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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Smart Structures and Systems
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Editor in Chief :
Chung-Bang Yun / B. F. Spencer, Jr. / Fabio Casciati
Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 14, Issue 5 - Nov 2014
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Oct 2014
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Aug 2014
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Jul 2014
Volume 13, Issue 6 - Jun 2014
Volume 13, Issue 5 - May 2014
Volume 13, Issue 4 - Apr 2014
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Mar 2014
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Feb 2014
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
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Effective electromechanical coupling coefficient of adaptive structures with integrated multi-functional piezoelectric structural fiber composites
Koutsawa, Yao ; Tiem, Sonnou ; Giunta, Gaetano ; Belouettar, Salim ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 13, issue 4, 2014, Pages 501~515
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2014.13.4.501
This paper presents a linear computational homogenization framework to evaluate the effective (or generalized) electromechanical coupling coefficient (EMCC) of adaptive structures with piezoelectric structural fiber (PSF) composite elements. The PSF consists of a silicon carbide (SiC) or carbon core fiber as reinforcement to a fragile piezo-ceramic shell. For the micro-scale analysis, a micromechanics model based on the variational asymptotic method for unit cell homogenization (VAMUCH) is used to evaluate the overall electromechanical properties of the PSF composites. At the macro-scale, a finite element (FE) analysis with the commercial FE code ABAQUS is performed to evaluate the effective EMCC for structures with the PSF composite patches. The EMCC is postprocessed from free-vibrations analysis under short-circuit (SC) and open-circuit (OC) electrodes of the patches. This linear two-scale computational framework may be useful for the optimal design of active structure multi-functional composites which can be used for multi-functional applications such as structural health monitoring, power harvest, vibration sensing and control, damping, and shape control through anisotropic actuation.
Variable kinematic beam elements for electro-mechanical analysis
Miglioretti, F. ; Carrera, E. ; Petrolo, M. ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 13, issue 4, 2014, Pages 517~546
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2014.13.4.517
This paper proposes a refined electro-mechanical beam formulation. Lagrange-type polynomials are used to interpolate the unknowns over the beam cross section. Three- (L3), four- (L4), and nine-point(L9) polynomials are considered which lead to linear, bi-linear, and quadratic displacement field approximations over the beam cross-section. Finite elements are obtained by employing the principle of virtual displacements in conjunction with the Carrera Unified Formulation (CUF). The finite element matrices and vectors are expressed in terms of fundamental nuclei whose forms do not depend on the assumptions made. Additional refined beam models are implemented by introducing further discretizations, over the beam cross-section. Some assessments from bibliography have been solved in order to validate the electro-mechanical formulation. The investigations conducted show that the present formulation is able to detect the electro-mechanical interaction.
Point load actuation on plate structures based on triangular piezoelectric patches
Tondreau, Gilles ; Raman, Sudharsana Raamanujan ; Deraemaeker, Arnaud ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 13, issue 4, 2014, Pages 547~565
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2014.13.4.547
This paper investigates the design of a perfect point load actuator based on flat triangular piezoelectric patches. Applying a difference of electric potential between the electrodes of a triangular patch leads to point loads at the tips and distributed moments along the edges of the electrodes. The previously derived analytical expressions of these forces show that they depend on two factors: the width over height (b/l) ratio of the triangle, and the ratio of the in-plane piezoelectric properties (
) of the active layer of the piezoelectric patch. In this paper, it is shown that by a proper choice of b/l and of the piezoelectric properties, the moments can be cancelled, so that if one side of the triangle is clamped, a perfect point load actuation can be achieved. This requires
to be negative, which imposes the use of interdigitated electrodes instead of continuous ones. The design of two transducers with interdigitated electrodes for perfect point load actuation on a clamped plate is verified with finite element calculations. The first design is based on a full piezoelectric ceramic patch and shows superior actuation performance than the second design based on a piezocomposite patch with a volume fraction of fibres of 86%. The results show that both designs lead to perfect point load actuation while the use of an isotropic PZT patch with continuous electrodes gives significantly different results.
