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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Meteorological Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 2007
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 2007
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 2007
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2007
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Coherence of the Precipitation Simulated by the WRF Model during a Changma Period in 2005
Byon, Jae-Young ; Won, Hye-Young ; Cho, Chun-Ho ; Choi, Young-Jean ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 115~123
The present study uses the GOES IR brightness temperature to examine the temporal and spatial variability of cloud activity over the region
and analyzes the coherence of eastern Asian summer season rainfall in Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. Time-longitude diagram of the time period from June to July 2005 shows a signal of eastward propagation in the WRF model and convective index derived from GOES IR data. The rain streaks in time-latitude diagram reveal coherence during the experiment period. Diurnal and synoptic scales are evident in the power spectrum of the time series of convective index and WRF rainfall. The diurnal cycle of early morning rainfall in the WRF model agrees with GOES IR data in the Korean Peninsula, but the afternoon convection observed by satellite observation in China is not consistent with the WRF rainfall which is represented at the dawn. Although there are errors in strength and timing of convection, the model predicts a coherent tendency of rainfall occurrence during summer season.
Development of Cloud Amount Calculation Algorithm using MTSAT-1R Satellite Data
Lee, Byung-Il ; Kim, Yoonjae ; Chung, Chu-Yong ; Lee, Sang-Hee ; Oh, Sung-Nam ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 125~133
Cloud amount calculation algorithm was developed using MTSAT-1R satellite data. The cloud amount is retrieved at 5 km
5 km over the Korean Peninsula and adjacent sea area. The algorithm consists of three steps that are cloud detection, cloud type classification, and cloud amount calculation. At the first step, dynamic thresholds method was applied for detecting cloud pixels. For using objective thresholds in the algorithm, sensitivity test was performed for TBB and Albedo variation with temporal and spatial change. Detected cloud cover was classified into 3 cloud types (low-level cloud, cirrus or uncertain cloud, and cumulonimbus type high-level cloud) in second step. Finally, cloud amount was calculated by the integration method of the steradian angle of each cloud pixel over
elevation. Calculated cloud amount was compared with measured cloud amount with eye at surface observatory for the validation. Bias, RMSE, and correlation coefficient were 0.4, 1.8, and 0.8, respectively. Validation results indicated that calculated cloud amount was a little higher than measured cloud amount but correlation was considerably high. Since calculated cloud amount has 5km
5km resolution over Korean Peninsula and adjacent sea area, the satellite-driven cloud amount could show the possibility which overcomes the temporal and spatial limitation of measured cloud amount with eye at surface observatory.
A Simple Regression Model for Predicting the TC Intensity Change after Landfall over the Korean Peninsula
Choi, Ki-Seon ; Kim, Baek-Jo ; Lee, Ji-Yun ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 135~145
We developed a simple regression model for predicting the intesity change (central pressure) of major tropical cyclones (TCs) for 24 hours after landfall using 51 TC cases which landed over the Korean Peninsula for 1951-2004. Clusters 1 and 4 with a relatively strong intensity of TC after landfall classified by Choi and Kim (2007) are used to develop a statistical model for the prediction of TC intensity change. Predicting parameters (falling constants) in the regression models
are 6.46 and 10.11 for clusters 1 and 4, respectively. It might be mentioned that there is some feasibility in employing a simple regression model developed in this study for TC intensity change after landfall for operational purpose of TC forecasting compared with RSMC-Tokyo best-track in both TC cases of Clusters 1 and 4 and Ewiniar (0603) case, but the room for improvement of model still remains for further study.
A Weekend Effect in Diurnal Temperature Range and its Association with Aerosols in Seoul
Kim, Byung-Gon ; Kim, Yoo-Jun ; Eun, Seung-Hee ; Choi, Min-Hyuck ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 147~157
A weekend effect has been investigated in diurnal temperature range (DTR) for Seoul in Korea using 50-year (1955 ~ 2005) surface measurements of maximum and minimum temperatures, and particle mass concentrations (PM10). The minimum temperature increases by 0.42K per decade, 2 times faster than the maximum temperature during 1955 to 2005, for rapid urbanization has occurred in Seoul. The weekend effect, which is defined as the DTR for Sunday minus the average DTR for Tuseday through Thursday, can be as large as +0.08 K for the recent 20-year period relative to 0.01K for 1955 to 1975. Especially the wintertime DTR tends to have a remarkable positive weekend effect (+0.17K), that is, larger DTR on Sunday compared to weekdays, which seems to be associated with increased maximum temperature and thus an increase in DTR. This result could be explained by relative differences in PM10 concentration between Sunday and weekdays (Tuesday through Thursday), such that PM10 concentration on Sundays appears to be systematically lower about 12% than on weekdays. The annually average weekend DTR increases by 0.2K with
decrease in PM10 concentration in comparison with weekdays. The results could be possible evidence of an anthropogenic link to DTR, one of climate important indicators, since no meteorological phenomenon is supposed to occur over a 7 day cycle.
