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Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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Volume 56, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 56, Issue 5 - Dec 2015
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Volume 56, Issue 3 - Nov 2015
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Volume 54, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 54, Issue 5 - Jun 2015
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Behavior and crack development of fiber-reinforced concrete spandrel beams under combined loading: an experimental study
Ibraheema, Omer Farouk ; Abu Bakar, B.H. ; Joharib, I. ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 54, issue 1, 2015, Pages 1~17
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2015.54.1.001
An experimental investigation is conducted to examine the behavior and cracking of steel fiberre-inforced concrete spandrel L-shaped beams subjected to combined torsion, bending, and shear. The experimental program includes 12 medium-sized L-shaped spandrel beams organized into two groups, namely, specimens with longitudinal reinforcing bars, and specimens with bars and stirrups. All cases are examined with 0%, 1%, and 1.5% steel fiber volume fractions and tested under two different loading eccentricities. Test results indicate that the torque to shear ratio has a significant effect on the crack pattern developed in the beams. The strain on concrete surface follows the crack width value, and the addition of steel fibers reduces the strain. Fibrous concrete beams exhibited improved overall torsional performance compared with the corresponding non-fibrous control beams, particularly the beams tested under high eccentricity.
Displacement-based seismic design of open ground storey buildings
Varughese, Jiji Anna ; Menon, Devdas ; Prasad, A. Meher ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 54, issue 1, 2015, Pages 19~33
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2015.54.1.019
Open ground storey (OGS) buildings are characterized by the sudden reduction of stiffness in the ground storey with respect to the upper infilled storeys. During earthquakes, this vertical irregularity may result in accumulated damage in the ground storey members of OGS buildings without much damage in the upper storeys. Hence, the structural design of OGS buildings needs special attention. The present study suggests a modification of existing displacement-based design (DBD) procedure by proposing a new lateral load distribution. The increased demands of ground storey members of OGS buildings are estimated based on non-linear time history analysis results of four sets of bare and OGS frames having four to ten storey heights. The relationship between the increased demand and the relative stiffness of ground storey (with respect to upper storeys) is taken as the criterion for developing the expression for the design lateral load. It is also observed that under far-field earthquakes, there is a decrease in the ground storey drift of OGS frames as the height of the frame increases, whereas there is no such reduction when these frames are subjected to near-field earthquakes.
Seismic and progressive collapse assessment of SidePlate moment connection system
Faridmehr, Iman ; Osman, Mohd Hanim ; Tahir, Mahmood Bin Md. ; Nejad, Ali Farokhi ; Hodjati, Reza ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 54, issue 1, 2015, Pages 35~54
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2015.54.1.035
The performance of a newly generated steel connection known as SidePlateTM moment connection for seismic loading and progressive collapse phenomenon has been investigated in this paper. The seismic evaluation portion of the study included a thorough study on of interstory drift angles and flexural strengths based on 2010 AISC Seismic Provisions while the acceptance criteria provided in UFC 4-023-03 guideline to resist progressive collapse must be satisfied by the rotational capacity of the connections. The results showed that the SidePlate moment connection was capable of attaining adequate rotational capacity and developing full inelastic capacity of the connecting beam. Moreover, the proposed connection demonstrated an exceptional performance for keeping away the plastic hinges from the connection and exceeding interstory drift angle of 0.06 rad with no fracture developments in beam flange groove-welded joints. The test results indicated that this type of connection had strength, stiffness and ductility to be categorized as a rigid, full-strength and ductile connection.
On the absolute maximum dynamic response of a beam subjected to a moving mass
Lotfollahi-Yaghin, Mohammad Ali ; Kafshgarkolaei, Hassan Jafarian ; Allahyari, Hamed ; Ghazvini, Taher ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 54, issue 1, 2015, Pages 55~67
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2015.54.1.055
Taking the mid-span/center-point of the structure as the reference point of capturing the maximum dynamic response is very customary in the available literature of the moving load problems. In this article, the absolute maximum dynamic response of an Euler-Bernoulli beam subjected to a moving mass is widely investigated for various boundary conditions of the base beam. The response of the beam is obtained by utilizing a robust numerical method so-called OPSEM (Orthonormal Polynomial Series Expansion Method). It is underlined that the absolute maximum dynamic response of the beam does not necessarily take place at the mid-span of the beam and thus the conventional analysis needs modifications. Therefore, a comprehensive parametric survey of the base beam absolute maximum dynamic response is represented in which the contribution of the velocity and weight of the moving inertial objects are scrutinized and compared to the conventional version (maximum at mid-span).
