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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Meteorological Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 2007
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 2007
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 2007
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2007
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Improvement of the Stratospheric Wind Analysis with the Climatological Constraint in the Global Three-Dimensional Variational Assimilation at Korea Meteorological Administration
Joo, Sangwon ; Lee, Woo-Jin ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 1, 2007, Pages 1~15
A constraint based on climatology is introduced to the cost function of the three-dimensional variational assimilation (3dVar) to correct the error of the zonal mean wind structure in the global data assimilation system at Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). The revised cost function compels the analysis fit to the chosen climatology while keeping the balance between the variables in the course of analysis. The constraint varies selectively with the vertical level and the horizontal scale of the motion. The zonally averaged wind field from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis 40 (ERA-40) is used as a climatology field in the constraint. The constraint controls only the zonally averaged stratospheric long waves with total wave number less than 20 to fix the error of the large scale wind field in the stratosphere. The constrained 3dVar successfully suppresses the erroneous westerly in the stratospheric analysis promptly, and has been applied on the operational global 3dVar system at KMA.
Inhomogeneities in Korean Climate Data (II): Due to the Change of the Computing Procedure of Daily Mean
Ryoo, Sang-Boom ; Kim, Yeon-Hee ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 1, 2007, Pages 17~26
The station relocations, the replacement of instruments, and the change of a procedure for calculating derived climatic quantities from observations are well-known nonclimatic factors that seriously contaminate the worthwhile results in climate study. Prior to embarking on the climatological analysis, therefore, the quality and homogeneity of the utilized data sets should be properly evaluated with metadata. According to the metadata of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA), there have been plenty of changes in the procedure computing the daily mean values of temperature, humidity, etc, since 1904. For routine climatological work, it is customary to compute approximate daily mean values for individual days from values observed at fixed hours. In the KMA, fixed hours were totally 5 times changed: at four-hourly, four-hourly interval with additional 12 hour, eight-hourly, six-hourly, three-hourly intervals. In this paper, the homogeneity in the daily mean temperature dataset of the KMA was assessed with the consistency and efficiency of point estimators. We used the daily mean calculated from the 24 hourly readings as a potential true value. Approximate daily means computed from temperatures observed at different fixed hours have statistically different properties. So this inhomogeneity in KMA climate data should be kept in mind if you want to analysis secular aspects of Korea climate using this data set.
Predictability of the Seasonal Simulation by the METRI 3-month Prediction System
Byun, Young-Hwa ; Song, Jee-Hye ; Park, Suhee ; Lim, Han-Chul ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 1, 2007, Pages 27~44
The purpose of this study is to investigate predictability of the seasonal simulation by the METRI (Meteorological Research Institute) AGCM (Atmospheric General Circulation Model), which is a long-term prediction model for the METRI 3-month prediction system. We examine the performance skill of climate simulation and predictability by the analysis of variance of the METRI AGCM, focusing on the precipitation, 850 hPa temperature, and 500 hPa geopotential height. According to the result, the METRI AGCM shows systematic errors with seasonal march, and represents large errors over the equatorial region, compared to the observation. Also, the response of the METRI AGCM by the variation of the sea surface temperature is obvious for the wintertime and springtime. However, the METRI AGCM does not show the significant ENSO-related signal in autumn. In case of prediction over the east Asian region, errors between the prediction results and the observation are not quite large with the lead-time. However, in the predictability assessment using the analysis of variance method, longer lead-time makes the prediction better, and the predictability becomes better in the springtime.
