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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Steel and Composite Structures
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Nov 2015
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Oct 2015
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Aug 2015
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jul 2015
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 18, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
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Rapid prediction of long-term deflections in composite frames
Pendharkar, Umesh ; Patel, K.A. ; Chaudhary, Sandeep ; Nagpal, A.K. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 18, issue 3, 2015, Pages 547~563
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.18.3.547
Deflection in a beam of a composite frame is a serviceability design criterion. This paper presents a methodology for rapid prediction of long-term mid-span deflections of beams in composite frames subjected to service load. Neural networks have been developed to predict the inelastic mid-span deflections in beams of frames (typically for 20 years, considering cracking, and time effects, i.e., creep and shrinkage in concrete) from the elastic moments and elastic mid-span deflections (neglecting cracking, and time effects). These models can be used for frames with any number of bays and stories. The training, validating, and testing data sets for the neural networks are generated using a hybrid analytical-numerical procedure of analysis. Multilayered feed-forward networks have been developed using sigmoid function as an activation function and the back propagation-learning algorithm for training. The proposed neural networks are validated for an example frame of different number of spans and stories and the errors are shown to be small. Sensitivity studies are carried out using the developed neural networks. These studies show the influence of variations of input parameters on the output parameter. The neural networks can be used in every day design as they enable rapid prediction of inelastic mid-span deflections with reasonable accuracy for practical purposes and require computational effort which is a fraction of that required for the available methods.
Dynamic analysis and model test on steel-concrete composite beams under moving loads
Hou, Zhongming ; Xia, He ; Wang, Yuanqing ; Zhang, Yanling ; Zhang, Tianshen ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 18, issue 3, 2015, Pages 565~582
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.18.3.565
This paper is concerned with the dynamic analysis of simply-supported steel-concrete composite beams under moving loads. Considering the interface slip between steel girder and concrete slab, the governing motion equations are derived from the direct balanced method. By variable separation approach, the analytical solution of natural frequencies and mode shapes are obtained, as well as the orthogonal conditions. Then the dynamic responses of the composite beam under moving loads are analyzed, and compared with the experimental results. The analysis results show that the governing motion equations become more complicated when interface slip is taken into account, and the dynamic behaviors are significantly influenced by the shear connection stiffness. In the dynamic calculation of composite beams, the global stiffness should not be reduced as the same factor to all orders, but as different ones according to the dynamic stiffness reduction factor (DSRF), to which should be paid more attention in calculation, design and experiment, or else great deviation is inevitable.
Investigation on interlaminar shear stresses in laminated composite beam under thermal and mechanical loading
Murugesan, Nagaraj ; Rajamohan, Vasudevan ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 18, issue 3, 2015, Pages 583~601
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.18.3.583
In the present study, the combined effects of thermal and mechanical loadings on the interlaminar shear stresses of both moderately thin and thick composite laminated beams are numerically analyzed. The finite element modelling of laminated composite beams and analysis of interlaminar stresses are performed using the commercially available software package MSC NASTRAN/PATRAN. The validity of the finite element analysis (FEA) is demonstrated by comparing the experimental test results obtained due to mechanical loadings under the influence of thermal environment with those derived using the present FEA. Various parametric studies are also performed to investigate the effect of thermal loading on interlaminar stresses generated in symmetric, anti-symmetric, asymmetric, unidirectional, cross-ply, and balanced composite laminated beams of different stacking sequences with identical mechanical loadings and various boundary conditions. It is shown that the elevated thermal environment lead to higher interlaminar shear stresses varying with the stacking sequence, length to thickness ratio, ply orientations under identical mechanical loading and boundary conditions of the composite laminated beams. It is realized that the magnitude of the interlaminar stresses along xz plane is always much higher than those of along yz plane irrespective of the ply-orientation, length to thickness ratios and boundary conditions of the composite laminated beams. It is also observed that the effect of thermal environment on the interlaminar shear stresses in carbon-epoxy fiber reinforced composite laminated beams are increasing in the order of symmetric cross-ply laminate, unidirectional laminate, asymmetric cross-ply laminate and anti-symmetric laminate. The interlaminar shear stresses are higher in thinner composite laminated beams compared to that in thicker composite laminated beams under all environmental temperatures irrespective of the laminate stacking sequence, ply-orientation and boundary conditions.
