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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Steel and Composite Structures
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Volume 21, Issue 6 - Aug 2016
Volume 21, Issue 5 - Aug 2016
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Jul 2016
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Jun 2016
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Jun 2016
Volume 21, Issue 1 - May 2016
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Apr 2016
Volume 20, Issue 5 - Apr 2016
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Mar 2016
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Feb 2016
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Feb 2016
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
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Size-dependent mechanical behavior of functionally graded trigonometric shear deformable nanobeams including neutral surface position concept
Ahouel, Mama ; Houari, Mohammed Sid Ahmed ; Bedia, E.A. Adda ; Tounsi, Abdelouahed ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 20, issue 5, 2016, Pages 963~981
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2016.20.5.963
A nonlocal trigonometric shear deformation beam theory based on neutral surface position is developed for bending, buckling, and vibration of functionally graded (FG) nanobeams using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen. The present model is capable of capturing both small scale effect and transverse shear deformation effects of FG nanobeams, and does not require shear correction factors. The material properties of the FG nanobeam are assumed to vary in the thickness direction. The equations of motion are derived by employing Hamilton`s principle, and the physical neutral surface concept. Analytical solutions are presented for a simply supported FG nanobeam, and the obtained results compare well with those predicted by the nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory.
The effect of curvature on the impact response of foam-based sandwich composite panels
Yurddaskal, Melis ; Baba, Buket Okutan ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 20, issue 5, 2016, Pages 983~997
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2016.20.5.983
The aim of this study is to investigate the impact behavior and impact-induced damage of sandwich composites made of E-glass/epoxy face sheets and PVC foam. The studies were carried out on square flat and curved sandwich panels with two different radius of curvatures. Impact tests were performed under impact energies of 10 J, 25 J and 80 J using an instrumented drop-weight machine. Contact force and displacement versus time and contact force- displacement graphs of sandwich panels were presented to determine the panel response. Through these graphs, the energy absorbing capacity of the sandwich panels was determined. The impact responses and failure modes of flat and curved sandwich panels were compared and the effect of curvature on sandwich composite panel was demonstrated. Testing has shown that the maximum contact force decrease while displacement increases with increasing of panel curvature and curved panels exhibits mixed failure mode, with cylindrical and cone cracking.
Performance of steel beams strengthened with pultruded CFRP plate under various exposures
Gholami, M. ; Sam, A.R. Mohd ; Marsono, A.K. ; Tahir, M.M. ; Faridmehr, I. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 20, issue 5, 2016, Pages 999~1022
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2016.20.5.999
The use of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) to strengthen steel structures has attracted the attention of researchers greatly. Previous studies demonstrated bonding of CFRP plates to the steel sections has been a successful method to increase the mechanical properties. However, the main limitation to popular use of steel/CFRP strengthening system is the concern on durability of bonding between steel and CFRP in various environmental conditions. The paper evaluates the performance of I-section steel beams strengthened with pultruded CFRP plate on the bottom flange after exposure to diverse conditions including natural tropical climate, wet/dry cycles, plain water, salt water and acidic solution. Four-point bending tests were performed at specific intervals and the mechanical properties were compared to the control beam. Besides, the ductility of the strengthened beams and distribution of shear stress in adhesive layer were investigated thoroughly. The study found the adhesive layer was the critical part and the performance of the system related directly to its behavior. The highest strength degradation was observed for the beams immersed in salt water around 18% after 8 months exposure. Besides, the ductility of all strengthened beams increased after exposure. A theoretical procedure was employed to model the degradation of epoxy adhesive.
Flexural natural vibration characteristics of composite beam considering shear deformation and interface slip
Zhou, Wangbao ; Jiang, Lizhong ; Huang, Zhi ; Li, Shujin ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 20, issue 5, 2016, Pages 1023~1042
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2016.20.5.1023
Based on Hamilton`s principle, the flexural vibration differential equations and boundary conditions of the steel-concrete composite beam (SCCB) with comprehensive consideration of the influences of the shear deformation, interface slip and longitudinal inertia of motion were derived. The analytical natural frequencies of flexural vibration were compared with available results previously observed by the experiments, the results calculated by the FE model and the other similar beam theories available in the open literatures. The comparison results showed that, the calculation results of the analytical and Timoshenko models had a good agreement with the results of the experimental test and FE model. Finally, the influences of shear deformation and interface slip on the flexural natural frequencies of the SCCB were discussed. The shear deformation effect increases with the increase of the mode orders of flexural natural vibration, and the flexural natural frequencies of the higher mode orders ignoring the influence of shear deformations effect would be overestimated. The interface slip effect decrease with the increase of the mode orders of flexural natural vibration, and the influence of the interface slip effect on flexural natural frequencies of the low mode orders is significant. The influence of the degree of shear connection on shear deformation effect is insignificant, and the low order modes of flexural natural vibration are mainly composed of the rotational displacement of cross sections.
