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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Steel and Composite Structures
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Nov 2015
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Oct 2015
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Aug 2015
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jul 2015
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 18, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
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Studies into a high performance composite connection for high-rise buildings
Lou, G.B. ; Wang, A.J. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 4, 2015, Pages 789~809
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.4.789
This paper presents experimental and numerical studies into the structural behavior of a high performance corbel type composite connection adopted in Raffles City of Hangzhou, China. Physical tests under both monotonic and quasi-static cyclic loads were conducted to investigate the load carrying capacities and deformation characteristics of this new type of composite connection. A variety of structural responses are examined in detail, including load-deformation characteristics, the development of sectional direct and shear strains, and the history of cumulative plastic deformation and energy. A three-dimensional finite element model built up with solid elements was also proposed for the verification against test results. The studies demonstrate the high rigidity, strength and rotation capacities of the corbel type composite connections, and give detailed structural understanding for engineering design and practice. Structural engineers are encouraged to adopt the proposed corbel type composite connections in mega high-rise buildings to achieve an economical and buildable and architectural friendly engineering solution.
Reliability-based assessment of American and European specifications for square CFT stub columns
Lu, Zhao-Hui ; Zhao, Yan-Gang ; Yu, Zhi-Wu ; Chen, Cheng ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 4, 2015, Pages 811~827
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.4.811
This paper presents a probabilistic investigation of American and European specifications (i.e., AISC and Eurocode 4) for square concrete-filled steel tubular (CFT) stub columns. The study is based on experimental results of 100 axially loaded square CFT stub columns from the literature. By comparing experimental results for ultimate loads with code-predicted column resistances, the uncertainty of resistance models is analyzed and it is found that the modeling uncertainty parameter can be described using random variables of lognormal distribution. Reliability analyses were then performed with/without considering the modeling uncertainty parameter and the safety level of the specifications is evaluated in terms of sufficient and uniform reliability criteria. Results show that: (1) The AISC design code provided slightly conservative results of square CFT stub columns with reliability indices larger than 3.25 and the uniformness of reliability indices is no better because of the quality of the resistance model; (2) The uniformness of reliability indices for the Eurocode 4 was better than that of AISC, but the reliability indices of columns designed following the Eurocode 4 were found to be quite below the target reliability level of Eurocode 4.
Analytical solution for bending analysis of functionally graded beam
Sallai, Benoumrane ; Hadji, Lazreg ; Daouadji, T. Hassaine ; Adda Bedia, E.A. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 4, 2015, Pages 829~841
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.4.829
In this paper, a refined exponential shear deformation beam theory is developed for bending analysis of functionally graded beams. The theory account for parabolic variation of transverse shear strain through the depth of the beam and satisfies the zero traction boundary conditions on the surfaces of the beam without using shear correction factors. Contrary to the others refined theories elaborated, where the stretching effect is neglected, in the current investigation this so-called "stretching effect" is taken into consideration. The material properties of the functionally graded beam are assumed to vary according to power law distribution of the volume fraction of the constituents. Based on the present shear deformation beam theory, the equilibrium equations are derived from the principle of virtual displacements. Analytical solutions for static are obtained. Numerical examples are presented to verify the accuracy of the present theory.
Static push-out test on steel and recycled tire rubber-filled concrete composite beams
Han, Qing-Hua ; Xu, Jie ; Xing, Ying ; Li, Zi-Lin ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 4, 2015, Pages 843~860
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.4.843
Recycled tire rubber-filled concrete (RRFC) is employed into the steel-concrete composite structures due to its good ductility and crack resistance. Push-out tests were conducted to investigate the static behavior of steel and rubber-filled concrete composite beam with different rubber mixed concrete and studs. The results of the experimental investigations show that large studs lead a higher ultimate strength but worse ductility in normal concrete. Rubber particles in RRFC were shown to have little effect on shear strength when the compressive strength was equal to that of normal concrete, but can have a better ductility for studs in rubber-filled concrete. This improvement is more obvious for the composite beam with large stud to make good use of the high strength. Besides that the uplift of concrete slabs can be increased and the quantity and width of cracks can be reduced by RRFC efficiently. Based on the test result, a modified empirical equation of ultimate slip was proposed to take not only the compressive strength, but also the ductility of the concrete into consideration.
Elastic-plastic formulation for concrete encased sections interaction diagram tracing
Fenollosa, Ernesto ; Gil, Enrique ; Cabrera, Ivan ; Vercher, Jose ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 4, 2015, Pages 861~876
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.4.861
Composite sections design consists on checking that the point defined by axial load and bending moment keeps included within the surface enclosed by the section interaction curve. Eurocode 4 suggests a method for tracing this diagram based on the plastic stress distribution method. However curves obtained according to this criterion overvalue concrete encased sections bearing capacity, especially when axial force comes with high bending moment values, so a correction factor is required. This article proposes a method for tracing this diagram based on the strain compatibility method. When stresses on the section are integrated by considering the Navier hypothesis, the use of the materials nonlinear constitutive equations provides curves much more adjusted to reality. This process requires the use of rather complex software which might reveal as too complex for practitioners. Preserving the same criteria of an elastic-plastic stress distribution, this article presents alternative expressions to obtain the failure internal forces in five significant points of the interaction diagram having considered five different positions of the neutral axis. These expressions are simply enough for their practical application. Concordance of curves traced strictly relying on these five points with those obtained by computer assisted stress integration considering the strain compatibility method and even with Eurocode 4 weighted curves will be presented for three different cross-sections and two different concrete strengths, revealing very good results.
