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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Wind and Structures
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Volume 1, Issue 4 - Dec 1998
Volume 1, Issue 3 - Sep 1998
Volume 1, Issue 2 - Jun 1998
Volume 1, Issue 1 - Mar 1998
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Investigation of wind actions and effects on the Leaning Tower of Pisa
Solari, Giovanni ; Reinhold, Timothy A. ; Livesey, Flora ;
Wind and Structures, volume 1, issue 1, 1998, Pages 1~23
DOI : 10.12989/was.1998.1.1.001
This paper describes wind investigations for the Leaning Tower of Pisa which were conducted as part of an overall evaluation of its behaviour. Normally a short, stiff and heavy building would not be a candidate for detailed wind analyses. However, because of extremely high soil pressures developed from its inclination, there has been increasing concern that environmental loading such as wind actions could combine with existing conditions to cause the collapse of the tower. The studies involved wind assessment at the site as a function of wind direction, analysis of historical wind data to determine extreme wind probabilities of occurrence, estimation of structural properties, analytical and boundary layer wind tunnel investigations of wind loads and evaluation of the response with special concern for loads in the direction of inclination of the tower and significant wake effects from the neighboring cathedral for critical wind directions. The conclusions discuss the role of wind on structural safety, the precision of results attained and possible future studies involving field measurements aimed at validating or improving the analytical and boundary layer wind tunnel based assessments.
Improving the Gumbel analysis by using M-th highest extremes
Cook, Nicholas J. ;
Wind and Structures, volume 1, issue 1, 1998, Pages 25~42
DOI : 10.12989/was.1998.1.1.025
Improvements to the Gumbel method of extreme value analysis of wind data made over the last two decades are reviewed and illustrated using sample data for Jersey. A new procedure for extending the Gumbel method to include M-th highest annual extremes is shown to be less effective than the standard method, but leads to a method for calibrating peak-over-threshold methods against the standard Gumbel approach. Peak-over-threshold methods that include at least the 3rd highest annual extremes, specifically the modified Jensen and Franck method and the "Method of independent storms" are shown to give the best estimates of extremes from observations.
Wind-induced coupled translational-torsional motion of tall buildings
Thepmongkorn, S. ; Kwok, K.C.S. ;
Wind and Structures, volume 1, issue 1, 1998, Pages 43~57
DOI : 10.12989/was.1998.1.1.043
A three-degree-of-freedom base hinged assembly (BHA) for aeroelastic model tests of tall building was developed. The integral parts of a BHA, which consists of two perpendicular plane frames and a flexural pivot, enable this modeling technique to independently simulate building translational and torsional degree-of-freedom. A program of wind tunnel aeroelastic model tests of the CAARC standard tall building was conducted with emphasis on the effect of (a) torsional motion, (b) cross-wind/torsional frequency ratio and (c) the presence of an eccentricity between center of mass and center of stiffness on wind-induced response characteristics. The experimental results highlight the significant effect of coupled translational-torsional motion and the effect of eccentricity between center of mass and center of stiffness on the resultant rms acceleration responses in both along-wind and cross-wind directions especially at operating reduced wind velocities close to a critical value of 10. In addition, it was sound that the vortex shedding process remains the main excitation mechanism in cross-wind direction even in case of tall buildings with coupled translational-torsional motion and with eccentricity.
Instability of pipes and cables in non-homogeneous cross-flow
Riera, Jorge D. ; Brito, J.L.V. ;
Wind and Structures, volume 1, issue 1, 1998, Pages 59~66
DOI : 10.12989/was.1998.1.1.059
The vibrations of bodies subjected to fluid flow can cause modifications in the flow conditions, giving rise to interaction forces that depend primarily on displacements and velocities of the body in question. In this paper the linearized equations of motion for bodies of arbitrary prismatic or cylindrical cross-section in two-dimensional cross-flow are presented, considering the three degrees of freedom of the body cross-section. By restraining the rotational motion, equations applicable to circular tubes, pipes or cables are obtained. These equations can be used to determine stability limits for such structural systems when subjected to non uniform cross-flow, or to evaluate, under the quasi static assumption, their response to vortex or turbulent excitation. As a simple illustration, the stability of a pipe subjected to a bidimensional flow in the direction normal to the pipe axis is examined. It is shown that the approach is extremely powerful, allowing the evaluation of fluid-structure interaction in unidimensional structural systems, such as straight or curved pipes, cables, etc, by means of either a combined experimental-numerical scheme or through purely numerical methods.
On wind resistant properties of Tiger Gate suspension bridge
Xiang, H.F. ; Chen, A.R. ; Song, J.Z. ;
Wind and Structures, volume 1, issue 1, 1998, Pages 67~75
DOI : 10.12989/was.1998.1.1.067
Tiger Gate Bridge, a steel suspension bridge with a main span of 888 m and a stiffening box girder, is located at the Pearl River Estuary, Guangdong Province, one of the typhoon-prone area in China. Focusing on the developing of the full aeroelastic model of the bridge and simulation of the wind field of the bridge site in a large boundary wind tunnel at Tongji University, Shanghai, China, some main results about the wind resistant properties of the bridge including aerodynamic instability, buffeting responses both being in operation and erection stages by using of a full aeroelastic model wind tunnel testing are introduced. Some of analytical approaches to those aerodynamic behaviours are also presented, and compared with experimental data of the testing.
Dynamic wind effects : a comparative study of provisions in codes and standards with wind tunnel data
Kijewski, T. ; Kareem, A. ;
Wind and Structures, volume 1, issue 1, 1998, Pages 77~109
DOI : 10.12989/was.1998.1.1.077
An evaluation and comparison of seven of the world`s major building codes and standards is conducted in this study, with specific discussion of their estimations of the alongwind, acrosswind, and torsional response, where applicable, for a given building. The codes and standards highlighted by this study are those of the United States, Japan, Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, China and Europe. In addition, the responses predicted by using the measured power spectra of the alongwind, acrosswind and torsional responses for several building shapes tested in a wind tunnel are presented and a comparison between the response predicted by wind tunnel data and that estimated by some of the standards is conducted. This study serves not only as a comparison of the response estimates by international codes and standards, but also introduces a new set of wind tunnel data for validation of wind tunnel-based empirical expressions.
Adaptive finite element wind analysis with mesh refinement and recovery
Choi, Chang-Koon ; Yu, Won-Jin ;
Wind and Structures, volume 1, issue 1, 1998, Pages 111~125
DOI : 10.12989/was.19184.108.40.206
This paper deals with the development of variable-node element and its application to the adaptive h-version mesh refinement-recovery for the incompressible viscous flow analysis. The element which has variable mid-side nodes can be used in generating the transition zone between the refined and unrefined element and efficiently used for the construction of a refined mesh without generating distorted elements. A modified Guassian quadrature is needed to evaluate the element matrices due to the discontinuity of derivatives of the shape functions used for the element. The penalty function method which can reduce the number of the independent variables is adopted for the purpose of computational efficiency and the selective reduced integration is carried out for the convection and pressure terms to preserve the stability of solution. For the economical analysis of transient problems in which the locations to be refined are changed in accordance with the dynamic distribution of velocity gradient, not only the mesh refinement but also the mesh recovery is needed. The numerical examples show that the optimal mesh for the finite element analysis of a wind around the structures can be obtained automatically by the proposed scheme.