Experimental assessment of the piezoelectric transverse d
shear sensing mechanism
Berik, Pelin ; Benjeddou, Ayech ; Krommer, Michael ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 13, issue 4, 2014, Pages 567~585
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2014.13.4.567
The piezoelectric transverse
shear sensing mechanism is firstly assessed experimentally for a cantilever smart sandwich plate made of a piezoceramic axially poled patched core and glass fiber reinforced polymer composite faces. Different electrical connections are tested for the assessment of the sensor performance under a varying amplitude harmonic (at 24 Hz) force. Also, the dynamic response of the smart sandwich composite structure is monitored using different acquisition devices. The obtained experimentally sensed voltages are compared to those resulting from the benchmark three-dimensional piezoelectric coupled finite element simulations using a commercial code where realistic features, like equipotential conditions on the patches' electrodes and mechanical updating of the clamp, are considered. Numerically, it is found that the stiffness of the clamp, which is much softer than the ideal one, has an enormous influence on the sensed voltage of its adjacent patch; therefore, sensing with the patch on the free side would be more advantageous for a cantilever configuration. Apart from confirming the latter result, the plate benchmark experimental assessment showed that the parallel connection of its two oppositely poled patches has a moderate performance but better than the clamp side patch acting as an individual sensor.
Analytical and higher order finite element hybrid approach for an efficient simulation of ultrasonic guided waves I: 2D-analysis
Vivar-Perez, Juan M. ; Duczek, Sascha ; Gabbert, Ulrich ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 13, issue 4, 2014, Pages 587~614
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2014.13.4.587
In recent years the interest in online monitoring of lightweight structures with ultrasonic guided waves is steadily growing. Especially the aircraft industry is a driving force in the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. In order to optimally design SHM systems powerful and efficient numerical simulation tools to predict the behaviour of ultrasonic elastic waves in thin-walled structures are required. It has been shown that in real industrial applications, such as airplane wings or fuselages, conventional linear and quadratic pure displacement finite elements commonly used to model ultrasonic elastic waves quickly reach their limits. The required mesh density, to obtain good quality solutions, results in enormous computational costs when solving the wave propagation problem in the time domain. To resolve this problem different possibilities are available. Analytical methods and higher order finite element method approaches (HO-FEM), like p-FEM, spectral elements, spectral analysis and isogeometric analysis, are among them. Although analytical approaches offer fast and accurate results, they are limited to rather simple geometries. On the other hand, the application of higher order finite element schemes is a computationally demanding task. The drawbacks of both methods can be circumvented if regions of complex geometry are modelled using a HO-FEM approach while the response of the remaining structure is computed utilizing an analytical approach. The objective of the paper is to present an efficient method to couple different HO-FEM schemes with an analytical description of an undisturbed region. Using this hybrid formulation the numerical effort can be drastically reduced. The functionality of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by studying the propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in plates, excited by a piezoelectric patch actuator. The actuator is modelled utilizing higher order coupled field finite elements, whereas the homogenous, isotropic plate is described analytically. The results of this "semi-analytical" approach highlight the opportunities to reduce the numerical effort if closed-form solutions are partially available.
Modelling of aluminium foam sandwich panels
D'Alessandro, Vincenzo ; Petrone, Giuseppe ; De Rosa, Sergio ; Franco, Francesco ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 13, issue 4, 2014, Pages 615~636
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2014.13.4.615
Aluminium Foam Sandwich (AFS) panels are becoming always more attractive in transportation applications thanks to the excellent combination of mechanical properties, high strength and stiffness, with functional ones, thermo-acoustic isolation and vibration damping. These properties strongly depend on the density of the foam, the morphology of the pores, the type (open or closed cells) and the size of the gas bubbles enclosed in the solid material. In this paper, the vibrational performances of two classes of sandwich panels with an Alulight(R) foam core are studied. Experimental tests, in terms of frequency response function and modal analysis, are performed in order to investigate the effect of different percentage of porosity in the foam, as well as the effect of the random distribution of the gas bubbles. Experimental results are used as a reference for developing numerical models using finite element approach. Firstly, a sensitivity analysis is performed in order to obtain a limit-but-bounded dynamic response, modelling the foam core as a homogeneous one. The experimental-numerical correlation is evaluated in terms of natural frequencies and mode shapes. Afterwards, an update of the previous numerical model is presented, in which the core is not longer modelled as homogeneous. Mass and stiffness are randomly distributed in the core volume, exploring the space of the eigenvectors.
A dynamic analysis of three-dimensional functionally graded beams by hierarchical models
Giunta, Gaetano ; Koutsawa, Yao ; Belouettar, Salim ; Calvi, Adriano ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 13, issue 4, 2014, Pages 637~657
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2014.13.4.637
This paper presents a dynamic analysis of three-dimensional beams. Structures made of functionally graded materials are considered. Several higher-order as well as classical theories are derived by means of a compact notation for the a-priori expansion order of the displacement field over the beam cross-section. The governing differential equations and boundary conditions are obtained in a condensed nuclear form that does not depend on the kinematic hypotheses. The problem is, then, exactly solved in space by means of a Navier-type solution, whereas time integration is performed by means of Newmark's solution scheme. Slender and short simply supported beams are investigated. Results are validated towards three-dimensional FEM results obtained via the commercial software ANSYS. Numerical investigations show that good accuracy can be obtained through the proposed formulation provided that the appropriate expansion order is considered.