Analytical and finite element solution of a receding contact problem
Adiyaman, Gokhan ; Yaylaci, Murat ; Birinci, Ahmet ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 54, issue 1, 2015, Pages 69~85
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2015.54.1.069
In this paper, a receding contact problem for an elastic layer resting on two quarter planes is considered. The layer is pressed by a stamp and distributed loads. It is assumed that the contact surfaces are frictionless and only compressive traction can be transmitted through the contact surfaces. In addition the effect of body forces are neglected. Firstly, the problem is solved analytically based on theory of elasticity. In this solution, the problem is reduced into a system of singular integral equations in which contact areas and contact stresses are unknowns using boundary conditions and integral transform techniques. This system is solved numerically using Gauss-Jacobi integral formulation. Secondly, two dimensional finite element analysis of the problem is carried out using ANSYS. The dimensionless quantities for the contact areas and the contact pressures are calculated under various distributed load conditions using both solutions. It is concluded that the position and the magnitude of the distributed load have an important role on the contact area and contact pressure distribution between layer and quarter plane contact surface. The analytic results are verified by comparison with finite element results.
Buckling of axial compressed cylindrical shells with stepwise variable thickness
Fan, H.G. ; Chen, Z.P. ; Feng, W.Z. ; Zhou, F. ; Shen, X.L. ; Cao, G.W. ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 54, issue 1, 2015, Pages 87~103
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2015.54.1.087
This paper focuses on an analytical research on the critical buckling load of cylindrical shells with stepwise variable wall thickness under axial compression. An arctan function is established to describe the thickness variation along the axial direction of this kind of cylindrical shells accurately. By using the methods of separation of variables, small parameter perturbation and Fourier series expansion, analytical formulas of the critical buckling load of cylindrical shells with arbitrary axisymmetric thickness variation under axial compression are derived. The analysis is based on the thin shell theory. Analytic results show that the critical buckling load of the uniform shell with constant thickness obtained from this paper is identical with the classical solution. Two important cases of thickness variation pattern are also investigated with these analytical formulas and the results coincide well with those obtained from other authors. The cylindrical shells with stepwise variable wall thickness, which are widely used in actual engineering, are studied by this method and the analytical formulas of critical buckling load under axial compression are obtained. Furthermore, an example is presented to illustrate the effects of each strake`s length and thickness on the critical buckling load.
An improved modal strain energy method for structural damage detection, 2D simulation
Moradipour, Parviz ; Chan, Tommy H.T. ; Gallag, Chaminda ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 54, issue 1, 2015, Pages 105~119
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2015.54.1.105
Structural damage detection using modal strain energy (MSE) is one of the most efficient and reliable structural health monitoring techniques. However, some of the existing MSE methods have been validated for special types of structures such as beams or steel truss bridges which demands improving the available methods. The purpose of this study is to improve an efficient modal strain energy method to detect and quantify the damage in complex structures at early stage of formation. In this paper, a modal strain energy method was mathematically developed and then numerically applied to a fixed-end beam and a three-story frame including single and multiple damage scenarios in absence and presence of up to five per cent noise. For each damage scenario, all mode shapes and natural frequencies of intact structures and the first five mode shapes of assumed damaged structures were obtained using STRAND7. The derived mode shapes of each intact and damaged structure at any damage scenario were then separately used in the improved formulation using MATLAB to detect the location and quantify the severity of damage as compared to those obtained from previous method. It was found that the improved method is more accurate, efficient and convergent than its predecessors. The outcomes of this study can be safely and inexpensively used for structural health monitoring to minimize the loss of lives and property by identifying the unforeseen structural damages.
Structural behavior of aluminum reticulated shell structures considering semi-rigid and skin effect
Liu, Hongbo ; Chen, Zhihua ; Xu, Shuai ; Bu, Yidu ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 54, issue 1, 2015, Pages 121~133
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2015.54.1.121
The aluminum dome has been widely used in natatorium, oil storage tank, power plant, coal, as well as other industrial buildings and structures. However, few research has focused on the structural behavior and design method of this dome. At present, most designs of aluminum alloy domes have referred to theories and methods of steel spatial structures. However, aluminum domes and steel domes have many differences, such as elasticity moduli, roof structures, and joint rigidities, which make the design and analysis method of steel spatial structures not fully suitable for aluminum alloy dome structures. In this study, a stability analysis method, which can consider structural imperfection, member initial curvature, semi-rigid joint, and skin effect, was presented and used to study the stability behavior of aluminum dome structures. In addition, some meaningful conclusions were obtained, which could be used in future designs and analyses of aluminum domes.
