structure subjected to real and artificially generated acceleration time histories is also analyzed. Finally, advantages and limitations of the proposed procedure from the conceptual point of view and practical application are discussed.
Analytical and experimental postbuckling of conditioned cables
Rivierre, L. ; Polit, O. ; Billoet, J.L. ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 12, issue 6, 2001, Pages 595~614
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2001.12.6.595
This paper studies the behaviour of a homogeneous cable in a horizontal rigid duct and loaded by an axial compressive force. This behaviour is characterized by spatial buckling modes, named sinusoidal and helical, due to friction and total or partial cable locking. The evaluation of critical buckling loads involved by drilling technology has been studied by many authors. This work presents a new formulation, taking the friction effects into account, for the transmission of the axial load during the postbuckling process. New analytical expressions of pitches in both buckling cases are also given. A life-sized bench is presented, which permits to study the laying of optical fiber cables by squeezing them into an underground duct. Finally, analytical solutions are compared with experimental tests and finite element simulations.
Ductility of open piled wharves under reversed cyclic loads
Yokota, Hiroshi ; El-Bakry, Hazem M.F. ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 12, issue 6, 2001, Pages 615~632
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2001.12.6.615
Ductility of open piled wharves under reversed cyclic loads has been investigated. Experimental testing of five wharf models having a scale of about 1:4 was conducted under the application of horizontal reversed cyclic loading. The experiments were designed to focus on the horizontal ultimate load, ductility and failure mode of the considered wharf models. Nonlinear numerical analyses using the finite element method were also performed on numerical models representing the experimentally tested wharves. The results of the experimental tests showed that open piled wharves possessed favourable ductile behaviour and that their load bearing capacity did not depreciate until a ductility factor of 3 to 4 was reached. The numerical analysis showed that the relative rotation that took place at the joints between the steel piles and the R.C. beam was responsible for a considerable portion of the total horizontal deformation of the wharves. Therefore, it was concluded that introducing the joint stiffness in calculating the deformations of open piled wharves was important to achieve reasonable accuracy.
Seismic test of modal control with direct output feedback for building structures
Lu, Lyan-Ywan ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 12, issue 6, 2001, Pages 633~656
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2001.12.6.633
In this paper, modal control with direct output feedback is formulated in a systematic manner for easy implementation. Its application to the seismic protection of structural systems is verified by a shaking table test, which involves a full-scale building model and an active bracing system as the control device. Two modal control cases, namely, one full-state feedback and one direct output feedback control were tested and compared. The experimental result shows that in mitigating the seismic response of building structures, modal control with direct output feedback can be as effective and efficient as that with full-state feedback control. For practical concerns, the control performance of the proposed method in the presence of sensor noise and stiffness modeling error was also investigated. The numerical result shows that although the control force may be increased, the maximum floor displacements of the controlled structure are very insensitive to sensor noise and modeling error.
Bending of steel fibers on partly supported elastic foundation
Hu, Xiao Dong ; Day, Robert ; Dux, Peter ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 12, issue 6, 2001, Pages 657~668
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2001.12.6.657
Fiber reinforced cementitious composites are nowadays widely applied in civil engineering. The postcracking performance of this material depends on the interaction between a steel fiber, which is obliquely across a crack, and its surrounding matrix. While the partly debonded steel fiber is subjected to pulling out from the matrix and simultaneously subjected to transverse force, it may be modelled as a Bernoulli-Euler beam partly supported on an elastic foundation with non-linearly varying modulus. The fiber bridging the crack may be cut into two parts to simplify the problem (Leung and Li 1992). To obtain the transverse displacement at the cut end of the fiber (Fig. 1), it is convenient to directly solve the corresponding differential equation. At the first glance, it is a classical beam on foundation problem. However, the differential equation is not analytically solvable due to the non-linear distribution of the foundation stiffness. Moreover, since the second order deformation effect is included, the boundary conditions become complex and hence conventional numerical tools such as the spline or difference methods may not be sufficient. In this study, moment equilibrium is the basis for formulation of the fundamental differential equation for the beam (Timoshenko 1956). For the cantilever part of the beam, direct integration is performed. For the non-linearly supported part, a transformation is carried out to reduce the higher order differential equation into one order simultaneous equations. The Runge-Kutta technique is employed for the solution within the boundary domain. Finally, multi-dimensional optimization approaches are carefully tested and applied to find the boundary values that are of interest. The numerical solution procedure is demonstrated to be stable and convergent.
Interval finite element method based on the element for eigenvalue analysis of structures with interval parameters
Yang, Xiaowei ; Chen, Suhuan ; Lian, Huadong ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 12, issue 6, 2001, Pages 669~684
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2001.12.6.669
A new method for solving the uncertain eigenvalue problems of the structures with interval parameters, interval finite element method based on the element, is presented in this paper. The calculations are done on the element basis, hence, the efforts are greatly reduced. In order to illustrate the accuracy of the method, a continuous beam system is given, the results obtained by it are compared with those obtained by Chen and Qiu (1994); in order to demonstrate that the proposed method provides safe bounds for the eigenfrequencies, an undamping spring-mass system, in which the exact interval bounds are known, is given, the results obtained by it are compared with those obtained by Qiu et al. (1999), where the exact interval bounds are given. The numerical results show that the proposed method is effective for estimating the eigenvalue bounds of structures with interval parameters.
Stress path adapting Strut-and-Tie models in cracked and uncracked R.C. elements
Biondini, Fabio ; Bontempi, Franco ; Malerba, Pier Giorgio ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 12, issue 6, 2001, Pages 685~698
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2001.12.6.685
In this paper, a general method for the automatic search for Strut-and-Tie (S&T) models representative of possible resistant mechanisms in reinforced concrete elements is proposed. The representativeness criterion here adopted is inspired to the principle of minimum strain energy and requires the consistency of the model with a reference stress field. In particular, a highly indeterminate pin-jointed framework of a given layout is generated within the assigned geometry of the concrete element and an optimum truss is found by the minimisation of a suitable objective function. Such a function allows us to search the optimum truss according to a reference stress field deduced through a F.E.A. and assumed as representative of the given continuum. The theoretical principles and the mathematical formulation of the method are firstly explained; the search for a S&T model suitable for the design of a deep beam shows the method capability in handling the reference stress path. Finally, since the analysis may consider the structure as linear-elastic or cracked and non-linear in both the component materials, it is shown how the proposed procedure allows us to verify the possibilities of activation of the design model, oriented to the serviceability condition and deduced in the linear elastic field, by following the evolution of the resistant mechanisms in the cracked non-linear field up to the structural failure.