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Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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Volume 52, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 52, Issue 5 - Dec 2014
Volume 52, Issue 4 - Nov 2014
Volume 52, Issue 3 - Nov 2014
Volume 52, Issue 2 - Oct 2014
Volume 52, Issue 1 - Oct 2014
Volume 51, Issue 6 - Sep 2014
Volume 51, Issue 5 - Sep 2014
Volume 51, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 51, Issue 3 - Aug 2014
Volume 51, Issue 2 - Jul 2014
Volume 51, Issue 1 - Jul 2014
Volume 50, Issue 6 - Jun 2014
Volume 50, Issue 5 - Jun 2014
Volume 50, Issue 4 - May 2014
Volume 50, Issue 3 - May 2014
Volume 50, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 50, Issue 1 - Apr 2014
Volume 49, Issue 6 - Mar 2014
Volume 49, Issue 5 - Mar 2014
Volume 49, Issue 4 - Feb 2014
Volume 49, Issue 3 - Feb 2014
Volume 49, Issue 2 - Jan 2014
Volume 49, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
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A penny-shaped interfacial crack between piezoelectric layer and elastic half-space
Ren, J.H. ; Li, Y.S. ; Wang, W. ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 52, issue 1, 2014, Pages 1~17
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2014.52.1.001
An interfacial penny-shaped crack between piezoelectric layer and elastic half-space subjected to mechanical and electric loads is investigated. Using Hankel transform technique, the mixed boundary value problem is reduced to a system of singular integral equations. The integral equations are further reduced to a system of algebraic equations with the aid of Jacobi polynomials. The stress intensity factor and energy release rate are determined. Numerical results reveal the effects of electric loadings and material parameters of composite on crack propagation and growth. The results seem useful for design of the piezoelectric composite structures and devices of high performance.
Theoretical and experimental study of robustness based design of single-layer grid structures
Wu, Hui ; Zhang, Cheng ; Gao, Bo-Qing ; Ye, Jun ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 52, issue 1, 2014, Pages 19~33
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2014.52.1.019
Structural robustness refers to the ability of a structure to avoid disproportionate consequences to the original cause. Currently attentions focus on the concepts of structural robustness, and discussions on methods of robustness based structural design are rare. Firstly, taking basis in robust
control theory, structural robustness is assessed by
norm of the system transfer function. Then using the SIMP material model, robustness based design of grid structures is formulated as a continuum topology optimization problem, where the relative density of each element and structural robustness are considered as the design variable and the optimization objective respectively. Generalized elitist genetic algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem. As examples, robustness configurations of plane stress model and the rectangular hyperbolic shell model were obtained by robustness based structural design. Finally, two models of single-layer grid structures were designed by conventional and robustness based method respectively. Different interference scenarios were simulated by static and impact experiments, and robustness of the models were analyzed and compared. The results show that the
structural robustness index can indicate whether the structural response is proportional to the original cause. Robustness based structural design improves structural robustness effectively, and it can provide a conceptual design in the initial stage of structural design.
A study of deterioration of reinforced concrete beams under various forms of simulated acid rain attack in the laboratory
Fan, Yingfang ; Hu, Zhiqiang ; Luan, Haiyang ; Wang, Dawei ; Chen, An ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 52, issue 1, 2014, Pages 35~49
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2014.52.1.035
This paper studies the behaviour of deteriorated reinforced concrete (RC) beams attacked by various forms of simulated acid rain. An artificial rainfall simulator was firstly designed and evaluated. Eleven RC beams (
) were then constructed in the laboratory. Among them, one was acting as a reference beam and the others were subjected to three accelerated corrosion methods, including immersion, wetting-drying, and artificial rainfall methods, to simulate the attack of real acid rain. Acid solutions with pH levels of 1.5 and 2.5 were considered. Next, ultrasonic, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic, and three-point bending tests were performed to investigate the mechanical properties of concrete and flexural behaviour of the RC beams. It can be concluded that the designed artificial simulator can be effectively used to simulate the real acid rainfall. Both the immersion and wetting-drying methods magnify the effects of the real acid rainfall on the RC beams.