Synoptic Air Mass Classification Using Cluster Analysis and Relation to Daily Mortality in Seoul, South Korea
Kim, Jiyoung ; Lee, Dae-Geun ; Choi, Byoung-Cheol ; Park, Il-Soo ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 1, 2007, Pages 45~53
In order to investigate the impacts of heat wave on human health, cluster analysis of meteorological elements (e.g., temperature, dewpoint, sea level pressure, visibility, cloud amount, and wind components) for identifying offensive synoptic air masses is employed. Meteorological data at Seoul during the past 30 years are used. The daily death data at Seoul are also employed. Occurrence frequency of heat waves which is defined by daily maximum temperature greater than the threshold temperature (i.e.,
) was analyzed. The result shows that the frequency and duration of heat waves at Seoul are increasing during the past 30 years. In addition, the increasing trend of the frequency and duration clearly appears in late spring and early autumn as well as summer. Factor analysis shows that 65.1% of the total variance can be explained by 4 components which are linearly independent. Eight clusters (or synoptic air masses) were classified and found to be optimal for representing the summertime air masses at Seoul, Korea. The results exhibit that cluster-mean values of meteorological variables of an offensive air mass (or cluster) are closely correlated with the observed and standardized deaths.
Future Climate Projection over East Asia Using ECHO-G/S
Cha, Yu-Mi ; Lee, Hyo-Shin ; Moon, JaYeon ; Kwon, Won-Tae ; Boo, Kyong-On ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 1, 2007, Pages 55~68
Future climate changes over East Asia are projected by anthropogenic forcing of greenhouse gases and aerosols using ECHO-G/S (ECHAM4/HOPE-G). Climate simulation in the 21st century is conducted with three standard SRES scenarios (A1B, B1, and A2) and the model performance is assessed by the 20th Century (20C3M) experiment. From the present climate simulation (20C3M), the model reproduced reliable climate state in the most fields, however, cold bias in temperature and dry bias of summer in precipitation occurred. The intercomparison among models using Taylor diagram indicates that ECHO-G/S exhibits smaller mean bias and higher pattern correlation than other nine AOGCMs. Based on SRES scenarios, East Asia will experience warmer and wetter climate in the coming 21st century. Changes of geographical patterns from the present to the future are considerably similar through all the scenarios except for the magnitude difference. The temperature in winter and precipitation in summer show remarkable increase. In spite of the large uncertainty in simulating precipitation by regional scale, we found that the summer (winter) precipitation at eastern coast (north of
) of East Asia has significantly increased. In the 21st century, the warming over the continents of East Asia showed much more increase than that over the ocean. Hence, more enhanced (weakened) land-sea thermal contrast over East Asia in summer (winter) will cause strong (weak) monsoon. In summer, the low pressure located in East Asia becomes deeper and the moisture from the south or southeast is transported more into the land. These result in increasing precipitation amount over East Asia, especially at the coastal region. In winter, the increase (decrease) of precipitation is accompanied by strengthening (weakening) of baroclinicity over the land (sea) of East Asia.
Dual Doppler Wind Retrieval Using a Three-dimensional Variational Method
Lee, SeonYong ; Choi, Young-Jean ; Chan, Dong-Eon ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 1, 2007, Pages 69~86
The characteristics of the dual-Doppler wind retrieval method based on a three dimensional variational (3DVAR) conception were investigated from the following four points of view; the sensitivity of the number of iteration, the effect of the weak constraint term, the effect of the smoothness term, and the sensitivity of the error mixing ratio of the radial velocities. In the experiment, the radial velocities relative to the Gosan and Jindo radar sites of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) were calculated from the forecasting of the WRF (Weather Research and Forecast; Skamarock, 2004) model at 1330 UTC 30 June 2006, which is the one and half hour forecast from the initial time, 1200 UTC on that day. The results showed that the retrieval performance of the horizontal wind field was robust, but that of the vertical wind was sensitive to the external conditions, such as iteration number and the on/off of the weak constraint term. The sensitivity of error mixing ratio was so large that even the horizontal wind retrieval efficiency was reduced a lot. But the sensitivity of the smooth term was not so large. When we applied this method to the real mesoscale convective system (MCS) between the Gosan and Jindo radar pair at 1430 UTC 30 June 2006, the wind structure of the convective cells in the MCS was consistently retrieved relative to the reflectivity factor structure. By comparing the vertical wind structure of this case with that of 10 minutes after, 1440 UTC 30 June 2006, we got the physical consistency of our method.
