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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Smart Structures and Systems
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Journal DOI :
Editor in Chief :
Chung-Bang Yun / B. F. Spencer, Jr. / Fabio Casciati
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Oct 2016
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Sep 2016
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Aug 2016
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jul 2016
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Jun 2016
Volume 17, Issue 5 - May 2016
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Apr 2016
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Mar 2016
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Feb 2016
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
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Mode identifiability of a cable-stayed bridge under different excitation conditions assessed with an improved algorithm based on stochastic subspace identification
Wu, Wen-Hwa ; Wang, Sheng-Wei ; Chen, Chien-Chou ; Lai, Gwolong ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 17, issue 3, 2016, Pages 363~389
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2016.17.3.363
Deficient modes that cannot be always identified from different sets of measurement data may exist in the application of operational modal analysis such as the stochastic subspace identification techniques in large-scale civil structures. Based on a recent work using the long-term ambient vibration measurements from an instrumented cable-stayed bridge under different wind excitation conditions, a benchmark problem is launched by taking the same bridge as a test bed to further intensify the exploration of mode identifiability. For systematically assessing this benchmark problem, a recently developed SSI algorithm based on an alternative stabilization diagram and a hierarchical sifting process is extended and applied in this research to investigate several sets of known and blind monitoring data. The evaluation of delicately selected cases clearly distinguishes the effect of traffic excitation on the identifiability of the targeted deficient mode from the effect of wind excitation. An additional upper limit for the vertical acceleration amplitude at deck, mainly induced by the passing traffic, is subsequently suggested to supplement the previously determined lower limit for the wind speed. Careful inspection on the shape vector of the deficient mode under different excitation conditions leads to the postulation that this mode is actually induced by the motion of the central tower. The analysis incorporating the tower measurements solidly verifies this postulation by yielding the prevailing components at the tower locations in the extended mode shape vector. Moreover, it is also confirmed that this mode can be stably identified under all the circumstances with the addition of tower measurements. An important lesson learned from this discovery is that the problem of mode identifiability usually comes from the lack of proper measurements at the right locations.
Mode identifiability of a multi-span cable-stayed bridge utilizing stabilization diagram and singular values
Goi, Y. ; Kim, C.W. ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 17, issue 3, 2016, Pages 391~411
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2016.17.3.391
This study investigates the mode identifiability of a multi-span cable-stayed bridge in terms of a benchmark study using stabilization diagrams of a system model identified using stochastic subspace identification (SSI). Cumulative contribution ratios (CCRs) estimated from singular values of system models under different wind conditions were also considered. Observations revealed that wind speed might influence the mode identifiability of a specific mode of a cable-stayed bridge. Moreover the cumulative contribution ratio showed that the time histories monitored during strong winds, such as those of a typhoon, can be modeled with less system order than under weak winds. The blind data Acc 1 and Acc 2 were categorized as data obtained under a typhoon. Blind data Acc 3 and Acc 4 were categorized as data obtained under wind conditions of critical wind speeds around 7.5 m/s. Finally, blind data Acc 5 and Acc 6 were categorized as data measured under weak wind conditions.
Modal identifiability of a cable-stayed bridge using proper orthogonal decomposition
Li, M. ; Ni, Y.Q. ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 17, issue 3, 2016, Pages 413~429
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2016.17.3.413
The recent research on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has revealed the linkage between proper orthogonal modes and linear normal modes. This paper presents an investigation into the modal identifiability of an instrumented cable-stayed bridge using an adapted POD technique with a band-pass filtering scheme. The band-pass POD method is applied to the datasets available for this benchmark study, aiming to identify the vibration modes of the bridge and find out the so-called deficient modes which are unidentifiable under normal excitation conditions. It turns out that the second mode of the bridge cannot be stably identified under weak wind conditions and is therefore regarded as a deficient mode. To judge if the deficient mode is due to its low contribution to the structural response under weak wind conditions, modal coordinates are derived for different modes by the band-pass POD technique and an energy participation factor is defined to evaluate the energy participation of each vibration mode under different wind excitation conditions. From the non-blind datasets, it is found that the vibration modes can be reliably identified only when the energy participation factor exceeds a certain threshold value. With the identified threshold value, modal identifiability in use of the blind datasets from the same structure is examined.
Automated identification of the modal parameters of a cable-stayed bridge: Influence of the wind conditions
Magalhaes, Filipe ; Cunha, Alvaro ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 17, issue 3, 2016, Pages 431~444
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2016.17.3.431
This paper was written in the context of a benchmark study promoted by The Hong Kong Polytechnic University using data samples collected in an instrumented cable-stayed bridge. The main goal of the benchmark test was to study the identification of the bridge modes of vibration under different wind conditions. In this contribution, the tools developed at ViBest/FEUP for automated data processing of setups collected by dynamic monitoring systems are presented and applied to the data made available in the context of the benchmark study. The applied tools are based on parametric output only modal identification methods combined with clustering algorithms. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms succeeded to automatically identify the modes with relevant contribution for the bridge response under different wind conditions.
