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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Meteorological Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Dec 2006
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Sep 2006
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Jun 2006
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Mar 2006
Selecting the target year
Estimation of Probable Maximum Depth-Area-Duration by Moisture Maximization over the Geumgang River Basin
Lee, Kwang-Ho ;
Atmosphere, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 55~65
The characteristics of Depth-Area-Duration (DAD) for 50 storms over the Geumgang river basin have been analysed in terms of various storm causes using the precipitation data during the period from 1984 to 2003. Results show that the ratio of the precipitation depth to duration, and the ratio of decrease in the precipitation depth to area are the largest in the case of the tropical cyclone. Storm maximization ratios are in the range 1.03 to 2.66 for the 50 selected heavy precipitation cases over Geumgang river basin, with the largest value for the tropical cyclone case, suggesting that the tropical cyclone could cause heavier precipitation than the other storms. In addition, the 24-hour probable maximum precipitation for the Geumgang river basin is estimated to be about 745 mm in the maximum precipitation area.
Study on Mechanisms and Orographic Effect for the Springtime Downslope Windstorm over the Yeongdong Region
Kim, Jung-Hoon ; Chung, Il-Ung ;
Atmosphere, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 67~83
The statistical analysis for the springtime windstorm in Korea shows that Yeongdong region has the highest occurrence frequency during recent 10 years. The objective of this study is to find possible mechanisms for the downslope windstorm formation in the Yeongdong region by using a mesoscale numerical model, WRF. Dynamical process, wave breaking (hereafter WB), is qualitatively investigated as the candidate mechanism for a windstorm event occurred in 5 April, 2005. WB is developed in upper troposphere downstream, since stable air is lifted by the Taebaek mountain. This process can cause and maintain the severe downslope windstorm by drawing the upper flow down to the surface. And the intensified downslope wind leads the hydraulic jump (hereafter HJ) in downstream region. Froude numbers at Chuncheon (upslope side), Seorak Mountain (crest), Yangyang (lee side), and the East Sea (distant downstream position) are estimated by about 0.4, 1.0, 1.6, and 0.6, respectively. This result implies that the accelerated and supercritical (Fr>1) flow adjusts to the ambient subcritical (Fr<1) conditions in the turbulent HJ. In addition, we find the formation of upstream inversion near top level of the mountain cause the intensification of HJ. Experiments to examine the orographic effect on the mechanisms suggest that the magnitudes of WB and HJ are larger in the experiment of higher topography, but there is no significant difference of windstorm magnitude among the experiments. Another important result from these sensitivity experiments is that the intensity of downslope windstorm strongly depends on the magnitude of upper (2~4 km) wind in upstream side.
Characteristics of Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Thickness over the Northeast Asia Using TERRA/MODIS Data during the Year 2000~2005
Lee, Dong Ha ; Lee, Kwon Ho ; Kim, Jeong Eun ; Kim, Young Joon ;
Atmosphere, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 85~96
The six-year (2000~2005) record of aerosol optical thickness (AOT or
) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was analyzed over the Northeast Asia. The MODIS AOT standard products (MOD04_L2) over both ocean and land were collected to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of the atmospheric aerosols over the study region (
). The monthly averaged AOT result revealed slight changes(
), which was almost unchangeable, over Korea. In contrast, the large AOT values (> 0.6) and a significant AOT increase (> 0.004
) over East China were observed. For the analysis of spatio-temporal variability of AOT values, study area was divided by six sectors (I: North-East China, II: East China, III: Yellow Sea, IV: Korea Peninsular, V: East Sea, and VI: South Sea and Western part of Japan). The considerable result showed that particularly high AOT contribution was observed over sector I (32.5%) and II (25.5%) where some major urban and industrialized areas and agricultural fields are located and other cases were observed 13.2%, 14.6%, 7.1%, 7.0% over sector III, IV, V, and VI, respectively. In addition, yearly AOT changes based on seasons are observed differently at each sector but increasing trends reveal in summer and fall over all sectors.
Typhoon Simulation with a Parameterized Sea Surface Cooling
Lee, Duho ; Kwon, H. Joe ; Won, Seong-Hee ; Park, Seon Ki ;
Atmosphere, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 97~110
This study investigates the response of a typhoon model to the change of the sea surface temperature (SST) throughout the model integration. The SST change is parameterized as a formulae of which the magnitude is given as a function of not only the intensity and the size but the moving speed of tropical cyclone. The formulae is constructed by referring to many previous observational and numerical studies on the SST cooling with the passage of tropical cyclones. Since the parameterized cooling formulae is based on the mathematical expression, the resemblance between the prescribed SST cooling and the observed one during the period of the numerical experiment is not complete nor satisfactory. The agreements between the prescribed and the observed SST even over the swath of the typhoon passage differ from case to case. Numerical experiments are undertaken with and without prescribing the SST cooling. The results with the SST cooling do not show clear evidence in improving the track prediction compared to those of the without-experiments. SST cooling in the model shows its swath along the incomplete simulated track so that the magnitude and the distribution of the sea surface cooling does not resemble completely with the observed one. However, we have observed a little improvement in the intensity prediction in terms of the central pressure of the tropical cyclone in some cases. In case where the model without the SST treatment is not able to yield a correct prediction of the filling of the tropical cyclone especially in the decaying stage, the pulling effect given by the SST cooling alleviates the over-deepening of the model so that the central pressure approaches toward the observed value. However, the opposite case when the SST treatment makes the prediction worse may also be possible. In general when the sea surface temperature is reduced, the amount of the sensible and the latent heat from the ocean surface become also reduced, which results in the weakening of the storms comparing to the constant SST case. It turns out to be the case also in our experiments. The weakening is realized in the central pressure, maximum wind, horizontal temperature gradient, etc.