Comparison of ADAM's (Asian Dust Aerosol Model) Results with Observed PM10 Data
Cho, Changbum ; Chun, Youngsin ; Ku, Bonyang ; Park, Soon-Ung ; Lee, Sang-Sam ; Chung, Yun-Ang ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 1, 2007, Pages 87~99
Simulation results of Asian Dust Aerosol Model (ADAM) for the period of April 7-9, 2006 were analyzed, comparing with observed PM10 data. ADAM simulated around ten times lower than on-site PM10 concentration in the source regions: Zhurihe, Tongliao, Yushe, Dalian and Huimin. As the result of this low concentration, transported amounts of Asian Dust were under-estimated as well. In order to quantify a forecasting accuracy, Bias and RMSE were calculated. Even though remarkably negative Biases and high RMSEs were observed, ADAM simulation had followed well up the time of dust outbreak and a transported path. However, the emission process to generate dust from source regions requires a great enhancement. The PM10 concentration at the surface reached up to
at Baeknyoungdo and Seoul (Mt. Gwanak), up to
at KGAWO about 18:00 LST in April 8, respectively; however, ADAM did not simulate the same result on its second peak. It is considered that traveling Asian dust might have been lagged over the Korean peninsula by the blocking of surface high pressure. Moreover, the current RDAPS's 30 km grid resolution (which ADAM adopts as the meteorological input data) might not adequately represent small-scale atmospheric motions below planetary boundary layer.
Cloud Physics Observation System (CPOS) and Validation of Its Products
Chang, Ki-Ho ; Oh, Sung-Nam ; Jeong, Ki-Deok ; Yang, Ha-Young ; Lee, Myoung-Joo ; Jeong, Jin-Yim ; Cho, Yohan ; Kim, Hyo-Kyung ; Park, Gyun-Myeong ; Yum, Seong-Soo ; Cha, Joo-Wan ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 1, 2007, Pages 101~108
To observe and analyze the cloud and fog characteristics, the METeorological Research Institute (METRI) has established the Cloud Physics Observation System (CPOS) by implementing the cloud observation instruments: Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP), PARticle SIze and VELocity (PARSIVEL), Microwave Radiometer (MWR), Micro Rain Radar (MRR), and 3D-AWS at the Daegwallyeong Enhanced Mountain Weather Observation Center. The cloud-related products of CPOS and the validation status for the size distribution of FSSP, the precipitable water of MWR, and the rainfall rate of MRR and PARSIVEL are described.
Analysis of Misting Phenomenon in a Car
Kwak, Min-Kyoung ; Kim, Jae-Hwan ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 1, 2007, Pages 109~114
The mist on the inside of an automobile windshield is not only uncomfortable but also very dangerous because it obstructs the driver's vision. However, the removal process of the mist has never been studied in detail. This study performed experiments analyzing the mechanism causes the mist in a car and investigated the appropriate removal process. The experiments were performed on two rainy days, 10 April 2006 and 26 May 2006, with temperature and relative humidity sensors of testo-175-H2 and DICKSON-TK500. We found a passenger increased water vapor by 0.2 g
through respiration and thereby relative humidity (RH) from 55% to 67% in 8 minutes. Even though RH was not saturated, misting occurred because the humid air contacted the colder surface of the window. To remove the mist, it is necessary to increase the temperature or inflow drier air in the car. Therefore, we expected that the heater would be more effective than air conditioner for this matter. However, the outcome was the other way around due to the structure of the heating and cooling system in the car. When the air-conditioner was on, colder and drier air was generated and flowed through the so-called evaporator. Droplets were produced in the evaporator due to cooling procedure. When the heater was on, the warm air evaporated the droplets and increased the water content in the air resulting in an increase of relative humidity. Consequently, the air conditioner is more effective than the heater to remove the mist.