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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Dec 2004
Volume 18, Issue 5 - Nov 2004
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Oct 2004
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Sep 2004
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Aug 2004
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jul 2004
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Jun 2004
Volume 17, Issue 5 - May 2004
Volume 17, Issue 3_4 - Mar 2004
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Feb 2004
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Jan 2004
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Experimental investigation on steel-concrete bond in lightweight and normal weight concrete
Chen, How-Ji ; Huang, Chung-Ho ; Kao, Zhang-Yu ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2004, Pages 141~152
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2004.17.2.141
The bonding behaviors of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete (LWAC) and normal weight concrete were investigated experimentally. Pull-out tests were carried out to measure the bond strengths of three groups of specimens with compressive strength levels of 60, 40, and 20 MPa, respectively. Test results showed that the difference in the bond failure pattern between LWAC and normal weight concrete was significant as the concrete compressive strength became lower than 40 MPa. The corresponding bond strengths of LWAC were lower than that for normal weight concrete. As the compressive strength of concrete became relatively high (> 40 MPa), a bond failure pattern in normal weight concrete occurred that was similar to that in LWAC. The bond strength of LWAC is higher than that for normal weight concrete because it possesses higher mortar strength. Stirrup use leads to an increase of approximately 20% in nominal bond strength for both types of concrete at any strength level.
Orthotropic sandwich plates with interlayer slip and under edgewise loads
Hussein, R. ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2004, Pages 153~166
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2004.17.2.153
An elasticity solution for sandwich plates assembled with non-rigid bonding and subjected to edgewise loads is presented. The solution satisfies the equilibrium equations of the face and core elements, the compatibility equations of stresses and strains at the interfaces, and the boundary conditions. To investigate the effects of bonding stiffnesses on the responses of sandwich plates, numerical evaluations are conducted. The results obtained have shown that the bonding stiffness, up to a certain level, has a strong effect on the plate mechanical response. Beyond this level, the usual assumption of perfect bonding used in classical theories is quite acceptable. An answer to what constitutes perfect bonding is found in terms of the ratio of the core stiffness to the bonding stiffness.
Design load-carrying capacity estimates and an improved wooden shore setup
Huang, Y.L. ; Lin, Y.C. ; Lee, C.F. ; Chen, H.J. ; Yen, T. ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2004, Pages 167~186
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2004.17.2.167
The design load-carrying capacities of wooden shores depend on factors, such as the wood species and properties, and construction methods. This paper focuses on the construction methods, including an upright single shore, group of upright shores, group of inclined shores, butt connections and lap connections. This paper reports experiments to obtain critical loads and then developed an empirical equation based on Euler` formula for the critical loads and design load-carrying capacities. The test results show that the critical loads for an upright single wooden shore are greater than the average values for a group of upright shores, and the latter are greater than the average values for a group of inclined shores. Test results also show that the critical loads become smaller when butt or lap connections are used, butt connections possessing greater critical loads than lap connections. Groups of inclined shores are very popular at work sites because they have some practical advantages even though they actually possess inferior critical loads. This paper presents an improved setup for constructing groups of inclined shores. With this method, the inclined shores have larger critical loads than upright shores. The design load-carrying capacities were obtained by multiplying the average critical loads by a resistance factor (or strength reduction factor,
) that were all smaller than 1. This article preliminarily suggests
factors based on the test results for the reference of engineers or specification committees.
Shaking table test and numerical analysis of a combined energy dissipation system with metallic yield dampers and oil dampers
Zhou, Qiang ; Lu, Xilin ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2004, Pages 187~201
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2004.17.2.187
A shaking table test on a three-story one-bay steel frame model with metallic yield dampers and their parallel connection with oil dampers is carried out to study the dynamic characteristics and seismic performance of the energy dissipation system. It is found from the test that the combined energy dissipation system has favorable reducing vibration effects on structural displacement, and the structural peak acceleration can not evidently be reduced under small intensity seismic excitations, but in most cases the vibration reduction effect is very good under large intensity seismic excitations. Test results also show that stiffness of the energy dissipation devices should match their damping. Dynamic analysis method and mechanics models of these two dampers are proposed. In the analysis method, the force-displacement relationship of the metallic yield damper is represented by an elastic perfectly plastic model, and the behavior of the oil damper is simulated by a velocity and displacement relative model in which the contributions of the oil damper to the damping force and stiffness of the system are considered. Validity of the analytical model and the method is verified through comparison between the results of the shaking table test and numerical analysis.
