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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Steel and Composite Structures
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Editor in Chief :
Chang-Koon Choi / Brian Uy / Dennis Lam
Volume & Issues
Volume 1, Issue 4 - Dec 2001
Volume 1, Issue 3 - Sep 2001
Volume 1, Issue 2 - Jun 2001
Volume 1, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
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Bending and shear stiffness optimization for rigid and braced multi-story steel frames
Gantes, C.J. ; Vayas, I. ; Spiliopoulos, A. ; Pouangare, C.C. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 1, issue 4, 2001, Pages 377~392
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2001.1.4.377
The response of multi-story building structures to lateral loads, mainly due to earthquake and wind, is investigated for preliminary design purposes. Emphasis is placed on structural systems consisting of rigid and braced steel frames. An attempt to gain a qualitative understanding of the influence of bending and shear stiffness distribution on the deformations of such structures is made. This is achieved by modeling the structure with a stiffness equivalent Timoshenko beam. It is observed that the conventional stiffness distribution, dictated by strength constraints, may not be the best to satisfy deflection criteria. This is particularly the case for slender structural systems with prevailing bending deformations, such as flexible braced frames. This suggests that a new approach to the design of such frames may be appropriate when serviceability governs. A pertinent strategy for preliminary design purposes is proposed.
Structural behavior of slender circular steel-concrete composite columns under various means of load application
Johansson, Mathias ; Gylltoft, Kent ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 1, issue 4, 2001, Pages 393~410
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2001.1.4.393
In an experimental and analytical study on the structural behavior of slender circular steel-concrete composite columns, eleven specimens were tested to investigate the effects of three ways to apply a load to a column. The load was applied eccentrically to the concrete section, to the steel section or to the entire section. Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element models were established and verified with the experimental results. The analytical models were also used to study how the behavior of the column was influenced by the bond strength between the steel tube and the concrete core and the by confinement of the concrete core offered by the steel tube. The results obtained from the tests and the finite element analyses showed that the behavior of the column was greatly influenced by the method used to apply a load to the column section. When relying on just the natural bond, full composite action was achieved only when the load was applied to the entire section of the column. Furthermore, because of the slenderness effects the columns did not exhibit the beneficial effects of composite behavior in terms of increased concrete strength due to the confinement.
Failure analysis of prestressing steel wires
Toribio, J. ; Valiente, A. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 1, issue 4, 2001, Pages 411~426
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2001.1.4.411
This paper treats the failure analysis of prestressing steel wires with different kinds of localised damage in the form of a surface defect (crack or notch) or as a mechanical action (transverse loads). From the microscopical point of view, the micromechanisms of fracture are shear dimples (associated with localised plasticity) in the case of the transverse loads and cleavage-like (related to a weakest-link fracture micromechanism) in the case of cracked wires. In the notched geometries the microscopic modes of fracture range from the ductile micro-void coalescence to the brittle cleavage, depending on the stress triaxiality in the vicinity of the notch tip. From the macroscopical point of view, fracture criteria are proposed as design criteria in damage tolerance analyses. The transverse load situation is solved by using an upper bound theorem of limit analysis in plasticity. The case of the cracked wire may be treated using fracture criteria in the framework of linear elastic fracture mechanics on the basis of a previous finite element computation of the stress intensity factor in the cracked cylinder. Notched geometries require the use of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics and numerical analysis of the stress-strain state at the failure situation. A fracture criterion is formulated on the basis of the critical value of the effective or equivalent stress in the Von Mises sense.