On the evaluation of critical lateral buckling loads of prismatic steel beams
Aydin, R. ; Gunaydin, A. ; Kirac, N. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 18, issue 3, 2015, Pages 603~621
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.18.3.603
In this study, theoretical models and design procedures of the behavior of thin-walled simply supported steel beams with an open cross section under a large torsional effect are presented. I-sections were chosen as the cross section types. Firstly, the widely used differential equations for the lateral buckling for the pure bending moment effect in a beam element were adopted for the various moment distributions along the span of the beam. This solution was obtained for both mono-symmetric and bisymmetric sections. The buckling loads were then obtained by using the energy method. When using the energy method to solve the problem, it is possible to locate the load not only on the shear center but also at several points of the section depth. Buckling loads were obtained for six different load types. Results obtained for different load and cross section types were checked with ABAQUS software and compared with several standard rules.
Axial behavior of RC columns strengthened with SCC filled square steel tubes
Lu, Yi-Yan ; Liang, Hong-Jun ; Li, Shan ; Li, Na ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 18, issue 3, 2015, Pages 623~639
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.18.3.623
Self-compacting Concrete (SCC) Filled Square steel Tubes (SCFST) was used to strengthen square RC columns. To establish the efficiency of this strengthening method, 17 columns were tested under axial compression loading including 3 RC columns without any strengthening (WRC), 1 RC column strengthened with concrete jacket (CRC), 13 RC columns strengthened with self-compacting concrete filled square steel tubes (SRC). The experimental results showed that the use of SCFST is interesting since the ductility and the bearing capacity of the RC columns are greatly improved. The improvement ratio is significantly affected by the nominal wall thickness of steel tubes (t), the strength grade of strengthening concrete (C), and the length-to-width ratio (L / B) of the specimens. In order to quantitatively analyze the effect of these test parameters on axial loading behavior of the SRC columns, three performance indices, enhancement ratio (ER), ductility index (DI), and confinement ratio (CR), were used. The strength of the SRC columns obtained from the experiments was then employed to verify the proposed mode referring to the relevant codes. It was found that codes DBJ13-51 could relatively predict the strength of the SRC columns accurately, and codes AIJ and BS5400 were relatively conservative.
Effect of local web buckling on the cyclic behavior of reduced web beam sections (RWBS)
Akrami, Vahid ; Erfani, Saeed ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 18, issue 3, 2015, Pages 641~657
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.18.3.641
Application of reduced web beam section (RWBS) as a sacrificial fuse element has become a popular research field in recent years. Weakening of beam web in these connections may cause local web buckling around the opening area which can affect cyclic behavior of connection including: maximum load carrying capacity, strength degradation rate, dissipated energy, rotation capacity, etc. In this research, effect of local web buckling on the cyclic behavior of RWBS connections is investigated using finite element modeling (FEM). For this purpose, a T-shaped moment connection which has been tested under cyclic loading by another author is used as the reference model. Fracture initiation in models is simulated using Cyclic Void Growth Model (CVGM) which is based on micro-void growth and coalescence. Included in the results are: effect of opening corner radii, opening dimensions, beam web thickness and opening reinforcement. Based on the results, local web buckling around the opening area plays a significant role on the cyclic behavior of connection and hence any parameter affecting the local web buckling will affect entire connection behavior.
