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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Smart Structures and Systems
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Volume & Issues
Volume 4, Issue 6 - Nov 2008
Volume 4, Issue 5 - Sep 2008
Volume 4, Issue 4 - Jul 2008
Volume 4, Issue 3 - May 2008
Volume 4, Issue 2 - Mar 2008
Volume 4, Issue 1 - Jan 2008
Selecting the target year
Variability in mechanical properties and microstructure characterization of CuAlBe shape memory alloys for vibration mitigation
Casciati, Fabio ; van der Eijk, Casper ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 4, issue 2, 2008, Pages 103~121
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2008.4.2.103
Shape memory alloys (SMA) have been emphasized, studied and understood in the controlled world of the laboratory. Any attempt to implement one of these alloys in engineered products requires a jump from the controlled world of the laboratory to the actual environment of the application. The first step is to move from single grain specimens to multigrain samples. One works with a material for which any stock is different from that previously available. This paper reviews the milestones in the familiarization process the authors had to overcome during their cooperation within a project funded by the European Union. The main items cover transformation temperatures, thermal treatment and properties understanding.
Influence of geometry and loading conditions on the dynamics of martensitic fronts
Berezovski, Arkadi ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 4, issue 2, 2008, Pages 123~135
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2008.4.2.123
Damping capacity of SMA damping devices is simulated numerically under distinct geometry and loading conditions. Two-dimensional numerical simulations are performed on the basis of a phenomenological model of dynamics of martensite-austenite phase boundaries. Results of the simulations predict the time delay and the value of the stress transferred to other parts of a construction by a damper device.
Numerical analysis of a new SMA-based seismic damper system and material characterization of two commercial NiTi-alloys
Olsen, J.S. ; Van der Eijk, C. ; Zhang, Z.L. ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 4, issue 2, 2008, Pages 137~152
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2008.4.2.137
The work presented in this paper includes material characterisation and an investigation of suitability in seismic dampers for two commercially available NiTi-alloys, along with a numerical analysis of a new damper system employing composite NiTi-wires. Numerical simulations of the new damper system are conducted, using Brinson`s one-dimensional constitutive model for shape memory alloys, with emphasis on the system`s energy dissipation capabilities. The two alloys tested showed some unwanted residual strain at temperatures higher than
, possibly due to stress concentrations near inclusions in the material. These findings show that the alloys are not ideal, but may be employed in a seismic damper if precautions are made. The numerical investigations indicate that using composite NiTi-wires in a seismic damper enhances the energy dissipation capabilities for a wider working temperature range.
Experimental and numerical studies toward the implementation of shape memory alloy ties in masonry structures
Casciati, Sara ; Hamdaoui, Karim ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 4, issue 2, 2008, Pages 153~169
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2008.4.2.153
The use of pre-tensioned shape memory alloy (SMA) wires to retrofit historic masonry structures is investigated. A small wall, serving as a prototype masonry specimen, is constructed to undergo a series of shaking-table tests. It is first studied in its original state, and its dynamic characteristics (in terms of modal frequencies) are extracted from the recorded signals. The results are then compared with those obtained when an increasing number of couples of pre-stressed SMA wires are introduced in the specimen to link the bricks together. A three-dimensional finite element model of the specimen is developed and calibrated according to the modal parameters identified from each experimental test (with and without SMA wires). The calibration process is conducted by enhancing the masonry mechanical behaviour. The results and the effectiveness of the approach are presented.
Investigation of masonry elasticity and shear moduli using finite element micro-models
Mavrouli, O.A. ; Syrmakezis, C.A. ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 4, issue 2, 2008, Pages 171~182
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2008.4.2.171
In this paper, a methodology for the estimation of masonry elasticity and shear moduli is presented, for linear elasticity considerations. The methodology is based on the assumption that for a "periodic" masonry wall, which is formed by the repetition of a basic unit containing blocks and mortar, the mechanical characteristics of the unit are representative of the characteristics of the entire wall. For their calculation, the finite element analysis method is used. A micro-model with finite elements simulating separately the blocks and the mortar is developed. An equivalent finite element model, using an homogenous material is also developed and assuming equivalence of strains for the two models, the homogenous material properties are estimated. The efficiency of the method and its applicability limits are investigated.