Experimental and numerical study of one-sided branch plate-to-circular hollow section connections
Hassan, M.M. ; Ramadan, H. ; Abdel-Mooty, M. ; Mourad, S.A. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 4, 2015, Pages 877~895
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.4.877
Connections to circular hollow steel sections (CHS) are considered one of the most complex and time consuming connections in steel construction. Such connections are usually composed of gusset plates welded to the outside of the steel tube or penetrating the steel tube. Design guides, accounting for the effect of connection configuration on the strength of the connection, are not present. This study aims to investigate, through experimental testing and a parametric study, the influence of connection configuration on the strength of one sided branch plate-to-CHS members. A notable effect was observed on the behavior of the connections due to its detailing changes with respect to capacity, failure mode, ductility, and stress distribution. A parametric study is performed using the calibrated analytical model to include a wider range of parameters. The study involves 26 numerical analyses of finite element models including parameters of the diameter-to-thickness (D/t) ratio, length of gusset plate, and connection configuration. Accordingly, a modification to the formulas provided by the current design recommendations was suggested to include connection configuration effects for the one sided branch plate-to-CHS members.
Lateral-torsional buckling steel beams with simultaneously tapered flanges and web
Kus, Juliusz ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 4, 2015, Pages 897~916
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.4.897
A procedure for critical buckling moment of a tapered beam is proposed with the application of potential energy calculations using Ritz method. Respective solution allows to obtain critical moments initiating lateral buckling of the simply supported, modestly tapered steel I-beams. In particular, lateral-torsional buckling of beams with simultaneously tapered flanges and the web are considered. Detailed, numerical, parametric analyses are carried out. Typical engineering, uniformly distributed design loads are considered for three cases of the load, applied to the top flange, shear centre, as well as to the bottom flange. In addition simply supported beam under gradient moments is investigated. The parametric analysis of simultaneously tapered beam flanges and the web, demonstrates that tapering of flanges influences much more the critical moments than tapering of the web.
Numerical comparison of the seismic performance of steel rings in off-centre bracing system and diagonal bracing system
Bazzaz, Mohammad ; Andalib, Zahra ; Kheyroddin, Ali ; Kafi, Mohammad Ali ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 4, 2015, Pages 917~937
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.4.917
During a seismic event, a considerable amount of energy is input into a structure. The law of energy conservation imposes the restriction that energy must either be absorbed or dissipated by the structure. Recent earthquakes have shown that the use of concentric bracing system with their low ductility and low energy dissipation capacity, causes permanent damage to structures during intense earthquakes. Hence, engineers are looking at bracing system with higher ductility, such as chevron and eccentric braces. However, braced frame would not be easily repaired if serious damage has occured during a strong earthquake. In order to solve this problem, a new bracing system an off-centre bracing system with higher ductility and higher energy dissipation capacity, is considered. In this paper, some numerical studies have been performed using ANSYS software on a frame with off-centre bracing system with optimum eccentricity and circular element created, called OBS_C_O model. In addition, other steel frame with diagonal bracing system and the same circular element is created, called DBS_C model. Furthermore, linear and nonlinear behavior of these steel frames are compared in order to introduce a new way of optimum performance for these dissipating elements. The obtained results revealed that using a ductile element or circular dissipater for increasing the ductility of off-centre bracing system and centric bracing system is useful. Finally, higher ductility and more energy dissipation led to more appropriate behavior in the OBS_C_O model compared to DBS_C model.
Brass fillers in friction composite materials: Tribological and brake squeal characterization for suitable effect evaluation
Kchaou, Mohamed ; Sellami, Amira ; Abu Bakar, Abd. Rahim ; Lazim, Ahmad Razimi Mat ; Elleuch, Riadh ; Kumar, Senthil ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 4, 2015, Pages 939~952
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.4.939
In this paper, brake pad performance of two organic matrix composites namely, Sample 1 (contains no brass filler) and Sample 2 (contains 1.5% brass filler), is studied based on tribological and squeal noise behavior. In the first stage, a pin-on-disc tribometer is used to evaluate the frictional behavior of the two pads. On the following stage, these pads are tested on squeal noise occurrence using a drag-type brake dynamometer. From the two type of tests, the results show that; (i) brass fillers play a dual role; firstly as reinforcing element of the brake pad providing primary contact sites, and secondly as solid lubricant by contributing to the formation of a layer of granular material providing velocity accommodation between the pad and the disc; (ii) brass fillers contribute to friction force stabilization and smooth sliding behavior; (iii) the presence of small weight quantity of brass filler strongly contributes to squeal occurrences; (iv) there is close correlation between pin-on-disc tribometer and brake dynamometer tests in terms of tribological aspect.
