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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Dec 1998
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Sep 1998
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Jun 1998
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Mar 1998
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Metabolite Kinetics of Trimebutine to N-monodesmethyl Trimebutine in Rats
Lee, Yong-Bok ; Chang, Woo-Ik ; Koh, Ik-Bae ;
Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation, volume 28, issue 2, 1998, Pages 73~80
In order to elucidate the effect of N-demethylation on the in vivo metabolite kinetics, especially hepatic first-pass effect of trimebutine(TMB), the N-demethylation of TMB to N-monodesmethyl trimebutine(N-TMB) was studied in rats. TMB(10 mg/kg) and N-TMB(10 mg/kg) were injected into the femoral and the portal vein, respectively. And the pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained from the plasma concentration-time profiles of TMB and N-TMB determined by the simultaneous analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography. It was supposed that these drugs were almost metabolized in vivo because the urinary and biliary excreated amounts of TMB and N-TMB were lower than 0.1% of the administered dose. According to the hepatic biotransformation model and metabolic pathways of TMB proposed, it was found that the fraction of systemic clearance of TMB which formed N-TMB in liver
was 0.826, that of TMB which furnishes the available N-TMB to the systemic circulation
was 0.083, and the absolute hepatic bioavailability of N-TMB formed trom TMB
was 0.1. These results showed that TMB was suspected of the sequential hepatic first-pass metabolism and N-demethylated by 82.6%. Therefore, the residue would be hydrolyzed by the esterase in the liver. That is, the ability of N-demethylation of TMB was 4.75-fold larger than that of hydrolysis by the esterase in rats.
Dissolution of Crystal Forms of Cefotaxime Sodium
Sohn, Young-Taek ; Kim, Hee-Kyung ;
Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation, volume 28, issue 2, 1998, Pages 81~85
Three polymorphic modifications and two pseudopolymorphic modifications of cefotaxime sodium were obtained by crystallization from different organic solvents. The isolated crystal forms were characterized by UV spectrophotometry, DSC, TGA and X-ray crystallography. Crystal forms of cefotaxime sodium were also compared by dissolution rate. The dissolution rate of form 1 was the highest, followed by form 2, form 4, form 6, form 5 and form 3. Among these polymorphic modifications the dissolution rate of form 3 and form 5 was much slower than that of cefotaxime sodium on the market. All forms showed no change after 2-month storage test in the silica gel desiccator. But after the storage of 2-month at 95% relative humidity condition, all forms were deliquesced by hygroscopic property except form 1 that showed the highest dissolution rate. At 52% relative humidity condition, form 1, form 2 and form 6 had no evidence of phase transformation, but form 3, form 4 and form 5 were also deliquesced.
Drug Release Characteristics and Skin Irritancies of Topical Gels and Multiple Emulsion Creams Containing Kojic Acid
Yu, Sung-Un ; Park, Eun-Woo ; Choi, Young-Wook ;
Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation, volume 28, issue 2, 1998, Pages 87~92
Kojic acid (KA) is an antimelanogenic agent which has been widely used in cosmetics to whiten the skin color. However, it has the drawbacks of the skin irritancy and the instability against the pH, temperature, and light. In order to overcome these problems, various topical gels and multiple emulsion creams which can control the release of active ingredient, KA, were formulated employing cream bases of mineral oil with caprylic capric triglyceride and hydrophilic polymers such as chitosan, carbopol. and pluronics. Using Franz diffusion cells mounted with a synthetic cellulose membrane (MWCO 12,000), drug release characteristics of the formulations were evaluated by the HPLC assay of KA concentration in the receptor compartment of pH 7.4 phosphate buffered saline solution. Drug release from chitosan-based gels (ChitoGel) obeyed to the first order kinetics with a rapid release especially in the initial period. However, pluronic-based gels (PluGel) and carbopol-based gels (CarboGel) revealed controlled release of drug to some extent, followed by the square root-time kinetics. Moreover, the release of KA was further controlled with the W/O/W multiple emulsion creams (MultiCream), showing the apparent zero order release kinetics by virtue of dynamic ratecontrolling membrane of the oil layer. The flux
of ChitoGel. CarboGel. PluGel. and MultiCream in the initial period of 6hr were 73.30, 28.67. 24.04 and 7.72, respectively. On the other hand, the skin irritancy score of ChitoGel and MultiCream were observed as 2.5 and 2.3 respectively, in the rabbit skin irritation test. Although there were insignificant differences at p<0.05 between those formulations, it was possible to conclude that the W/O/W multiple emulsion creams containing KA might be a good candidate for an antimelanogenic drug delivery system due to the controlled release of acidic drug molecules.
New Cationic Liposome with Enhanced Stability and Transfection Efficiency for Gene Delivery
Kim, Kyoung-Mi ; Nam, Bang-Hyun ; Sohn, Dong-Hwan ;
Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation, volume 28, issue 2, 1998, Pages 93~98
We have developed liposomes which can be easily prepared with inexpensive lipid, have enhanced stability, and can efficiently deliver DNA into the COS-l cells, Liposome formulations were prepared using cationic materials such as dimethyldioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDAB), cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide(CTAB), We investigated the effect of cationic liposome formulations on in vitro DNA transfection, DDAB-containing liposomes showed increased transfection efficiency which was 3.2-fold as much as that by
, but CTAB-containing liposomes were inactive in gene transfection. The effect of colipid of DDAB-containing liposome was also investegated. As a colipid, dioleylphosphatidylethanolamine(DOPE) and cholesterol did altered the transfection efficiency of DDAB-containing liposomes. And increased DDAB concentration lowered the transfection efficiency. The optimum amount of liposomal formulation was
of DNA. In the experiment of stability, DOPE-containing liposomes formulation showed a broad size distribution and separation of two major peaks on a 5th day of preparation, but liposomes containing cholesterol was stable for 10 days. DDAB-containing liposomal DNA delivery system was prepared easily and was stable.