A Comparison of the Land Cover Data Sets over Asian Region: USGS, IGBP, and UMd
Kang, Jeon-Ho ; Suh, Myoung-Seok ; Kwak, Chong-Heum ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 159~169
A comparison of the three land cover data sets (United States Geological Survey: USGS, International Geosphere Biosphere Programme: IGBP, and University of Maryland: UMd), derived from 1992-1993 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer(AVHRR) data sets, was performed over the Asian continent. Preprocesses such as the unification of map projection and land cover definition, were applied for the comparison of the three different land cover data sets. Overall, the agreement among the three land cover data sets was relatively high for the land covers which have a distinct phenology, such as urban, open shrubland, mixed forest, and bare ground (>45%). The ratios of triple agreement (TA), couple agreement (CA) and total disagreement (TD) among the three land cover data sets are 30.99%, 57.89% and 8.91%, respectively. The agreement ratio between USGS and IGBP is much greater (about 80%) than that (about 32%) between USGS and UMd (or IGBP and UMd). The main reasons for the relatively low agreement among the three land cover data sets are differences in 1) the number of land cover categories, 2) the basic input data sets used for the classification, 3) classification (or clustering) methodologies, and 4) level of preprocessing. The number of categories for the USGS, IGBP and UMd are 24, 17 and 14, respectively. USGS and IGBP used only the 12 monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), whereas UMd used the 12 monthly NDVI and other 29 auxiliary data derived from AVHRR 5 channels. USGS and IGBP used unsupervised clustering method, whereas UMd used the supervised technique, decision tree using the ground truth data derived from the high resolution Landsat data. The insufficient preprocessing in USGS and IGBP compared to the UMd resulted in the spatial discontinuity and misclassification.
Long-term Trends of Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperatures for the Major Cities of South Korea and their Implications on Human Health
Choi, Byoung-Cheol ; Kim, Jiyoung ; Lee, Dae-Geun ; Kysely, Jan ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 171~183
Trends of daily maximum and minimum temperatures in major cities of South Korea (Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, and Ulsan) during the past 40 years (1961-2000) were investigated. Temperature records for the Chupungryeong station were compared with those of the large cities because of the rural environment of the station. There were distinct warming trends at all stations, although the warming rates depend on each station's local climate and environment. The warming rates in Korea are much greater than the global warming trends, by a factor of 3 to 4. The most increasing rate in daily maximum temperature was at Busan with
per decade, the most increasing rate in daily minimum temperature was at Daegu with
per decade. In general, the warming trends of the cities were most pronounced in winter season with an increasing rate of
/decade at least. Diurnal temperature range shows positive or negative trends according to the regional climate and environmental change. The frequency distribution of the daily temperatures for the past 40 years at Seoul and Chupungryeong shows that there have been reductions in cold day frequencies at both stations. The results imply that the impacts on human health might be positive in winter and adverse in summer if the regional warming scenario by the current regional climate model reflects future climate change in Korea.
The Estimation of Urbanization Effect in Global Warming over Korea using Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperatures
Koo, Gyo-Sook ; Boo, Kyung-On ; Kwon, Won-Tae ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 185~193
This study investigates urbanization effect in warming trend of surface air temperature over Korea. The data used in this study consist of the daily minimum and maximum temperatures during the period of 32 years(1968-1999) from 16 stations of KMA. To calculate magnitude and trend of urbanization effect, stations were classified into urban and rural stations using population statistics. Urban stations were defined as those with population densities greater than 1000 persons per kilometer squared in 1995. The others were defined as rural stations. The urban stations were also subdivided into two groups according to their population totals. For estimates of urban effect magnitude, temperature change was calculated by comparing 16-year mean values between 1968-83 and 1984-99. Then, the difference between each urban station and every rural station was calculated. During the analysis period of 32 years, maximum temperature increase is
. In the total temperature increase, urban effect is estimated by 28.7%. For minimum temperature, it becomes larger by about 10% than that in maximum temperature. Therefore, urban effect in an increasing trend of minimum temperature is 38.9% in the change of
Influences of Ice Microphysical Processes on Urban Heat Island-Induced Convection and Precipitation
Han, Ji-Young ; Baik, Jong-Jin ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 195~205
The influences of ice microphysical processes on urban heat island-induced convection and precipitation are numerically investigated using a cloud-resolving model (ARPS). Both warm- and cold-cloud simulations show that the downwind upward motion forced by specified low-level heating, which is regarded as representing an urban heat island, initiates moist convection and results in downwind precipitation. The surface precipitation in the cold-cloud simulation is produced earlier than that in the warm-cloud simulation. The maximum updraft is stronger in the cold-cloud simulation than in the warm-cloud simulation due to the latent heat release by freezing and deposition. The outflow formed in the boundary layer is cooler and propagates faster in the cold-cloud simulation due mainly to the additional cooling by the melting of falling hail particles. The removal of the specified low-level heating after the onset of surface precipitation results in cooler and faster propagating outflow in both the warm- and cold-cloud simulations.
Performance of MTM in 2006 Typhoon Forecast
Kim, Ju-Hye ; Choo, Gyo-Myung ; Kim, Baek-Jo ; Won, Seong-Hee ; Kwon, H. Joe ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 2, 2007, Pages 207~216
The Moving-nest Typhoon Model (MTM) was installed on the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA)'s CRAY X1E in 2006 and started its test operation in August 2006 to provide track and intensity forecasts of tropical cyclones. In this study, feasibility of the MTM forecast is compared with the Global Data Assimilation and Prediction System (GDAPS) of the KMA and the operational typhoon forecast models in the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), from the sixth tropical cyclone to the twentieth in 2006. Forecast skills in terms of the storm position error of the two KMA models were comparable, but MTM showed a slightly better ability. While both GDAPS and MTM produced larger errors than JMA models in track forecast, the predicted intensity was much improved by MTM, making it comparable to the JMA's typhoon forecast model. It is believed that the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) bogus initialization method in MTM improves the ability to forecast typhoon intensity.