Carbonation depth in 57 years old concrete structures
Medeiros-Junior, Ronaldo A. ; Lima, Maryangela G. ; Yazigi, Ricardo ; Medeiros, Marcelo H.F. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 4, 2015, Pages 953~966
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.4.953
Carbonation depth was verified in 40 points of two 57 years old concrete viaducts. Field testing (phenolphthalein spraying) was performed on the structures. Data obtained were statistically analyzed by the Kolmogrov-Smirnov`s test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA`s test), and Fisher`s method. The results revealed significant differences between maximum carbonation depths of different elements of the same concrete structure. Significant differences were also found in the carbonation of different concrete structures inserted in the same macroclimate. Microclimatic factors such as temperature and local humidity, sunshine, wind, wetting and drying cycles, among others, may have been responsible by the behavior of carbonation in concrete.
Predicting the axial load capacity of high-strength concrete filled steel tubular columns
Aslani, Farhad ; Uy, Brian ; Tao, Zhong ; Mashiri, Fidelis ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 4, 2015, Pages 967~993
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.4.967
The aim of this paper is to investigate the appropriateness of current codes of practice for predicting the axial load capacity of high-strength Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Columns (CFSTCs). Australian/New Zealand standards and other international codes of practice for composite bridges and buildings are currently being revised and will allow for the use of high-strength CFSTCs. It is therefore important to assess and modify the suitability of the section and ultimate buckling capacities models. For this purpose, available experimental results on high-strength composite columns have been assessed. The collected experimental results are compared with eight current codes of practice for rectangular CFSTCs and seven current codes of practice for circular CFSTCs. Furthermore, based on the statistical studies carried out, simplified relationships are developed to predict the section and ultimate buckling capacities of normal and high-strength short and slender rectangular and circular CFSTCs subjected to concentric loading.
Design optimization of spot welded structures to attain maximum strength
Ertas, Ahmet H. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 4, 2015, Pages 995~1009
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.4.995
This study presents design optimization of spot welded structures to attain maximum strength by using the Nelder-Mead (Simplex) method. It is the main idea of the algorithm that the simulation run is executed several times to satisfy predefined convergence criteria and every run uses the starting points of the previous configurations. The material and size of the sheet plates are the pre-assigned parameters which do not change in the optimization cycle. Locations of the spot welds, on the other hand, are chosen to be design variables. In order to calculate the objective function, which is the maximum equivalent stress, ANSYS, general purpose finite element analysis software, is used. To obtain global optimum locations of spot welds a methodology is proposed by modifying the Nelder-Mead (Simplex) method. The procedure is applied to a number of representative problems to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method. It is shown that it is possible to obtain the global optimum values without stacking local minimum ones by using proposed methodology.
Nonlinear flexural analysis of laminated composite flat panel under hygro-thermo-mechanical loading
Kar, Vishesh R. ; Mahapatra, Trupti R. ; Panda, Subrata K. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 4, 2015, Pages 1011~1033
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.4.1011
In this article, large amplitude bending behaviour of laminated composite flat panel under combined effect of moisture, temperature and mechanical loading is investigated. The laminated composite panel model has been developed mathematically by introducing the geometrical nonlinearity in Green-Lagrange sense in the framework of higher-order shear deformation theory. The present study includes the degraded composite material properties at elevated temperature and moisture concentration. In order to achieve any general case, all the nonlinear higher order terms have been included in the present formulation and the material property variations are introduced through the micromechanical model. The nonlinear governing equation is obtained using the variational principle and discretised using finite element steps. The convergence behaviour of the present numerical model has been checked. The present proposed model has been validated by comparing the responses with those available published results. Some new numerical examples have been solved to show the effect of various parameters on the bending behaviour of laminated composite flat panel under hygro-thermo-mechanical loading.
Optimum design of composite steel frames with semi-rigid connections and column bases via genetic algorithm
Artar, Musa ; Daloglu, Ayse T. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 4, 2015, Pages 1035~1053
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.4.1035
A genetic algorithm-based minimum weight design method is presented for steel frames containing composite beams, semi-rigid connections and column bases. Genetic Algorithms carry out optimum steel frames by selecting suitable profile sections from a specified list including 128 W sections taken from American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). The displacement and stress constraints obeying AISC Allowable Stress Design (ASD) specification and geometric (size) constraints are incorporated in the optimization process. Optimum designs of three different plane frames with semi-rigid beam-to-column and column-to-base plate connections are carried out first without considering concrete slab effects on floor beams in finite element analyses. The same optimization procedures are then repeated for the case of frames with composite beams. A program is coded in MATLAB for all optimization procedures. Results obtained from the examples show the applicability and robustness of the method. Moreover, it is proved that consideration of the contribution of concrete on the behavior of the floor beams enables a lighter and more economical design for steel frames with semi-rigid connections and column bases.