Hydrodynamic pressures acting on the walls of rectangular fluid containers
Dogangun, Adem ; Livaoglu, Ramazan ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2004, Pages 203~214
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2004.17.2.203
The dynamic response characteristics of a rectangular fluid container are investigated by using finite element method. The fluid is assumed to be linear-elastic, inviscid and compressible. A displacement-based fluid finite element was employed to allow for the effects of the fluid. A typical rectangular fluid container, which is used in recent studies, is considered for the numerical analysis. The North-South component of El Centro Earthquake records is used as input ground acceleration. Rigid and flexible fluid containers solutions are obtained for the chosen sample tank. Hydrodynamic pressures and sloshing motions are determined using Lagrangian fluid finite element. The results obtained from this study are compared with the results obtained by boundary-finite element method (BEM-FEM) and requirements of Eurocode-8. Based on the numerical analysis, some conclusions and discussions on the design considerations for rectangular fluid containers are presented.
Deformation-based vulnerability functions for RC bridges
Elnashai, A.S. ; Borzi, B. ; Vlachos, S. ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2004, Pages 215~244
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2004.17.2.215
There is an ever-increasing demand for assessment of earthquake effects on transportation structures, emphasised by the crippling consequences of recent earthquakes hitting developed countries reliant on road transportation. In this work, vulnerability functions for RC bridges are derived analytically using advanced material characterisation, high quality earthquake records and adaptive inelastic dynamic analysis techniques. Four limit states are employed, all based on deformational quantities, in line with recent development of deformation-based seismic assessment. The analytically-derived vulnerability functions are then compared to a data set comprising observational damage data from the Northridge (California 1994) and Hyogo-ken Nanbu (Kobe 1995) earthquakes. The good agreement gives some confidence in the derived formulation that is recommended for use in seismic risk assessment. Furthermore, by varying the dimensions of the prototype bridge used in the study, and the span lengths supported by piers, three more bridges are obtained with different overstrength ratios (ratio of design-to-available base shear). The process of derivation of vulnerability functions is repeated and the ensuing relationships compared. The results point towards the feasibility of deriving scaling factors that may be used to obtain the set of vulnerability functions for a bridge with the knowledge of a `generic` function and the overstrength ratio. It is demonstrated that this simple procedure gives satisfactory results for the case considered and may be used in the future to facilitate the process of deriving analytical vulnerability functions for classes of bridges once a generic relationship is established.
Simplified computational methodology for analysis and studies on behaviour of incrementally launched continuous bridges
Sasmal, Saptarshi ; Ramanjaneyulu, K. ; Srinivas, V. ; Gopalakrishnan, S. ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2004, Pages 245~266
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2004.17.2.245
Incremental launching method is one of the highly competitive techniques for construction of concrete bridges. It avoids costly and time consuming form work and centralizes all construction activities in a small casting yard, thus saving in cost and time against conventional bridge construction. From the quality point of view, it eliminates the uncertainty of monolithic behaviour by allowing high repetitiveness and industrial environment. But, from analysis and design point of view, the most characteristic aspect of incrementally launched bridges is that, it has to absorb the stresses associated with the temporary supports that are gradually taken on by the deck during its launch. So, it is necessary to analyse the structure for each step of launching which is a tedious and time consuming process. Effect of support settlements or temperature variation makes the problem more complex. By using transfer matrix method, this problem can be handled efficiently with minimal computational effort. This paper gives insight into method of analysis, formulation for optimization of the structural system, effect of support settlement and temperature gradient, during construction, on the stress state of incrementally launched bridges.
Probabilistic determination of initial cable forces of cable-stayed bridges under dead loads
Cheng, Jin ; Xiao, Ru-Cheng ; Jiang, Jian-Jing ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 17, issue 2, 2004, Pages 267~279
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2004.17.2.267
This paper presents an improved Monte Carlo simulation for the probabilistic determination of initial cable forces of cable-stayed bridges under dead loads using the response surfaces method. A response surface (i.e. a quadratic response surface without cross-terms) is used to approximate structural response. The use of the response surface eliminates the need to perform a deterministic analysis in each simulation loop. In addition, use of the response surface requires fewer simulation loops than conventional Monte Carlo simulation. Thereby, the computation time is saved significantly. The statistics (e.g. mean value, standard deviation) of the structural response are calculated through conventional Monte Carlo simulation method. By using Monte Carlo simulation, it is possible to use the existing deterministic finite element code without modifying it. Probabilistic analysis of a truss demonstrates the proposed method` efficiency and accuracy; probabilistic determination of initial cable forces of a cable-stayed bridge under dead loads verifies the method`s applicability.