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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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Volume 60, Issue 2 - Oct 2016
Volume 60, Issue 1 - Oct 2016
Volume 59, Issue 6 - Sep 2016
Volume 59, Issue 5 - Sep 2016
Volume 59, Issue 4 - Aug 2016
Volume 59, Issue 3 - Aug 2016
Volume 59, Issue 2 - Jul 2016
Volume 59, Issue 1 - Jul 2016
Volume 58, Issue 6 - Jun 2016
Volume 58, Issue 5 - Jun 2016
Volume 58, Issue 4 - May 2016
Volume 58, Issue 3 - May 2016
Volume 58, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 58, Issue 1 - Apr 2016
Volume 57, Issue 6 - Mar 2016
Volume 57, Issue 5 - Mar 2016
Volume 57, Issue 4 - Feb 2016
Volume 57, Issue 3 - Feb 2016
Volume 57, Issue 2 - Jan 2016
Volume 57, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
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Dynamic visco-hyperelastic behavior of elastomeric hollow cylinder by developing a constitutive equation
Asgari, Masoud ; Hashemi, Sanaz S. ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 59, issue 4, 2016, Pages 601~619
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2016.59.4.601
In this study, developments of an efficient visco-hyperelastic constitutive equation for describing the time dependent material behavior accurately in dynamic and impact loading and finding related materials constants are considered. Based on proposed constitutive model, behaviour of a hollow cylinder elastomer bushing under different dynamic and impact loading conditions is studied. By implementing the developed visco-hyperelastic constitutive equation to LS-DYNA explicit dynamic finite element software a three dimensional model of the bushing is developed and dynamic behaviour of that in axial and torsional dynamic deformation modes are studied. Dynamic response and induced stress under different impact loadings which is rarely studied in previous researches have been also investigated. Effects of hyperelastic and visco-hyperelastic parameters on deformation and induced stresses as well as strain rate are considered.
Economic performance of cable supported bridges
Sun, Bin ; Zhang, Liwen ; Qin, Yidong ; Xiao, Rucheng ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 59, issue 4, 2016, Pages 621~652
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2016.59.4.621
A new cable-supported bridge model consisting of suspension parts, self-anchored cable-stayed parts and earth-anchored cable-stayed parts is presented. The new bridge model can be used for suspension bridges, cable-stayed bridges, cable-stayed suspension bridges, and partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges by varying parameters. Based on the assumption that each structural member is in either an axial compressive or tensile state, and the stress in each member is equal to the allowable stress of the material, the material quantity for each component is calculated. By introducing the unit cost of each type of material, the estimation formula for the cost of the new bridge model is developed. Numerical examples show that the results from the estimation formula agree well with that from the real projects. The span limit of cable supported bridge depends on the span-to-height ratio and the density-to-strength ratio of cables. Finally, a parametric study is illustrated aiming at the relations between three key geometrical parameters and the cost of the bridge model. The optimization of the new bridge model indicates that the self-anchored cable-stayed part is always the dominant part with the consideration of either the lowest total cost or the lowest unit cost. It is advisable to combine all three mentioned structural parts in super long span cable supported bridges to achieve the most excellent economic performance.
Influence of concurrent horizontal and vertical ground excitations on the collapse margins of non-ductile RC frame buildings
Farsangi, E. Noroozinejad ; Yang, T.Y. ; Tasnimi, A.A. ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 59, issue 4, 2016, Pages 653~669
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2016.59.4.653
Recent earthquakes worldwide show that a significant portion of the earthquake shaking happens in the vertical direction. This phenomenon has raised significant interests to consider the vertical ground motion during the seismic design and assessment of the structures. Strong vertical ground motions can alter the axial forces in the columns, which might affect the shear capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) members. This is particularly important for non-ductile RC frames, which are very vulnerable to earthquake-induced collapse. This paper presents the detailed nonlinear dynamic analysis to quantify the collapse risk of non-ductile RC frame structures with varying heights. An array of non-ductile RC frame architype buildings located in Los Angeles, California were designed according to the 1967 uniform building code. The seismic responses of the architype buildings subjected to concurrent horizontal and vertical ground motions were analyzed. A comprehensive array of ground motions was selected from the PEER NGA-WEST2 and Iran Strong Motions Network database. Detailed nonlinear dynamic analyses were performed to quantify the collapse fragility curves and collapse margin ratios (CMRs) of the architype buildings. The results show that the vertical ground motions have significant impact on both the local and global responses of non-ductile RC moment frames. Hence, it is crucial to include the combined vertical and horizontal shaking during the seismic design and assessment of non-ductile RC moment frames.