Influence of structural system measures on the dynamic characteristics of a multi-span cable-stayed bridge
Geng, Fangfang ; Ding, Youliang ; Xie, Hongen ; Song, Jianyong ; Li, Wanheng ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 52, issue 1, 2014, Pages 51~73
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2014.52.1.051
A three-dimensional finite element model for the Jiashao Bridge, the longest multi-span cable-stayed bridge in the world, is established using the commercial software package ANSYS. Dynamic characteristics of the bridge are analyzed and the effects of structural system measures including the rigid hinge, auxiliary piers and longitudinal constraints between the girders and side towers on the dynamic properties including modal frequency, mode shape and effective mass are studied by referring to the Jiashao Bridge. The analysis results reveal that: (i) the installation of the rigid hinge significantly reduces the modal frequency of the first symmetric lateral bending mode of bridge deck. Moreover, the rigid hinge significantly changes the mode shape and effective mass of the first symmetric torsional mode of bridge deck; (ii) the layout of the auxiliary piers in the side-spans has a limited effect on changing the modal frequencies, mode shapes and effective masses of global vibration modes; (iii) the employment of the longitudinal constraints significantly increases the modal frequencies of the vertical bending modes and lateral bending modes of bridge deck and have significant effects on changing the mode shapes of vertical bending modes and lateral bending modes of bridge deck. Moreover, the effective mass of the first anti-symmetric vertical bending of bridge deck in the longitudinal direction of the fully floating system is significantly larger than that of the partially constrained system and fully constrained system. The results obtained indicate that the structural system measures of the multi-span cable-stayed bridge have a great effect on the dynamic properties, which deserves special attention for seismic design and wind-resistant design of the multi-span cable-stayed bridge.
Theoretical tensile model and cracking performance analysis of laminated rubber bearings under tensile loading
Chen, Shicai ; Wang, Tongya ; Yan, Weiming ; Zhang, Zhiqian ; Kim, Kang-Suk ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 52, issue 1, 2014, Pages 75~87
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2014.52.1.075
To analyze the tension performance of laminated rubber bearings under tensile loading, a theoretical tension model for analyzing the rubber bearings is proposed based on the theory of elasticity. Applying the boundary restraint condition and the assumption of incompressibility of the rubber (Poisson`s ratio of the rubber material is about 0.5 according the existing research results), the stress and deformation expressions for the tensile rubber layer are derived. Based on the derived expressions, the stress distribution and deformation pattern especially for the deformation shapers of the free edges of the rubber layer are analyzed and validated with the numerical results, and the theory of cracking energy is applied to analyze the distributions of prediction cracking energy density and gradient direction. The prediction of crack initiation and crack propagation direction of the rubber layers is investigated. The analysis results show that the stress and deformation expressions can be used to simulate the stress distribution and deformation pattern of the rubber layer for laminated rubber bearings in the elastic range, and the crack energy method of predicting failure mechanism are feasible according to the experimental phenomenon.
Buckling of an elastic plate due to surface-attached thin films with intrinsic stresses
Zhu, J. ; Yang, J.S. ; Ru, C.Q. ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 52, issue 1, 2014, Pages 89~95
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2014.52.1.089
We analyze the buckling of a thin elastic plate due to intrinsic stresses in thin films attached to the surfaces of the plate. In the case of cylindrical buckling, it is shown that for a plate with clamped edges compressive intrinsic film stresses can cause flexural buckling of the plate, while tensile intrinsic film stresses cannot. For a plate with free edges, film intrinsic stresses, compressive or tensile, cannot cause buckling.
An apt material model for drying shrinkage and specific creep of HPC using artificial neural network
Gedam, Banti A. ; Bhandari, N.M. ; Upadhyay, Akhil ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 52, issue 1, 2014, Pages 97~113
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2014.52.1.097
In the present work appropriate concrete material models have been proposed to predict drying shrinkage and specific creep of High-performance concrete (HPC) using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The ANN models are trained, tested and validated using 106 different experimental measured set of data collected from different literatures. The developed models consist of 12 input parameters which include quantities of ingredients namely ordinary Portland cement, fly ash, silica fume, ground granulated blast-furnace slag, water, and other aggregate to cement ratio, volume to surface area ratio, compressive strength at age of loading, relative humidity, age of drying commencement and age of concrete. The Feed-forward backpropagation networks with Levenberg-Marquardt training function are chosen for proposed ANN models and same implemented on MATLAB platform. The results shows that the proposed ANN models are more rational as well as computationally more efficient to predict time-dependent properties of drying shrinkage and specific creep of HPC with high level accuracy.