Health-monitoring and system-identification of an ancient aqueduct
Chrysostomou, Christis Z. ; Stassis, Andreas ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 4, issue 2, 2008, Pages 183~194
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2008.4.2.183
An important historical monument of Cyprus is an aqueduct that was built in 1747 to provide water to the city of Larnaca and to its port. Because of its importance to the cultural heritage of Cyprus, the aqueduct has been selected as one of the case-study monuments in the project Wide-Range Non-Intrusive devices toward Conservation of Historical Monuments in the Mediterranean Area (WIND-CHIME). Detailed drawings of the aqueduct obtained from the Department of Antiquities of Cyprus have been used for the development of a computational model. The model was fine-tuned through the measurement of the dynamic characteristics of the aqueduct using forced and ambient vibrations. It should be noted that measurement of the dynamic characteristics of the structure were performed twice in a period of three years (June of 2004 and May of 2007). Significant differences were noted and they are attributed to soil structure interaction effects due to seasonal variations of the water-level in a nearby salt-lake. The system identification results for both cases are presented here. This monument was used to test the effectiveness of shape memory alloy (SMA) pre-stressed devices, which were developed during the course of the project, in protecting it without spoiling its monumental value.
Health monitoring of a historical monument in Jordan based on ambient vibration test
Bani-Hani, Khaldoon A. ; Zibdeh, Hazem S. ; Hamdaoui, Karim ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 4, issue 2, 2008, Pages 195~208
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2008.4.2.195
This paper summarizes the experimental vibration-based structural health monitoring study on a historical monument in Jordan. In this work, and within the framework of the European Commission funded project "wide-Range Non-Intrusive Devices Toward Conservation of Historical Monuments in the Mediterranean Area", a seven and a half century old minaret located in Ajloun (73 km north of the capital Amman) is studied. Because of their cultural value, touristic importance and the desire to preserve them for the future, only non-destructive tests were allowed for the experimental investigation of such heritage structures. Therefore, after dimensional measurements and determination of the current state of damage in the selected monument, ambient vibration tests are conducted to measure the accelerations at strategic locations of the system. Output-only modal identification technique is applied to extract the modal parameters such as natural frequencies and mode shapes. A Non-linear version of SAP 2000 computer program is used to develop a three-dimensional finite element model of the minaret. The developed numerical model is then updated according to the modal parameters obtained experimentally by the ambient-vibration test-results and the measured characteristics of old stone and deteriorated mortar. Moreover, a parametric identification method using the N4Sid state space model is employed to model the dynamic behavior of the minaret and to build up a robust, immune and noise tolerant model.
Seismic vulnerability assessment of a historical building in Tunisia
El-Borgi, S. ; Choura, S. ; Neifar, M. ; Smaoui, H. ; Majdoub, M.S. ; Cherif, D. ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 4, issue 2, 2008, Pages 209~220
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2008.4.2.209
A methodology for the seismic vulnerability assessment of historical monuments is presented in this paper. The ongoing work has been conducted in Tunisia within the framework of the FP6 European Union project (WIND-CHIME) on the use of appropriate modern seismic protective systems in the conservation of Mediterranean historical buildings in earthquake-prone areas. The case study is the five-century-old Zaouia of Sidi Kassem Djilizi, located downtown Tunis, the capital of Tunisia. Ambient vibration tests were conducted on the case study using a number of force-balance accelerometers placed at selected locations. The Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFDD) technique was applied to extract the dynamic characteristics of the monument. A 3-D finite element model was developed and updated to obtain reasonable correlation between experimental and numerical modal properties. The set of parameters selected for the updating consists of the modulus of elasticity in each wall element of the finite element model. Seismic vulnerability assessment of the case study was carried out via three-dimensional time-history dynamic analyses of the structure. Dynamic stresses were computed and damage was evaluated according to a masonry specific plane failure criterion. Statistics on the occurrence, location and type of failure provide a general view for the probable damage level and mode. Results indicate a high vulnerability that confirms the need for intervention and retrofit.
The use of SMA wire dampers to enhance the seismic performance of two historical Islamic minarets
El-Attar, Adel ; Saleh, Ahmed ; El-Habbal, Islam ; Zaghw, Abdel Hamid ; Osman, Ashraf ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 4, issue 2, 2008, Pages 221~232
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2008.4.2.221
This paper represents the final results of a research program sponsored by the European Commission through project WIND-CHIME (
ide Range Non-
storical Monuments in the
diterranean Area), in which the possibility of using advanced seismic protection technologies to preserve historical monuments in the Mediterranean area is investigated. In the current research, the dynamic characteristics of two outstanding Mamluk-Style minarets, which similar minarets were reported to experience extensive damage during Dahshur 1992 earthquake, are investigated. The first minaret is the Qusun minaret (1337 A.D, 736 Hijri Date (H.D)) located in El-Suyuti cemetery on the southern side of the Salah El-Din citadel. The minaret is currently separated from the surrounding building and is directly resting on the ground (no vaults underneath). The total height of the minaret is 40.28 meters with a base rectangular shaft of about 5.42
5.20 m. The second minaret is the southern minaret of Al-Sultaniya (1340 A.D, 739 H.D). It is located about 30.0 meters from Qusun minaret, and it is now standing alone but it seems that it used to be attached to a huge unidentified structure. The style of the minaret and its size attribute it to the first half of the fourteenth century. The minaret total height is 36.69 meters and has a 4.48
4.48 m rectangular base. Field investigations were conducted to obtain: (a) geometrical description of the minarets, (b) material properties of the minarets` stones, and (c) soil conditions at the minarets` location. Ambient vibration tests were performed to determine the modal parameters of the minarets such as natural frequencies and mode shapes. A
scale model of Qusun minaret was constructed at Cairo University Concrete Research Laboratory and tested under free vibration with and without SMA wire dampers. The contribution of SMA wire dampers to the structural damping coefficient was evaluated under different vertical loads and vibration amplitudes. Experimental results were used along with the field investigation data to develop a realistic 3-D finite element model that can be used for seismic risk evaluation of the minarets. Examining the updated finite element models under different seismic excitations indicated the vulnerability of such structures to earthquakes with medium to high a/v ratio. The use of SMA wire dampers was found feasible for reducing the seismic risk for this type of structures.