Nonlinear vibration of conservative oscillator`s using analytical approaches
Bayat, Mahmoud ; Pakar, Iman ; Bayat, Mahdi ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 59, issue 4, 2016, Pages 671~682
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2016.59.4.671
In this paper, a new analytical approach has been presented for solving nonlinear conservative oscillators. Variational approach leads us to high accurate solution with only one iteration. Two different high nonlinear examples are also presented to show the application and accuracy of the presented approach. The results are compared with numerical solution using runge-kutta algorithm in different figures and tables. It has been shown that the variatioanl approach doesn`t need any small perturbation and is accurate for nonlinear conservative equations.
A framework for carrying out train safety evaluation and vibration analysis of a trussed-arch bridge subjected to vessel collision
Xia, Chaoyi ; Zhang, Nan ; Xia, He ; Ma, Qin ; Wu, Xuan ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 59, issue 4, 2016, Pages 683~701
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2016.59.4.683
Safety is the prime concern for a high-speed railway bridge, especially when it is subjected to a collision. In this paper, an analysis framework for the dynamic responses of train-bridge systems under collision load is established. A multi-body dynamics model is employed to represent the moving vehicle, the modal decomposition method is adopted to describe the bridge structure, and the time history of a collision load is used as the external load on the train-bridge system. A (180+216+180) m continuous steel trussed-arch bridge is considered as an illustrative case study. With the vessel collision acting on the pier, the displacements and accelerations at the pier-top and the mid-span of the bridge are calculated when a CRH2 high-speed train running through the bridge, and the influence of bridge vibration on the running safety indices of the train, including derailment factors, offload factors and lateral wheel/rail forces, are analyzed. The results demonstrate that under the vessel collision load, the dynamic responses of the bridge are greatly enlarged, threatening the running safety of high-speed train on the bridge, which is affected by both the collision intensity and the train speed.
Assessment of load carrying capacity and fatigue life expectancy of a monumental Masonry Arch Bridge by field load testing: a case study of veresk
Ataei, Shervan ; Tajalli, Mosab ; Miri, Amin ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 59, issue 4, 2016, Pages 703~718
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2016.59.4.703
Masonry arch bridges present a large segment of Iranian railway bridge stock. The ever increasing trend in traffic requires constant health monitoring of such structures to determine their load carrying capacity and life expectancy. In this respect, the performance of one of the oldest masonry arch bridges of Iranian railway network is assessed through field tests. Having a total of 11 sensors mounted on the bridge, dynamic tests are carried out on the bridge to study the response of bridge to test train, which is consist of two 6-axle locomotives and two 4-axle freight wagons. Finite element model of the bridge is developed and calibrated by comparing experimental and analytical mid-span deflection, and verified by comparing experimental and analytical natural frequencies. Analytical model is then used to assess the possibility of increasing the allowable axle load of the bridge to 25 tons. Fatigue life expectancy of the bridge is also assessed in permissible limit state. Results of F.E. model suggest an adequacy factor of 3.57 for an axle load of 25 tons. Remaining fatigue life of Veresk is also calculated and shown that a 0.2% decrease will be experienced, if the axle load is increased from 20 tons to 25 tons.