Vibration analysis of laminated plates with various boundary conditions using extended Kantorovich method
Singhatanadgid, Pairod ; Wetchayanon, Thanawut ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 52, issue 1, 2014, Pages 115~136
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2014.52.1.115
In this study, an extended Kantorovich method, employing multi-term displacement functions, is applied to analyze the vibration problem of symmetrically laminated plates with arbitrary boundary conditions. The vibration behaviors of laminated plates are determined based on the variational principle of total energy minimization and the iterative Kantorovich method. The out-of-plane displacement is represented in the form of a series of a sum of products of functions in x and y directions. With a known function in the x or y directions, the formulation for the variation of total potential energy is transformed to a set of governing equations and a set of boundary conditions. The equations and boundary conditions are then numerically solved for the natural frequency and vibration mode shape. The solutions are verified with available solutions from the literature and solutions from the Ritz and finite element analysis. In most cases, the natural frequencies compare very well with the reference solutions. The vibration mode shapes are also very well modeled using the multi-term assumed displacement function in the terms of a power series. With the method used in this study, it is possible to solve the angle-ply plate problem, where the Kantorovich method with single-term displacement function is ineffective.
Failure analysis of composite plates under static and dynamic loading
Ray, Chaitali ; Majumder, Somnath ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 52, issue 1, 2014, Pages 137~147
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2014.52.1.137
The present paper deals with the first ply failure analysis of the laminated composite plates under various static and dynamic loading conditions. Static analysis has been carried out under patch load and triangular load. The dynamic failure analysis has been carried out under triangular pulse load. The formulation has been carried out using the finite element method and a computer code has been developed. The first order shear deformation theory has been applied in the present formulation. The displacement time history analysis of laminated composite plate has been carried out and the results are compared with those published in literature to validate the formulation. The first ply failure load for laminated composite plates with various lamination schemes under static and dynamic loading conditions has been calculated using various failure criteria. The failure index-time history analysis has also been carried out and presented in this paper.
Damage identification of 2D and 3D trusses by using complete and incomplete noisy measurements
Rezaiee-Pajand, M. ; Kazemiyan, M.S. ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 52, issue 1, 2014, Pages 149~172
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2014.52.1.149
Four algorithms for damage detection of trusses are presented in this paper. These approaches can detect damage by using both complete and incomplete measurements. The suggested methods are based on the minimization of the difference between the measured and analytical static responses of structures. A non-linear constrained optimization problem is established to estimate the severity and location of damage. To reach the responses, the successive quadratic method is used. Based on the objective function, the stiffness matrix of the truss should be estimated and inverted in the optimization procedure. The differences of the proposed techniques are rooted in the strategy utilized for inverting the stiffness matrix of the damaged structure. Additionally, for separating the probable damaged members, a new formulation is proposed. This scheme is employed prior to the outset of the optimization process. Furthermore, a new tactic is presented to select the appropriate load pattern. To investigate the robustness and efficiency of the authors` method, several numerical tests are performed. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to assess the effect of noisy measurements on the estimated parameters.
Dynamic analysis of bridge girders submitted to an eccentric moving load
Vieira, Ricardo F. ; Lisi, Diego ; Virtuoso, Francisco B. ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 52, issue 1, 2014, Pages 173~203
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2014.52.1.173
The cross-section warping due to the passage of high-speed trains can be a relevant issue to consider in the dynamic analysis of bridges due to (i) the usual layout of railway systems, resulting in eccentric moving loads; and (ii) the use of cross-sections prone to warping deformations. A thin-walled beam formulation for the dynamic analysis of bridges including the cross section warping is presented in this paper. Towards a numerical implementation of the beam formulation, a finite element with seven degrees of freedom is proposed. In order to easily consider the compatibility between elements, and since the coupling between flexural and torsional effects occurs in non-symmetric cross-sections due to dynamic effects, a single axis is considered for the element. The coupled flexural-torsional free vibration of thin-walled beams is analysed through the presented beam model, comparing the results with analytical solutions presented in the literature. The dynamic analysis due to an eccentric moving load, which results in a coupled flexural-torsional vibration, is considered in the literature by analytical solutions, being therefore of a limited applicability in practice engineering. In this paper, the dynamic response due to an eccentric moving load is obtained from the proposed finite element beam model that includes warping by a modal analysis.
A modified multidisciplinary feasible formulation for MDO using integrated coupled approximate models
Choi, Eun-Ho ; Cho, Jin-Rae ; Lim, O-Kaung ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 52, issue 1, 2014, Pages 205~220
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2014.52.1.205
This paper is concerned with the modification of multidisciplinary feasible formulation for MDO problems using the integrated coupled approximate models. A drawback of conventional MDFs is the numerical difficulty in decomposing the design variables and deriving the coupled equations of state. To overcome such a drawback of conventional methods, the coupling in analysis and design is resolved by approximating the state variables in each discipline by the response surface method and by modifying the optimization formulation using the corresponding integrated coupled approximate models. The validity, reliability and effectiveness of the proposed method are illustrated and verified through two optimization problems, a mathematical MDF problem and the multidisciplinary optimum design of suspension unit of wheeled armored vehicle.