Performance of steel beams at elevated temperatures under the effect of axial restraints
Liu, T.C.H. ; Davies, J.M. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 1, issue 4, 2001, Pages 427~440
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2001.1.4.427
The growing use of unprotected or partially protected steelwork in buildings has caused a lively debate regarding the safety of this form of construction. A good deal of recent research has indicated that steel members have a substantial inherent ability to resist fire so that additional fire protection can be either reduced or eliminated completely. A performance based philosophy also extends the study into the effect of structural continuity and the performance of the whole structural totality. As part of the structural system, thermal expansion during the heating phase or contraction during the cooling phase in most beams is likely to be restrained by adjacent parts of the whole system or sub-frame assembly due to compartmentation. This has not been properly addressed before. This paper describes an experimental programme in which unprotected steel beams were tested under load while it is restrained between two columns and additional horizontal restraints with particular concern on the effect of catenary action in the beams when subjected to large deflection at very high temperature. This paper also presents a three-dimensional mathematical modelling, based on the finite element method, of the series of fire tests on the part-frame. The complete analysis starts with an evaluation of temperature distribution in the structure at various time levels. It is followed by a detail 3-D finite element analysis on its structural response as a result of the changing temperature distribution. The principal part of the analysis makes use of an existing finite element package FEAST. The effect of columns being fire-protected and the beam being axially restrained has been modelled adequately in terms of their thermal and structural responses. The consequence of the beam being restrained is that the axial force in the restrained beam starts as a compression, which increases gradually up to a point when the material has deteriorated to such a level that the beam deflects excessively. The axial compression force drops rapidly and changes into a tension force leading to a catenary action, which slows down the beam deflection from running away. Design engineers will be benefited with the consideration of the catenary action.
Flexural behavior of partially-restrained semirigid steel connections
Campione, G. ; Scibilia, N. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 1, issue 4, 2001, Pages 441~458
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2001.1.4.441
We analyzed the experimental and theoretical behavior of a particular type of steel joint designed to connect beam to beam and able to transfer both shear forces and bending moments. This joint is characterized by the use of steel plates and bolts enclosed in the width of the beams. The experimental investigation was carried out characterizing the constituent materials and testing in flexure beams constituted by two portions of beams connected in the middle with the joint proposed. Connections having different characteristics in terms of thickness of plates, number and type of bolts were utilized. Flexure tests allow one to determine the loaddeflection curves of the beam tested and the moment-rotation diagrams of the connections, highlighting the strength and the strain capacity of the joints. The proposed analytical model allows one to determine the moment-rotation relationship of the connections, pointing out the influence of the principal geometrical and mechanic characteristics of single constituents on the full properties of the joint.
Seismic response and energy dissipation in partially restrained and fully restrained steel frames: An analytical study
Reyes-Salazar, Alfredo ; Haldar, Achintya ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 1, issue 4, 2001, Pages 459~480
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2001.1.4.459
The damage suffered by steel structures during the Northridge (1994) and Kobe (1995) earthquakes indicates that the fully restrained (FR) connections in steel frames did not behave as expected. Consequently, researchers began studying other possibilities, including making the connections more flexible, to reduce the risk of damage from seismic loading. Recent experimental and analytical investigations pointed out that the seismic response of steel frames with partially restrained (PR) connections might be superior to that of similar frames with FR connections since the energy dissipation at PR connections could be significant. This beneficial effect has not yet been fully quantified analytically. Thus, the dissipation of energy at PR connections needs to be considered in analytical evaluations, in addition to the dissipation of energy due to viscous damping and at plastic hinges (if they form). An algorithm is developed and verified by the authors to estimate the nonlinear time-domain dynamic response of steel frames with PR connections. The verified algorithm is then used to quantify the major sources of energy dissipation and their effect on the overall structural response in terms of the maximum base shear and the maximum top displacement. The results indicate that the dissipation of energy at PR connections is comparable to that dissipated by viscous damping and at plastic hinges. In general, the maximum total base shear significantly increases with an increase in the connection stiffness. On the other hand, the maximum top lateral displacement
does not always increase as the connection stiffness decreases. Energy dissipation is considerably influenced by the stiffness of a connection, defined in terms of the T ratio, i.e., the ratio of the moment the connection would have to carry according to beam line theory (Disque 1964) and the fixed end moment of the girder. A connection with a T ratio of at least 0.9 is considered to be fully restrained. The energy dissipation behavior may be quite different for a frame with FR connections with a T ratio of 1.0 compared to when the T ratio is 0.9. Thus, for nonlinear seismic analysis, a T ratio of at least 0.9 should not be considered to be an FR connection. The study quantitatively confirms the general observations made in experimental results for frames with PR connections. Proper consideration of the PR connection stiffness and other dynamic properties are essential to predict dynamic behavior, no matter how difficult the analysis procedure becomes. Any simplified approach may need to be calibrated using this type of detailed analytical study.