The effects of vertical earthquake motion on an R/C structure
Bas, Selcuk ; Kalkan, Ilker ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 59, issue 4, 2016, Pages 719~737
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2016.59.4.719
The present study investigated the earthquake behavior of R/C structures considering the vertical earthquake motion with the help of a comparative study. For this aim, the linear time-history analyses of a high-rise R/C structure designed according to TSC-2007 requirements were conducted including and excluding the vertical earthquake motion. Earthquake records used in the analyses were selected based on the ratio of vertical peak acceleration to horizontal peak acceleration (V/H). The frequency-domain analyses of the earthquake records were also performed to compare the dominant frequency of the records with that of the structure. Based on the results obtained from the time-history analyses under the earthquake loading with (H+V) and without the vertical earthquake motion (H), the value of the overturning moment and the top-story vertical displacement were found to relatively increase when considering the vertical earthquake motion. The base shear force was also affected by this motion; however, its increase was lower compared to the overturning moment and the top-story vertical displacement. The other two parameters, the top-story lateral displacement and the top-story rotation angle, barely changed under H and H+V loading cases. Modal damping ratios and their variations in horizontal and vertical directions were also estimated using response acceleration records. No significant change in the horizontal damping ratio was observed whereas the vertical modal damping ratio noticeably increased under H+V loading. The results obtained from this study indicate that the desired structural earthquake performance cannot be provided under H+V loading due to the excessive increase in the overturning moment, and that the vertical damping ratio should be estimated considering the vertical earthquake motion.
Uncertainty effects of soil and structural properties on the buckling of flexible pipes shallowly buried in Winkler foundation
Khemis, Asma ; Chaouche, Abdelmadjid Hacene ; Athmani, Allaeddine ; Tee, Kong Fah ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 59, issue 4, 2016, Pages 739~759
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2016.59.4.739
The failure of civil engineering systems is a consequence of decision making under uncertain conditions. Generally, buried flexible pipes are designed for their transversal behavior to prevent from the important failure mode of buckling. However, the interaction effects between soil and pipe are neglected and the uncertainties in their properties are usually not considered in pipe design. In this regard, the present research paper evaluates the effects of these uncertainties on the uncertainty of the critical buckling hoop force of flexible pipes shallowly buried using the subgrade reaction theory (Winkler model) and First-Order Second-Moment (FOSM) method. The results show that the structural uncertainties of the studied pipes and those of the soil properties have a significant effect on the uncertainty of the critical buckling hoop force, and therefore taking into account these latter in the design of the shallowly flexible pipes for their buckling behavior is required.
Dynamic response of curved Timoshenko beams resting on viscoelastic foundation
Calim, Faruk Firat ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 59, issue 4, 2016, Pages 761~774
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2016.59.4.761
Curved beams` dynamic behavior on viscoelastic foundation is the subject of the current paper. By rewritten the Timoshenko beams theory formulation for the curved and twisted spatial rods, governing equations are obtained for the circular beams on viscoelastic foundation. Using the complementary functions method (CFM), in Laplace domain, an ordinary differential equation is solved and then those results are transformed to real space by Durbin`s algorithm. Verification of the proposed method is illustrated by solving an example by variating foundation parameters.
Flexural performance of FRP-reinforced concrete encased steel composite beams
Kara, Ilker Fatih ;
Structural Engineering and Mechanics, volume 59, issue 4, 2016, Pages 775~793
DOI : 10.12989/sem.2016.59.4.775
This paper presents a numerical method for estimating the curvature, deflection and moment capacity of FRP-reinforced concrete encased steel composite beams (FRP-RCS). A sectional analysis is first carried out to predict the moment-curvature relationship from which beam deflection and moment capacity are then calculated. Comparisons between theoretical and experimental results of tests conducted elsewhere show that the proposed numerical technique can accurately predict moment capacity and deflection of FRP-RCS composite beam. The numerical results also indicated that beam ductility and stiffness are improved when encased steel is added to FRP reinforced concrete beams. ACI, ISIS and Bischoff models for deflection prediction compared well at low load, however, significantly underestimated the experimental results for high load levels.