Static analysis of laminated and sandwich composite doubly-curved shallow shells
Alankaya, Veysel ; Oktem, Ahmet Sinan ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 20, issue 5, 2016, Pages 1043~1066
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2016.20.5.1043
A new analytical solution based on a third order shear deformation theory for the problem of static analysis of cross-ply doubly-curved shells is presented. The boundary-discontinuous generalized double Fourier series method is used to solve highly coupled linear partial differential equations with the mixed type simply supported boundary conditions prescribed on the edges. The complementary boundary constraints are introduced through boundary discontinuities generated by the selected boundary conditions for the derivation of the complementary solution. The numerical accuracy of the solution is compared by studying the comparisons of deflections, stresses and moments of symmetric and anti-symmetric laminated shells with finite element results using commercially available software under uniformly distributed load. Results are in good agreement with finite element counterparts. Additional results of the symmetric and anti-symmetric laminated and sandwich shells under single point load at the center and pressure load, are presented to provide data for the unsolved boundary conditions, benchmark comparisons and verifications.
Experimental and analytical behaviour of cogged bars within concrete filled circular tubes
Pokharel, Tilak ; Yao, Huang ; Goldsworthy, Helen M. ; Gad, Emad F. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 20, issue 5, 2016, Pages 1067~1085
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2016.20.5.1067
Recent research on steel moment-resisting connection between steel beams and concrete filled steel tubes has shown that there are considerable advantages to be obtained by anchoring the connection to the concrete infill within the tube using anchors in blind bolts. In the research reported here, extensive experimental tests and numerical analyses have been performed to study the anchorage behaviour of cogged deformed reinforcing bars within concrete filled circular steel tubes. This data in essential knowledge for the design of the steel connections that use anchored blind bolts, both for strength and stiffness. A series of pull-out tests were conducted using steel tubes with different diameter to thickness ratios under monotonic and cyclic loading. Both hoop strains and longitudinal strains in the tubes were measured together with applied load and slip. Various lead-in lengths before the bend and length of tailed extension after the bend were examined. These dimensions were limited by the dimensions of the steel tube and did not meet the requirements for "standard" cogs as specified in concrete standards such as AS 3600 and ACI 318. Nevertheless, all of the tested specimens failed by bar fracture outside the steel tubes. A comprehensive 3D Finite Element model was developed to simulate the pull-out tests. The FE model took into account material nonlinearities, deformations in reinforcing bars and interactions between different surfaces. The FE results were found to be in good agreement with experimental results. This model was then used to conduct parametric studies to investigate the influence of the confinement provided by the steel tube on the infilled concrete.
Free vibration analysis of composite cylindrical shells with non-uniform thickness walls
Javed, Saira ; Viswanathan, K.K. ; Aziz, Z.A. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 20, issue 5, 2016, Pages 1087~1102
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2016.20.5.1087
The paper proposes to characterize the free vibration behaviour of non-uniform cylindrical shells using spline approximation under first order shear deformation theory. The system of coupled differential equations in terms of displacement and rotational functions are obtained. These functions are approximated by cubic splines. A generalized eigenvalue problem is obtained and solved numerically for an eigenfrequency parameter and an associated eigenvector which are spline coefficients. Four and two layered cylindrical shells consisting of two different lamination materials and plies comprising of same as well as different materials under two different boundary conditions are analyzed. The effect of length parameter, circumferential node number, material properties, ply orientation, number of lay ups, and coefficients of thickness variations on the frequency parameter is investigated.