Elastic solution of a curved beam made of functionally graded materials with different cross sections
Arefi, Mohammad ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 18, issue 3, 2015, Pages 659~672
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.18.3.659
This research deals with the analytical solution of a curved beam with different shapes made of functionally graded materials (FGM`s). It was assumed that modulus of elasticity is graded along the thickness direction of curved beam based on a power function. The beam was loaded under pure bending. Using the linear theory of elasticity, the general relation for radial distribution of radial and circumferential stresses of arbitrary cross section was derived. The effect of nonhomogeneity was considered on the radial distribution of circumferential stress. This behavior can be investigated for positive and negative values of nonhomogeneity index. The novelty of this study is application of the obtained results for different combination of material properties and cross sections. Achieved results indicate that employing different nonhomogeneity index and selection of various types of cross sections (rectangular, triangular or circular) can control the distribution of radial and circumferential stresses as designer want and propose new solutions by these options. Increasing the nonhomogeneity index for positive or negative values of nonhomogeneity index and for various cross sections presents different behaviors along the thickness direction. In order to validate the present research, the results of this research can be compared with previous result for reachable cross sections and non homogeneity index.
Dynamic prediction fatigue life of composite wind turbine blade
Lecheb, Samir ; Nour, Abdelkader ; Chellil, Ahmed ; Mechakra, Hamza ; Ghanem, Hicham ; Kebir, Hocine ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 18, issue 3, 2015, Pages 673~691
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.18.3.673
In this paper we are particularly focusing on the dynamic crack fatigue life of a 25 m length wind turbine blade. The blade consists of composite materiel (glass/epoxy). This work consisted initially to make a theoretical study, the turbine blade is modeled as a Timoshenko rotating beam and the analytical formulation is obtained. After applying boundary condition and loads, we have studied the stress, strain and displacement in order to determine the critical zone, also show the six first modes shapes to the wind turbine blade. Secondly was addressed to study the crack initiation in critical zone which based to finite element to give the results, then follow the evolution of the displacement, strain, stress and first six naturals frequencies a function as crack growth. In the experimental part the laminate plate specimen with two layers is tested under cyclic load in fully reversible tensile at ratio test (R
Nonlinear flexural vibration of shear deformable functionally graded spherical shell panel
Kar, Vishesh R. ; Panda, Subrata K. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 18, issue 3, 2015, Pages 693~709
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.18.3.693
In this article, nonlinear free vibration behaviour of functionally graded spherical panel is analysed. A nonlinear mathematical model is developed based on higher order shear deformation theory for shallow shell by taking Green-Lagrange type of nonlinear kinematics. The material properties of functionally graded material are assumed to be varying continuously in transverse direction and evaluated using Voigt micromechanical model in conjunction with power-law distribution. The governing equation of the shell panel is obtained using Hamilton`s principle and discretised with the help of nonlinear finite element method. The desired responses are evaluated through a direct iterative method. The present model has been validated by comparing the frequency ratio (nonlinear frequency to linear frequency) with those available published literatures. Finally, the effect of geometrical parameters (curvature ratio, thickness ratio, aspect ratio and support condition), power law indices and amplitude of vibration on the frequency ratios of spherical panel have been discussed through numerical experimentations.
Development of a simplified equivalent braced frame model for steel plate shear wall systems
Chatterjee, Arghya Kamal ; Bhowmick, Anjan ; Bagchi, Ashutosh ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 18, issue 3, 2015, Pages 711~737
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.18.3.711
Steel Plate Shear Walls (SPSWs) have been accepted widely as an effective lateral load resisting system. For seismic performance evaluation of a multi-story building with SPSWs, detailed finite element models or a strip model can be used to represent the SPSW components. However, such models often require significant effort for tall or medium height buildings. In order to simplify the analysis process, discrete elements for the framing members can be used. This paper presents development of a simplified equivalent braced model to study the behavior of the SPSWs. The proposed model is expected to facilitate a simplification to the structural modeling of large buildings with SPSWs in order to evaluate the seismic performance using regular structural analysis tools. It is observed that the proposed model can capture the global behavior of the structures quite accurately and potentially aid in the performance-based seismic design of SPSW buildings.