Investigation of modal identification and modal identifiability of a cable-stayed bridge with Bayesian framework
Kuok, Sin-Chi ; Yuen, Ka-Veng ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 17, issue 3, 2016, Pages 445~470
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2016.17.3.445
In this study, the Bayesian probabilistic framework is investigated for modal identification and modal identifiability based on the field measurements provided in the structural health monitoring benchmark problem of an instrumented cable-stayed bridge named Ting Kau Bridge (TKB). The comprehensive structural health monitoring system on the cable-stayed TKB has been operated for more than ten years and it is recognized as one of the best test-beds with readily available field measurements. The benchmark problem of the cable-stayed bridge is established to stimulate investigations on modal identifiability and the present paper addresses this benchmark problem from the Bayesian prospective. In contrast to deterministic approaches, an appealing feature of the Bayesian approach is that not only the optimal values of the modal parameters can be obtained but also the associated estimation uncertainty can be quantified in the form of probability distribution. The uncertainty quantification provides necessary information to evaluate the reliability of parametric identification results as well as modal identifiability. Herein, the Bayesian spectral density approach is conducted for output-only modal identification and the Bayesian model class selection approach is used to evaluate the significance of different modes in modal identification. Detailed analysis on the modal identification and modal identifiability based on the measurements of the bridge will be presented. Moreover, the advantages and potentials of Bayesian probabilistic framework on structural health monitoring will be discussed.
Mode identifiability of a cable-stayed bridge based on a Bayesian method
Zhang, Feng-Liang ; Ni, Yi-Qing ; Ni, Yan-Chun ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 17, issue 3, 2016, Pages 471~489
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2016.17.3.471
Modal identification based on ambient vibration data has attracted extensive attention in the past few decades. Since the excitation for ambient vibration tests is mainly from the environmental effects such as wind and traffic loading and no artificial excitation is applied, the signal to noise (s/n) ratio of the data acquired plays an important role in mode identifiability. Under ambient vibration conditions, certain modes may not be identifiable due to a low s/n ratio. This paper presents a study on the mode identifiability of an instrumented cable-stayed bridge with the use of acceleration response data measured by a long-term structural health monitoring system. A recently developed fast Bayesian FFT method is utilized to perform output-only modal identification. In addition to identifying the most probable values (MPVs) of modal parameters, the associated posterior uncertainties can be obtained by this method. Likewise, the power spectral density of modal force can be identified, and thus it is possible to obtain the modal s/n ratio. This provides an efficient way to investigate the mode identifiability. Three groups of data are utilized in this study: the first one is 10 data sets including six collected under normal wind conditions and four collected during typhoons; the second one is three data sets with wind speeds of about 7.5 m/s; and the third one is some blind data. The first two groups of data are used to perform ambient modal identification and help to estimate a critical value of the s/n ratio above which the deficient mode is identifiable, while the third group of data is used to perform verification. A couple of fundamental modes are identified, including the ones in the vertical and transverse directions respectively and coupled in both directions. The uncertainty and s/n ratio of the deficient mode are investigated and discussed. A critical value of the modal s/n ratio is suggested to evaluate the mode identifiability of the deficient mode. The work presented in this paper could provide a base for the vibration-based condition assessment in future.
Wind and traffic-induced variation of dynamic characteristics of a cable-stayed bridge - benchmark study
Park, Jae-Hyung ; Huynh, Thanh-Canh ; Lee, Kwang-Suk ; Kim, Jeong-Tae ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 17, issue 3, 2016, Pages 491~522
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2016.17.3.491
A benchmark problem for modal identification of a cable-stayed bridge was proposed by a research team at Hong Kong Polytechnic University. By taking an instrumented cable-stayed bridge as a test bed, nineteen sets of vibration records with known/unknown excitations were provided to invited researchers. In this paper, the vibration responses of the bridge under a series of excitation conditions are examined to estimate the wind and traffic-induced variations of its dynamic characteristics. Firstly, two output-only experimental modal identification methods are selected. Secondly, the bridge and its monitoring system are described and the nineteen sets of vibration records are analyzed in time-domain and frequency-domain. Excitations sources of blind datasets are predicted based on the analysis of excitation conditions of known datasets. Thirdly, modal parameters are extracted by using the two selected output-only modal identification methods. The identified modal parameters are examined with respect to at least two different conditions such as traffic- and typhoon-induced loadings. Finally, the typhoon-induced effects on dynamic characteristics of the bridge are estimated by analyzing the relationship between the wind velocity and the modal parameters.
Optimal reduction from an initial sensor deployment along the deck of a cable-stayed bridge
Casciati, F. ; Casciati, S. ; Elia, L. ; Faravelli, L. ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 17, issue 3, 2016, Pages 523~539
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2016.17.3.523
The ambient vibration measurement is an output-data-only dynamic testing where natural excitations are represented, for instance, by winds and typhoons. The modal identification involving output-only measurements requires the use of specific modal identification techniques. This paper presents the application of a reliable method (the Stochastic Subspace Identification - SSI) implemented in a general purpose software. As a criterion toward the robustness of identified modes, a bio-inspired optimization algorithm, with a highly nonlinear objective function, is introduced in order to find the optimal deployment of a reduced number of sensors across a large civil engineering structure for the validation of its modal identification. The Ting Kau Bridge (TKB), one of the longest cable-stayed bridges situated in Hong Kong, is chosen as a case study. The results show that the proposed method catches eigenvalues and eigenvectors even for a reduced number of sensors, without any significant loss of accuracy.