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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Steel and Composite Structures
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Nov 2015
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Oct 2015
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Aug 2015
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jul 2015
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Jun 2015
Volume 18, Issue 5 - May 2015
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Apr 2015
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Mar 2015
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Feb 2015
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
Selecting the target year
Application of steel equivalent constitutive model for predicting seismic behavior of steel frame
Wang, Meng ; Shi, Yongjiu ; Wang, Yuanqing ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 5, 2015, Pages 1055~1075
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1055
In order to investigate the accuracy and applicability of steel equivalent constitutive model, the calculated results were compared with typical tests of steel frames under static and dynamic loading patterns firstly. Secondly, four widely used models for time history analysis of steel frames were compared to discuss the applicability and efficiency of different methods, including shell element model, multi-scale model, equivalent constitutive model (ECM) and traditional beam element model (especially bilinear model). Four-story steel frame models of above-mentioned finite element methods were established. The structural deformation, failure modes and the computational efficiency of different models were compared. Finally, the equivalent constitutive model was applied in seismic incremental dynamic analysis of a ten-floor steel frame and compared with the cyclic hardening model without considering damage and degradation. Meanwhile, the effects of damage and degradation on the seismic performance of steel frame were discussed in depth. The analysis results showed that: damages would lead to larger deformations. Therefore, when the calculated results of steel structures subjected to rare earthquake without considering damage were close to the collapse limit, the actual story drift of structure might already exceed the limit, leading to a certain security risk. ECM could simulate the damage and degradation behaviors of steel structures more accurately, and improve the calculation accuracy of traditional beam element model with acceptable computational efficiency.
Slender RC columns strengthened with combined CFRP and steel jacket under axial load
Lu, Yi-yan ; Li, Na ; Li, Shan ; Ou, Tian-yan ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 5, 2015, Pages 1077~1094
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1077
This paper presents an experimental study on the effectiveness of simultaneous application of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) and steel jacket in strengthening slender reinforced concrete (RC) column. The columns were 200 mm square cross section with lengths ranging from 1600 to 3000 mm. Ten columns were tested under axial load. The effects of the strengthening technique, slenderness ratio, cross-section area of steel angle and CFRP layer number were examined in terms of axial load-axial strain curve, CFRP strain, steel strip strain and steel angle strain. The experiments indicate that strengthening RC columns with combined CFRP and steel jacket is effective in enhancing the load capacity, ductility and energy dissipation capacity of RC column. Based on the existing models for RC columns strengthened with CFRP and with steel jacket, a design formula considering a slenderness reduction factor is proposed to predict the load capacity of the RC columns strengthened with combined CFRP and steel jacket. The predictions agree well with the experimental results.
Mechanical behavior of the composite curved laminates in practical applications
Liu, Lonquan ; Zhang, Junqi ; Wang, Hai ; Guan, Zhongwei ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 5, 2015, Pages 1095~1113
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1095
In order to determine the mechanical behavior of the curved laminates in practical applications, three right-angled composite brackets with different lay-ups were investigated both experimentally and numerically. In the experimental, quasi-static tests on both unidirectional and multidirectional curved composite brackets were conducted to study the progressive failure and failure modes of the curved laminates. In the numerical modeling, three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to simulate the mechanical behavior of the laminates. Here, a strength-based failure criterion, namely the Ye criterion, was used to predict the delamination failure in the composite curved laminates. The mechanical responses of the laminate subjected to off-axis tensile loading were analyzed, which include the progressive failure, the failure locations, the load-displacement relationships, the load-strain relationships, and the stress distribution around the curved region of the angled bracket. Subsequently, the effects of stacking sequence and thickness on the load carrying capacity and the stiffness of the laminates were discussed in detail. Through the experimental observation and analysis, it was found that the failure mode of all the specimens is delamination, which is initiated abruptly and develops unstably on the symmetric plane, close to the inner surface, and about
along the circumferential direction. It was also found that the stacking sequence and the thickness have significant influences on both the load carrying capacity and the stiffness of the laminates. However, the thickness effect is less than that on the curved aluminum plate.