Aseismic protection of historical structures using modern retrofitting techniques
Syrmakezis, C.A. ; Antonopoulos, A.K. ; Mavrouli, O.A. ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 4, issue 2, 2008, Pages 233~245
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2008.4.2.233
For historical masonry structures existing in the Mediterranean area, structural strengthening is of primary importance due to the continuous earthquake threat that is posed on them. Proper retrofitting of historical structures involves a thorough understanding of their structural pathology, before proceeding with any intervention measures. In this paper, a methodology is presented for the evaluation of the actual state of historical masonry structures, which can provide a useful tool for the seismic response assessment before and after the retrofitting. The methodology is mainly focused on the failure and vulnerability analysis of masonry structures using the finite element method. Using this methodology the retrofitting of historical structures with innovative techniques is investigated. The innovative technique presented here involves the exploitation of Shape Memory Alloy prestressed bars. This type of intervention is proposed because it ensures increased reversibility and minimization of interventions, in comparison with conventional retrofitting methods. In this paper, a case study is investigated for the demonstration of the proposed methodologies and techniques, which comprises a masonry Byzantine church and a masonry Cistern. Prestressed SMA alloy bars are placed into the load-bearing system of the structure. The seismic response of the non-retrofitted and the retrofitted finite element models are compared in terms of seismic energy dissipation and displacements diminution.
Use of copper shape memory alloys in retrofitting historical monuments
El-Borgi, S. ; Neifar, M. ; Jabeur, M. Ben ; Cherif, D. ; Smaoui, H. ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 4, issue 2, 2008, Pages 247~259
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2008.4.2.247
The potential use of Cu-based shape memory alloys (SMA) in retrofitting historical monuments is investigated in this paper. This study is part of the ongoing work conducted in Tunisia within the framework of the FP6 European Union project (WIND-CHIME) on the use of appropriate modern seismic protective systems in the conservation of Mediterranean historical buildings in earthquake-prone areas. The present investigation consists of a finite element simulation, as a preliminary to an experimental study where a cantilever masonry wall, representing a part of a historical monument, is subjected to monotonic and quasi-static cyclic loadings around a horizontal axis at the base level. The wall was retrofitted with an array of copper SMA wires with different cross-sectional areas. A new model is proposed for heat-treated copper SMAs and is validated based on published experimental results. A series of nonlinear finite element analyses are then performed on the wall for the purpose of assessing the SMA device retrofitting capabilities. Simulation results show an improvement of the wall response for the case of monotonic and quasi-static cyclic loadings.
Application of shape memory alloy prestressing devices on an ancient aqueduct
Chrysostomou, Christis Z. ; Stassis, Andreas ; Demetriourder, Themos ; Hamdaoui, Karim ;
Smart Structures and Systems, volume 4, issue 2, 2008, Pages 261~278
DOI : 10.12989/sss.2008.4.2.261
The results of the application of shape memory alloy (SMA) prestressing devices on an aqueduct are presented in this paper. The aqueduct was built in 1747 to provide water to the city of Larnaca and to its port. Because of its importance to the cultural heritage of Cyprus, the aqueduct has been selected as one of the case-study monuments in the project Wide-Range Non-Intrusive devices toward Conservation of Historical Monuments in the Mediterranean Area (WIND-CHIME). The Department of Antiquities of Cyprus, acting in a pioneering way, have given their permission to apply the devices in order to investigate their effectiveness in providing protection to the monument against probable catastrophic effects of earthquake excitation. The dynamic characteristics of the structure were determined in two separate occasions and computational models were developed that matched very closely the dynamic characteristics of the structure. In this paper the experimental setup and the measured changes in the dynamic characteristics of the monument after the application of the SMA devices are described.