Nonhomogeneous atherosclerotic plaque analysis via enhanced 1D structural models
Varello, Alberto ; Carrera, Erasmo ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 13, issue 4, 2014, Pages 659~683
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2014.13.4.659
The static analysis of structures with arbitrary cross-section geometry and material lamination via a refined one-dimensional (1D) approach is presented in this paper. Higher-order 1D models with a variable order of expansion for the displacement field are developed on the basis of Carrera Unified Formulation (CUF). Classical Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories are obtained as particular cases of the first-order model. Numerical results of displacement, strain and stress are provided by using the finite element method (FEM) along the longitudinal direction for different configurations in excellent agreement with three-dimensional (3D) finite element solutions. In particular, a layered thin-walled cylinder is considered as first assessment with a laminated conventional cross-section. An atherosclerotic plaque is introduced as a typical structure with arbitrary cross-section geometry and studied for both the homogeneous and nonhomogeneous material cases through the 1D variable kinematic models. The analyses highlight limitations of classical beam theories and the importance of higher-order terms in accurately detecting in-plane cross-section deformation without introducing additional numerical problems. Comparisons with 3D finite element solutions prove that 1D CUF provides remarkable three-dimensional accuracy in the analysis of even short and nonhomogeneous structures with arbitrary geometry through a significant reduction in computational cost.
Mechanical properties and deformation behavior of carbon nanotubes calculated by a molecular mechanics approach
Eberhardt, Oliver ; Wallmersperger, Thomas ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 13, issue 4, 2014, Pages 685~709
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2014.13.4.685
Carbon nanotubes are due to their outstanding mechanical properties destined for a wide range of possible applications. Since the knowledge of the material behavior is vital regarding the possible applications, experimental and theoretical studies have been conducted to investigate the properties of this promising material. The aim of the present research is the calculation of mechanical properties and of the mechanical behavior of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The numerical simulation was performed on basis of a molecular mechanics approach. Within this approach two different issues were taken into account: (i) the nanotube geometry and (ii) the modeling of the covalent bond. The nanotube geometry is captured by two different approaches, the roll-up and the exact polyhedral model. The covalent bond is modeled by a structural molecular mechanics approach according to Li and Chou. After a short introduction in the applied modeling techniques, the results for the Young's modulus for several SWCNTs are presented and are discussed extensively. The obtained numerical results are compared to results available in literature and show an excellent agreement. Furthermore, deviations in the geometry stemming from the different models are given and the resulting differences in the numerical findings are shown. Within the investigation of the deformation mechanisms occurring in SWCNTs, the basic contributions of each individual covalent bond are considered. The presented results of this decomposition provide a deeper understanding of the governing deformation mechanisms in SWCNTs.
Analysis of system dynamic influences in robotic actuators with variable stiffness
Beckerle, Philipp ; Wojtusch, Janis ; Rinderknecht, Stephan ; von Stryk, Oskar ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 13, issue 4, 2014, Pages 711~730
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2014.13.4.711
In this paper the system dynamic influences in actuators with variable stiffness as contemporary used in robotics for safety and efficiency reasons are investigated. Therefore, different configurations of serial and parallel elasticities are modeled by dynamic equations and linearized transfer functions. The latter ones are used to identify the characteristic behavior of the different systems and to study the effect of the different elasticities. As such actuation concepts are often used to reach energy-efficient operation, a power consumption analysis of the configurations is performed. From the comparison of this with the system dynamics, strategies to select and control stiffness are derived. Those are based on matching the natural frequencies or antiresonance modes of the actuation system to the frequency of the trajectory. Results show that exclusive serial and parallel elasticity can minimize power consumption when tuning the system to the natural frequencies. Antiresonance modes are an additional possibility for stiffness control in the series elastic setup. Configurations combining both types of elasticities do not provide further advantages regarding power reduction but an input parallel elasticity might enable for more versatile stiffness selection. Yet, design and control effort increase in such solutions. Topologies incorporating output parallel elasticity showed not to be beneficial in the chosen example but might do so in specific applications.