Investigation of stiffening scheme effectiveness towards buckling stability enhancement in tubular steel wind turbine towers
Stavridou, Nafsika ; Efthymiou, Evangelos ; Gerasimidis, Simos ; Baniotopoulos, Charalampos C. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 5, 2015, Pages 1115~1144
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1115
Current climate conditions along with advances in technology make further design and verification methods for structural strength and reliability of wind turbine towers imperative. Along with the growing interest for "green" energy, the wind energy sector has been developed tremendously the past decades. To this end, the improvement of wind turbine towers in terms of structural detailing and performance result in more efficient, durable and robust structures that facilitate their wider application, thus leading to energy harvesting increase. The wind tower industry is set to expand to greater heights than before and tapered steel towers with a circular cross-section are widely used as more capable of carrying heavier loads. The present study focuses on the improvement of the structural response of steel wind turbine towers, by means of internal stiffening. A thorough investigation of the contribution of stiffening rings to the overall structural behavior of the tower is being carried out. These stiffening rings are placed along the tower height to reduce local buckling phenomena, thus increasing the buckling strength of steel wind energy towers and leading the structure to a behavior closer to the one provided by the beam theory. Additionally to ring stiffeners, vertical stiffening schemes are studied to eliminate the presence of short wavelength buckles due to bending. For the purposes of this research, finite element analysis is applied in order to describe and predict in an accurate way the structural response of a model tower stiffened by internal stiffeners. Moreover, a parametric study is being performed in order to investigate the effect of the stiffeners' number to the functionality of the aforementioned stiffening systems and the improved structural behavior of the overall wind converter.
Analytical investigation of thin steel plate shear walls with screwed infill plate
Vatansever, Cuneyt ; Berman, Jeffrey W. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 5, 2015, Pages 1145~1165
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1145
A behavior model for screw connections is developed to provide a better representation of the nonlinear response of thin steel plate shear walls (TSPSWs) with infill plates attached to the boundary frame members via self-drilling screws. This analytical representation is based on the load-bearing deformation relationship between the infill plate and the screw threads. The model can be easily implemented in strip models of TSPSWs where the tension field action of the infill plates is represented by a series of parallel discrete tension-only strips. Previously reported experimental results from tests of two different TSPSWs are used to provide experimental validation of the modeling approach. The beam-to-column connection behavior was also included in the analyses using a four parameter rotational spring model that was calibrated to a test of an identical frame as used for the TSPSW specimens but without the infill plates. The complete TSPSW models consisting of strips representing the infill plates, zero length elements representing the load-bearing deformation response of the screw connection at each end of the strips and the four parameter spring model at each beam-to-column connection are shown to have good agreement with the experimental results. The resulting models should enable design and analysis of TSPSWs for both new construction and retrofit of existing buildings.
Cyclic testing of chevron braced steel frames with IPE shear panels
Zahrai, Seyed Mehdi ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 5, 2015, Pages 1167~1184
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1167
Despite considerable life casualty and financial loss resulting from past earthquakes, many existing steel buildings are still seismically vulnerable as they have no lateral resistance or at least need some sort of retrofitting. Passive control methods with decreasing seismic demand and increasing ductility reduce rate of vulnerability of structures against earthquakes. One of the most effective and practical passive control methods is to use a shear panel system working as a ductile fuse in the structure. The shear Panel System, SPS, is located vertically between apex of two chevron braces and the flange of the floor beam. Seismic energy is highly dissipated through shear yielding of shear panel web while other elements of the structure remain almost elastic. In this paper, lateral behavior and related benefits of this system with narrow-flange link beams is experimentally investigated in chevron braced simple steel frames. For this purpose, five specimens with IPE (narrow-flange I section) shear panels were examined. All of the specimens showed high ductility and dissipated almost all input energy imposed to the structure. For example, maximum SPS shear distortion of 0.128-0.156 rad, overall ductility of 5.3-7.2, response modification factor of 7.1-11.2, and finally maximum equivalent viscous damping ratio of 35.5-40.2% in the last loading cycle corresponding to an average damping ratio of 26.7-30.6% were obtained. It was also shown that the beam, columns and braces remained elastic as expected. Considering this fact, by just changing the probably damaged shear panel pieces after earthquake, the structure can still be continuously used as another benefit of this proposed retrofitting system without the need to change the floor beam.