2D deformation in initially stressed thermoelastic half-space with voids
Abbas, Ibrahim A. ; Kumar, Rajneesh ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 20, issue 5, 2016, Pages 1103~1117
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2016.20.5.1103
The present investigation is to study the plane problem in initially stressed thermoelastic half-space with voids due to thermal source. Lord-Shulman (Lord and Shulman 1967) theory of thermoelasticity with one relaxation time has been used to investigate the problem. A particular type of thermal source has been taken as an application of the approach. Finite element technique has been used to solve the problem. The components of displacement, stress, temperature change and volume fraction field are computed numerically. The resulting quantities are depicted graphically for different values of initial stress parameter. The relaxation time and the initial stress parameter have a significant effect on all distributions.
A hybrid inverse method for small scale parameter estimation of FG nanobeams
Darabi, A. ; Vosoughi, Ali R. ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 20, issue 5, 2016, Pages 1119~1131
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2016.20.5.1119
As a first attempt, an inverse hybrid numerical method for small scale parameter estimation of functionally graded (FG) nanobeams using measured frequencies is presented. The governing equations are obtained with the Eringen`s nonlocal elasticity assumptions and the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The equations are discretized by using the differential quadrature method (DQM). The discretized equations are transferred from temporal domain to frequency domain and frequencies of the nanobeam are obtained. By applying random error to these frequencies, measured frequencies are generated. The measured frequencies are considered as input data and inversely, the small scale parameter of the beam is obtained by minimizing a defined functional. The functional is defined as root mean square error between the measured frequencies and calculated frequencies by the DQM. Then, the conjugate gradient (CG) optimization method is employed to minimize the functional and the small scale parameter is obtained. Efficiency, convergence and accuracy of the presented hybrid method for small scale parameter estimation of the beams for different applied random error, boundary conditions, length-to-thickness ratio and volume fraction coefficients are demonstrated.
Additive 2D and 3D performance ratio analysis for steel outrigger alternative design
Lee, Dongkyu ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 20, issue 5, 2016, Pages 1133~1153
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2016.20.5.1133
In this article, an additive performance ratio method using structural analysis of both 2D and 3D is introduced to mitigate the complexity of work evaluating structural performances of numerous steel outrigger alternatives in multi-story buildings, especially high-rise buildings. The combined structural analysis process enables to be the design of economic, safe, and as constructional demanding structures by exploiting the advantages of steel, namely: excellent energy dissipation and ductility. First the approach decides the alternative of numerous steel outriggers by a simple 2D analysis module and then the alternative is evaluated by 3D analysis module. Initial structural analyses of outrigger types are carried out through MIDAS Gen 2D modeling, approximately, and then the results appeal structural performance and lead to decide some alternative of outrigger types. ETABS 3D modeling is used with respect to realization and evaluation of exact structural behaviors. The approach reduces computational burden in compared to existing concepts such as full 3D analysis methods. The combined 2D and 3D tools are verified by cycle and displacement tests including comprehensive nonlinear dynamic simulations. The advantages and limitations of the Additive Performance Ratio Approach are highlighted in a case study on a high rise steel-composite building, which targets at designing the optimized alternative to the existing original outrigger for lateral load resisting system.
Demands and distribution of hysteretic energy in moment resistant self-centering steel frames
Lopez-Barraza, Arturo ; Ruiz, Sonia E. ; Reyes-Salazar, Alfredo ; Bojorquez, Eden ;
Steel and Composite Structures, volume 20, issue 5, 2016, Pages 1155~1171
DOI : 10.12989/scs.2016.20.5.1155
Post-tensioned (PT) steel moment resisting frames (MRFs) with semi-rigid connections (SRC) can be used to control the hysteretic energy demands and to reduce the maximum inter-story drift (
). In this study the seismic behavior of steel MRFs with PT connections is estimated by incremental nonlinear dynamic analysis in terms of dissipated hysteretic energy (
) demands. For this aim, five PT steel MRFs are subjected to 30 long duration earthquake ground motions recorded on soft soil sites. To assess the energy dissipated in the frames with PT connections, a new expression is proposed for the hysteretic behavior of semi-rigid connections validated by experimental tests. The performance was estimated not only for the global
demands in the steel frames; but also for, the distribution and demands of hysteretic energy in beams, columns and connections considering several levels of deformation. The results show that
, and that most of
is dissipated by the connections. It is observed in all the cases a log-normal distribution of
through the building height. The largest demand of
occurs between 0.25 and 0.5 of the height. Finally, an equation is proposed to calculate the distribution of
in terms of the normalized height of the stories (h/H) and the inter-story drift.