Surface Energy Balance at Sejong Station, King George Island, Antarctica
Kim, Jhoon ; Cho, Hi Ku ; Jung, Yeon Jin ; Lee, Yun Gon ; Lee, Bang Yong ;
Atmosphere, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 111~124
This study examines seasonal variability of the surface energy balance at the King Sejong Station, Antarctica, using measurements and estimates of the components related to the balance for the period of 1996 to 2004. Annual average of downward shortwave radiation at the surface is 81
which is 37% of the extraterrestrial value, with the monthly maximum of 188
in December and the minimum of 8
in June. These values are relatively smaller than those at other stations in Antarctica, which can be attributed to higher cloudy weather conditions in Antarctic front zone. Surface albedo varies between ~0.3 in the austral summer season and ~0.6 in the winter season. As a result, the net shortwave radiation ranges from 117
down to 3
with annual averages of 43
. Annual average of the downward longwave radiation shows 278
, ranging from 263
in August to 298
in January. The downward longwave radiation is verified to be dependent strongly on the air temperature and specific humidity, accounting for 74% and 79% of the total variance in the longwave radiation, respectively. The net longwave radiation varies between 25
with the annual averages of 30
. Accordingly, the annual average energy balance is dominated by radiative warming of a positive net all-wave radiation from September to next March and radiative cooling of a negative net all-wave radiation from April to August. The net all-wave radiative energy gain and loss at the surface is mostly balanced by turbulent flux of sensible and latent heat. The soil heat flux is of negligible importance in the surface energy balance.
Statistical Verification of Precipitation Forecasts from MM5 for Heavy Snowfall Events in Yeongdong Region
Lee, Jeong-Soon ; Kwon, Tae-Yong ; Kim, Deok-Rae ;
Atmosphere, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 125~139
Precipitation forecasts from MM5 have been verified for the period 1989-2001 over Yeongdong region to show a tendency of model forecast. We select 57 events which are related with the heavy snowfall in Yeongdong region. They are classified into three precipitation types; mountain type, cold-coastal type, and warm type. The threat score (TS), the probability of detection (POD), and the false-alarm rate (FAR) are computed for categorical verification and the mean squared error (MSE) is also computed for scalar accuracy measures. In the case of POD, warm, mountain, and cold-coastal precipitation type are 0.71, 0.69, and 0.55 in turn, respectively. In aspect of quantitative verification, mountain and cold-coastal type are relatively well matched between forecasts and observations, while for warm type MM5 tends to overestimate precipitation. There are 12 events for the POD below 0.2, mountain, cold-coastal, warm type are 2, 7, 3 events, respectively. Most of their precipitation are distributed over the East Sea nearby Yeongdong region. These events are also shown when there are no or very weak easterlies in the lower troposphere. Even in the case that we use high resolution sea surface temperature (about 18 km) for the boundary condition, there are not much changes in the wind direction to compare that with low resolution sea surface temperature (about 100 km).
The History and Current Status of the Supercomputers in Institutions for Research and Forecast of Weather/Climate
Joh, Minsu ;
Atmosphere, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 141~157
A revolution in weather and climate forecasting is in progress. This has been made possible as a result of theoretical advances in our understanding of the predictability of weather and climate, and by the extraordinary developments in supercomputer technology. New problem areas have been discovered and different solutions have been found by the recent high performance computers whose performance has been increased rapidly. Such advances in the computational performance may change the strategy of development of numerical models and prediction methods. This paper discusses a brief history and current status of the supercomputers in institutions for research and forecast of weather/climate. The main purpose of this study is to provide the preliminary information about supercomputers such as architecture of system and processor. Such information would be useful for meteorologists to understand the features and the preference of supercomputers in each institution.
On the Globalization of the Journal of the Korean Meteorological Society
Kwon, H. Joe ; Lee, Dong-Kyou ; Park, Seon Ki ; Ahn, Myung-Hwan ;
Atmosphere, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 159~168
Journal of the Korean Meteorological Society (JKMS) is confronted by a huge challenge. Following the long-term plan of the Korean Meteorological Society (KMS), the JKMS has entered a new era in 2006 in the sense that the all papers are published in English. Tremendous efforts are needed to accomplish the original goal of JKMS becoming an internationally recognized journal. A forum was held in this connection with the subject of the vitalization of the JKMS at the Spring Meeting of the Korean Meteorological Society held at Gwangju, 2006. A number of special topics were presented at the forum and active and vigorous discussions followed. Professor Dong-Kyou Lee presented strategies to increase the number of submission to the JKMS. Professor Seon Ki Park gave a presentation on how JKMS can grow into the SCI journal. The Editor-in-Chief of JKMS, professor H. Joe Kwon introduced the on-line review system of JKMS which had launched in 2006. This manuscript is presented on the basis of the presentations and the discussions at the forum for the purpose of finding the way in aiming the direction of the long-term goal of the KMS.