Cyclic behavior of extended end-plate connections with European steel shapes
Akgonen, Aliriza I. ; Yorgun, Cavidan ; Vatansever, Cuneyt ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 5, 2015, Pages 1185~1201
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1185
The aim of this experimental research is to investigate the conformity of the four-bolt unstiffened moment end-plate connections consisting of European steel sections which do not meet the limitations specified for beam flange width and overall beam depth in ANSI/AISC 358-10 to the requirements of seismic application. However, the connections are satisfactory with the limitations required by Turkish Earthquake Code. For this purpose, four test specimens were designed and cyclic load was applied to three specimens while one was tested under monotonic loading to provide data for the calibration of the analytical models. The moment-rotation hysteresis loops and the failure modes for all test specimens are presented. A full three-dimensional finite element model is also developed for each test specimen for use to predict their behavior and to provide a tool for generating subsequent extensive parametric studies. The test results show that all specimens performed well in terms of rotation capacity and strength. Finite element models are found to be capable of approximating the cyclic behavior of the extended end-plate connection specimens.
Distortional buckling calculation method of steel-concrete composite box beam in negative moment area
Zhou, Wangbao ; Li, Shujin ; Jiang, Lizhong ; Huang, Zhi ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 5, 2015, Pages 1203~1219
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1203
'Distortional buckling' is one of the predominant buckling types that may occur in a steel-concrete composite box beam (SCCBB) under a negative moment. The key factors, which affect the buckling modes, are the torsional and lateral restraints of the bottom plate of a SCCBB. Therefore, this article investigates the equivalent lateral and torsional restraint rigidity of the bottom plate of a SCCBB under a negative moment; the results of which show a linear coupling relationship between the applied forces and the lateral and/or torsional restraint stiffness, which are not depended on the cross-sectional properties of a SCCBB completely. The mathematical formulas for calculating the lateral and torsional restraint rigidity of the bottom plate can be used to estimate: (1) the critical distortional buckling stress of SCCBBs under a negative moment; and (2) the critical distortional moment of SCCBBs. This article develops an improved calculation method for SCCBBs on an elastic foundation, which takes into account the coupling effect between the applied forces and the lateral and/or torsional restraint rigidity of the bottom plate. This article analyzes the accuracy of the following calculation methods by using 24 examples of SCCBBs: (1) the conventional energy method; (2) the improved calculation method, as it has been derived in this article; and (3) the ANSYS finite element method. The results verify that the improved calculation method, as it has been proved in this article, is more accurate and reliable than that of the current energy method, which has been noted in the references.
Thermal analysis on composite girder with hybrid GFRP-concrete deck
Xin, Haohui ; Liu, Yuqing ; Du, Ao ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 5, 2015, Pages 1221~1236
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1221
Since the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) between concrete and GFRP, steel and GFRP are quite different, GFRP laminates with different laminas stacking-sequence present different thermal behavior and currently there is no specification on mechanical properties of GFRP laminates, it is necessary to investigate the thermal influence on composite girder with stay-in-place (SIP) bridge deck at different levels and on different scales. This paper experimentally and theoretically investigated the CTE of GFRP at lamina's and laminate's level on micro-mechanics scales. The theoretical CTE values of laminas and laminates agreed well with test results, indicating that designers could obtain thermal properties of GFRP laminates with different lamina stacking-sequence through micro-mechanics methods. On the basis of the CTE tests and theoretical analysis, the thermal behaviors of composite girder with hybrid GFRP-concrete deck were studied numerically and theoretically on macro-mechanics scales. The theoretical results of concrete and steel components of composite girder agreed well with FE results, but the theoretical results of GFRP profiles were slightly larger than FE and tended to be conservative at a safety level.
Inelastic analysis for the post-collapse behavior of concrete encased steel composite columns under axial compression
Ky, V.S. ; Tangaramvong, S. ; Thepchatri, T. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 5, 2015, Pages 1237~1258
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1237
This paper proposes a simple inelastic analysis approach to efficiently map out the complete nonlinear post-collapse (strain-softening) response and the maximum load capacity of axially loaded concrete encased steel composite columns (stub and slender). The scheme simultaneously incorporates the influences of difficult instabilizing phenomena such as concrete confinement, initial geometric imperfection, geometric nonlinearity, buckling of reinforcement bars and local buckling of structural steel, on the overall behavior of the composite columns. The proposed numerical method adopts fiber element discretization and an iterative M
ller's algorithm with an additional adaptive technique that robustly yields solution convergence. The accuracy of the proposed analysis scheme is validated through comparisons with various available experimental benchmarks. Finally, a parametric study of various key parameters on the overall behaviors of the composite columns is conducted.