Hysteresis of concrete-filled circular tubular (CFCT) T-joints under axial load
Liu, Hongqing ; Shao, Yongbo ; Lu, Ning ; Wang, Qingli ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 18, issue 3, 2015, Pages 739~756
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.18.3.739
This paper presents investigations on the hysteretic behavior of concrete-filled circular tubular (CFCT) T-joints subjected to axial cyclic loading at brace end. In the experimental study, four specimens are fabricated and tested. The chord members of the tested specimens are filled with concrete along their full length and the braces are hollow section. Failure modes and load-displacement hysteretic curves of all the specimens obtained from experimental tests are given and discussed. Some indicators, in terms of stiffness deterioration, strength deterioration, ductility and energy dissipation, are analyzed to assess the seismic performance of CFCT joints. Test results indicate that the failures are primarily caused by crack cutting through the chord wall, convex deformation on the chord surface near brace/chord intersection and crushing of the core concrete. Hysteretic curves of all the specimens are plump, and no obvious pinching phenomenon is found. The energy dissipation result shows that the inelastic deformation is the main energy dissipation mechanism. It is also found from experimental results that the CFCT joints show clear and steady stiffness deterioration with the increase of displacement after yielding. However, all the specimens do not perform significant strength deterioration before failure. The effect of joint geometric parameters
of the four specimens on hysteretic performance is also discussed.
Shear strength of steel beams with trapezoidal corrugated webs using regression analysis
Barakat, Samer ; Mansouri, Ahmad Al ; Altoubat, Salah ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 18, issue 3, 2015, Pages 757~773
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.18.3.757
This work attempts to implement multiple regression analysis (MRA) for modeling and predicting the shear buckling strength of a steel beam with corrugated web. It was recognized from theoretical and experimental results that the shear buckling strength of a steel beam with corrugated web is complicated and affected by several parameters. A model that predicts the shear strength of a steel beam with corrugated web with reasonable accuracy was sought. To that end, a total of 93 experimental data points were collected from different sources. Then mathematical models for the key response parameter (shear buckling strength of a steel beam with corrugated web) were established via MRA in terms of different input geometric, loading and materials parameters. Results indicate that, with a minimal processing of data, MRA could accurately predict the shear buckling strength of a steel beam with corrugated web within a 95% confidence interval, having an
value of 0.93 and passing the F- and t-tests.
An investigation into the mechanics of fiber reinforced composite disk springs
Yang, Peng ; Van Dyke, Stacy ; Elhajjar, Rani F. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 18, issue 3, 2015, Pages 775~791
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.18.3.775
An analytical and experimental investigation is performed into the mechanical behavior of carbon-fiber/epoxy woven coned annular disk springs. An analytical approach is presented for predicting the deformation behavior of disk springs of specially orthotropic laminates with arbitrary geometric parameters. In addition, an analytical methodology is proposed for obtaining the deformation behavior of a stack of disk springs. The methodology is capable of accounting for parallel and series arrangements for uniform and irregular stacks. Element and assembly experimental results are used to validate the proposed method showing how to achieve flexible spring rates at various deflections ranges. This manuscript also provides guidelines for design and validation of disk spring assemblies.
A new higher order shear and normal deformation theory for functionally graded beams
Meradjah, Mustapha ; Kaci, Abdelhakim ; Houari, Mohammed Sid Ahmed ; Tounsi, Abdelouahed ; Mahmoud, S.R. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 18, issue 3, 2015, Pages 793~809
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.18.3.793
In this scientific work, constructing of a novel shear deformation beam model including the stretching effect is of concern for flexural and free vibration responses of functionally graded beams. The particularity of this model is that, in addition to considering the transverse shear deformation and the stretching effect, the zero transverse shear stress condition on the beam surface is assured without introducing the shear correction parameter. By employing the Hamilton`s principle together with the concept of the neutral axe`s position for such beams, the equations of motion are obtained. Some examples are performed to demonstrate the effects of changing gradients, thickness stretching, and thickness to length ratios on the bending and vibration of functionally graded beams.