Oral Bioadhesive Gels of Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor(rhEGF) for the Healing of Gastric Ulcers
Han, Kun ; Lee, Su-Jin ; Kim, Jae-Hwan ; Chung, Youn-Bok ;
Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation, volume 28, issue 2, 1998, Pages 99~107
The objective of this study was to develop effective oral formulations of rhEGF for gastric ulcer healing using polycarbophil. hydroxypropylcellulose(HPC) and sucralfate as its bioadhesive bases. Cytoprotective effects of rhEGF, cell proliferation and differentiation. on the ulcers induced by ethanol or acetic acid in rats were studied. rhEGF release from HPC formulation was much faster than that from polycarbophil formulation. HPC formulation combined with small amount of sucralfate showed much slower release of rhEGF than only HPC base only. rhEGF preparations with bioadhesive polymers showed better effects on the healing of gastric ulcers than EGF solution when administered orally. When rhEGF preparations were administered at once and the animals were under starvation, polycarbophil formulation showed better effect on gastric ulcers than HPC formulation. Otherwise, when rhEGF preparations were given more than three times and the rats were fed normally, HPC formulation showed good healing efficacy of ulcers compared to polycarbophil formulation. rhEGF showed dose-dependent effect on the healing of both chronic and acute ulcers.
Controlled Release and Bioavailability of Piracetam
Kang, Chin-Yang ; Lee, Kyung-Tae ; Seo, Seong-Hoon ;
Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation, volume 28, issue 2, 1998, Pages 109~113
This study is purposed to develop the sustained release and bioavailability of piracetam (PA). The use of alginate beads as a means to achieve sustained release of piracetam was evaluated in comparison with that of piracetam alone. In the PA-sodium alginate(SA) beads was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry thermogram(DSC), indicating a relative shift of an endometric peak of PA to higher temperature. The changes in dissolution rates from PA-SA beads and PASA beads coated by chitosan(CHO) were significantly slower than that of intact PA. The release rate of PA-SA in the gastric fluid was markedly decreased compared with that in the intestinal fluid, suggesting that PA is mostly released in the intestinal fluid. However, the PA/SA ratio scarcely affected the release profile. The blood concentration- time curves of PA, PA-SA and PA-SA-CHO were obtained by oral administration to rats.
of PA, PA-SA and PA-SA-CHO were 1, 10 and 6 hours, respectively. It was confirmed that the release of PA was prolonged by the formulation of PA-SA beads and PA-SA-CHO beads.
Effects of Crystal Forms on Dissolution of Cephradin
Sohn, Young-Taek ; Kim, Ji-Seon ;
Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation, volume 28, issue 2, 1998, Pages 115~119
Five polymorphic modifications of Cephradin were prepared by recrystallization from organic solvents. The isolated crystal forms were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray crystallography powder diffractometry. Modificaition 1 was the most stable form and decomposed at
. Modification 3 and 4 were metastable. The dissolution of modification 3 and 4 was faster than that of marketed form.
Solubility and Physicochemical Stability of Caroverine Hydrochloride in Aqueous Solution
Gwak, Hye-Sun ; Lee, Dong-Soo ; Chun, In-Koo ;
Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation, volume 28, issue 2, 1998, Pages 121~126
The solubility and physicochemical stability of caroverine hydrochloride (CRV), an antispasmodic, in buffered aqueous solutions were studied using a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The solubilty of the drug at pH 2.76-5.40 was similar at the range 31.9-36.2 mg/ml
, but, at the pH higher than 6.0, markedly decreased. The use of polyethylene glycol 400 as a cosolvent did not increase the solubility at any compositions examined. Moreover. increasing molar concentration of aqueous phosphate buffer from 0 to 0.5 M remarkably decreased the solubility. The degradation of CRY followed the apparent first-order kinetics. The degradation was accelerated with decreasing pH and increasing storage temperature. The half-lives for the degradation of CRY (1.0 mg/ml) at pH 1.28. 4.01 and 5.93
were 2.8, 31.4 and 124 hr. respectively. The pHs of incubated solutions were to some extent lowered perhaps due to the formation of acidic degradation products. The addition of disodium edetate (0.01%) to the CRY solution (pH 4.95) retarded 2.5 times the degradation rate at
, but the use of sodium bisulfite (0.1%) accelerated 2.9 times the rate. The activation energy for the CRY solution (20 mg/ml. pH 5.4) containing 0.01% EDTA was calculated to be 5.98 kcal/mole. When the solution was stored under nitrogen displacement in ampoule, there was no significant degradation even after 3 months at
, indicating that protection from oxidation by air (oxygen) is essential for the complete stabilization of CRY solution.