Effect of the rotation on a non-homogeneous infinite cylinder of orthotropic material with external magnetic field
Hussein, Nahed S. ; Bayones, F.S. ; Mahmoud, S.R. ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 54, issue 1, 2015, Pages 135~148
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2015.54.1.135
The present investigation is concerned with a study effect of magnetic field and non-homogenous on the elastic stresses in rotating orthotropic infinite circular cylinder. A certain boundary conditions closed form stress fields solutions are obtained for rotating orthotropic cylinder under initial magnetic field with constant thickness for three cases: (1) Solid cylinder, (2) Cylinder with a circular hole at the center, (3) Cylinder mounted on a circular rigid shaft. Analytical expressions for the components of the displacement and stress fields in different cases are obtained. The effect of rotation and magnetic field and non-homogeneity on the displacement and stress fields are studied. Numerical results are illustrated graphically for each case. The effects of rotating and magnetic field and non-homogeneity are discussed.
Reliabilities of distances describing bolt placement for high strength steel connections
Oztekin, Ertekin ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 54, issue 1, 2015, Pages 149~168
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2015.54.1.149
In the bolted connections, bolt placements are generally described and are generally made in the direction of design effects and in the perpendicular direction to design effects. In these both directions, the reliability of the distance of bolts to the edges of connection plate and the distance of bolts to each other is investigated for high strength steel connections built up with high strength bolts in this study. For this purpose, simple SL (bearing type shear connection) and SLP (bearing type shear connection for body-fit bolts) type steel connections with St 52 grade steel plates with 8 different thicknesses and with 8.8D grade high strength bolts (HV) were constituted and analyzed under H (Dead Loads+Live Loads+Snow Loads+Roof Loads) and HZ (H Loads+Wind Loads+Earthquake Loads) loadings. Geometric properties, material properties and design actions were taken as random variables. Monte Carlo Simulation method was used to compute failure risk and the first order second moment method was used to determine the reliability indexes of those different distances describing the placement of bolts. Results obtained from computations have been presented in graphics and in a Table. Then, they were compared with some values proposed by some structural codes. Finally, new equations were constituted for minimum and maximum values of distances describing bolt placement by regression analyses performed on those results.
Seismic responses of base-isolated nuclear power plant structures considering spatially varying ground motions
Sayed, Mohamed A. ; Go, Sunghyuk ; Cho, Sung Gook ; Kim, Dookie ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 54, issue 1, 2015, Pages 169~188
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2015.54.1.169
This study presents the effects of the spatial variation of ground motions in a hard rock site on the seismic responses of a base-isolated nuclear power plant (BI-NPP). Three structural models were studied for the BI-NPP supported by different number of lead rubber bearing (LRB) base isolators with different base mat dimensions. The seismic responses of the BI-NPP were analyzed and investigated under the uniform and spatial varying excitation of El Centro ground motion. In addition, the rotational degrees of freedom (DOFs) of the base mat nodes were taken to consider the flexural behavior of the base mat on the seismic responses under both uniform and spatial varying excitation. Finally, the seismic response results for all the analysis cases of the BI-NPP were investigated in terms of the vibration periods and mode shapes, lateral displacements, and base shear forces. The analysis results indicate that: (1) considering the flexural behavior of the base mat has a negligible effect on the lateral displacements of base isolators regardless of the number of the isolators or the type of excitation used; (2) considering the spatial variation of ground motions has a substantial influence on the lateral displacements of base isolators and the NPP stick model; (3) the ground motion spatial variation effect is more prominent on lateral displacements than base shear forces, particularly with increasing numbers of base isolators and neglecting flexural behavior of the base mat.
Torsional analysis of a single-bent leaf flexure
Nguyen, Nghia Huu ; Lim, Byoung-Duk ; Lee, Dong-Yeon ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 54, issue 1, 2015, Pages 189~198
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2015.54.1.189
We present a torsion analysis of single-bent leaf flexure that is partially restrained, subject to a torsional load. The theoretical equations for the torsional angle are derived using Castigliano`s theorem. These equations consider the partially restrained warping, and are verified using finite element analysis (FEA). A sensitivity analysis over the length, width, and thickness is performed and verified via FEA. The results show that the errors between the theory result and the FEA result are lower than 6%. This indicates that the proposed theoretical torsional analysis with partially restrained warping is sufficiently accurate.