On bending, buckling and vibration responses of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composite beams
Tagrara, S.H. ; Benachour, Abdelkader ; Bouiadjra, Mohamed Bachir ; Tounsi, Abdelouahed ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 5, 2015, Pages 1259~1277
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1259
In this work, a trigonometric refined beam theory for the bending, buckling and free vibration analysis of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite (CNTRC) beams resting on elastic foundation is developed. The significant feature of this model is that, in addition to including the shear deformation effect, it deals with only 3 unknowns as the Timoshenko beam (TBM) without including a shear correction factor. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are aligned and distributed in polymeric matrix with different patterns of reinforcement. The material properties of the CNTRC beams are assessed by employing the rule of mixture. To examine accuracy of the present theory, several comparison studies are investigated. Furthermore, the effects of different parameters of the beam on the bending, buckling and free vibration responses of CNTRC beam are discussed.
Free vibration analysis of a rotating non-uniform functionally graded beam
Ebrahimi, Farzad ; Dashti, Samaneh ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 5, 2015, Pages 1279~1298
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1279
In this paper, free vibration characteristics of a rotating double tapered functionally graded beam is investigated. Material properties of the beam vary continuously through thickness direction according to the power-law distribution of the volume fraction of the constituents. The governing differential equations of motion are derived using the Hamilton's principle and solved utilizing an efficient and semi-analytical technique called the Differential Transform Method (DTM). Several important aspects such as taper ratios, rotational speed, hub radius, as well as the material volume fraction index which have impacts on natural frequencies of such beams are investigated and discussed in detail. Numerical results are tabulated in several tables and figures. In order to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the current analysis, some of present results are compared with previous results in the literature and an excellent agreement is observed. It is showed that the natural frequencies of an FG rotating double tapered beam can be obtained with high accuracy by using DTM. It is also observed that nondimensional rotational speed, height taper ratio, power-law exponent significantly affect the natural frequencies of the FG double tapered beam while the effects of hub radius and breadth taper ratio are negligible.
Parametric study on eccentrically-loaded partially encased composite columns under major axis bending
Begum, Mahbuba ; Driver, Robert G. ; Elwi, Alaa E. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 5, 2015, Pages 1299~1319
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1299
This paper presents a detailed parametric study, conducted using finite element tools to cover a range of several geometric and material parameters, on the behaviour of thin-walled partially encased composite (PEC) columns. The PEC columns studied herein are composed of thin-walled built-up H-shaped steel sections with concrete infill cast between the flanges. Transverse links are provided between the opposing flanges to improve resistance to local buckling. The parametric study is confined to eccentrically-loaded columns subjected to major axis bending only. The parameters that were varied include the overall column slenderness ratio (L/d), load eccentricity ratio (e/d), link spacing-to-depth ratio (s/d), flange plate slenderness ratio (b/t) and concrete compressive strength (
). The overall column slenderness ratio was chosen to be the primary variable with values of 5, 10 and 15. Other parameters were varied within each case of L/d ratio. The effects of the selected parameters on the behaviour of PEC columns were studied with respect to the failure mode, peak axial load, axial load versus average axial strain response, axial load versus lateral displacement response, moment versus lateral displacement behaviour and the axial load-moment interaction diagram. The results of the parametric study are presented in the paper and the influences of each of the parameters investigated are discussed.
Damping strategies for steel lattice sandwich constructions
Mai, Son P. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 19, issue 5, 2015, Pages 1321~1331
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2015.19.5.1321
A square steel sandwich plate with lattice corrugated core is explored for damping improvement. A range of damping materials are filled inside the openings provided by the corrugated core, or are applied on the surfaces of the facesheets. The dynamic properties such as natural frequency and damping factor are experimentally measured for the sandwich plate with each filling solution. The relative performance of each insertion is compared in terms of damping capacity and added mass.