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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Meteorological Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 2007
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 2007
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 2007
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2007
Selecting the target year
The Effects of Windbreaks on Reduction of Suspended Particles
Song, Chang-Keun ; Kim, Jae-Jin ; Song, Dong-Woong ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 315~326
The effects of windbreaks on the reduction of suspended particles are investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model with the
turbulence closure scheme based on the renormalization group (RNG) theory. In the control experiment, the recirculation zones behind the storage piles are generated and, as a whole, relatively monotonous flow patterns appear. When the windbreaks with the 0% porosity are constructed, the recirculation zones are generated by the windbreaks and very complicated flow patterns appear due to the interference between the windbreaks and storage piles. The porosity of the windbreaks suppresses the generation of the recirculation zone and decreases the wind velocity in the windbreaks as well as that outside the windbreaks. As the emission of suspended particles from the storage piles are closely related with the friction velocity at the surfaces of the storage piles, variation of the friction velocity and total amount of the emission of the suspended particles with the height and porosity of the windbreaks are investigated. The results show that higher and more porous windbreaks emit less suspended particles and that the reduction effect of the porosity is still more effective than that of the height. In the case of the windbreak with 30 m height and 50% porosity, friction velocities above the storage piles are smaller than the critical friction velocity above which particles would be suspended. As a result, total amount of suspended particles are much fewer than those in other cases.
Wind Prediction with a Short-range Multi-Model Ensemble System
Yoon, Ji Won ; Lee, Yong Hee ; Lee, Hee Choon ; Ha, Jong-Chul ; Lee, Hee Sang ; Chang, Dong-Eon ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 327~337
In this study, we examined the new ensemble training approach to reduce the systematic error and improve prediction skill of wind by using the Short-range Ensemble prediction system (SENSE), which is the mesoscale multi-model ensemble prediction system. The SENSE has 16 ensemble members based on the MM5, WRF ARW, and WRF NMM. We evaluated the skill of surface wind prediction compared with AWS (Automatic Weather Station) observation during the summer season (June - August, 2006). At first stage, the correction of initial state for each member was performed with respect to the observed values, and the corrected members get the training stage to find out an adaptive weight function, which is formulated by Root Mean Square Vector Error (RMSVE). It was found that the optimal training period was 1-day through the experiments of sensitivity to the training interval. We obtained the weighted ensemble average which reveals smaller errors of the spatial and temporal pattern of wind speed than those of the simple ensemble average.
Automation of Dobson Spectrophotometer(No.124) for Ozone Measurements
Kim, Jhoon ; Park, Sang-Seo ; Moon, Kyung-Jung ; Koo, Ja-Ho ; Lee, Yun-Gon ; Miyagawa, Koji ; Cho, Hi-Ku ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 339~348
Global Environment Laboratory at Yonsei University in Seoul (
) has carried out the ozone layer monitoring program in the framework of the Global Ozone Observing System of the World Meteorlogical Organization (WMO/GAW/GO3OS Station No. 252) since May of 1984. The daily measurements of total ozone and the vertical distribution of ozone amount have been made with the Dobson Spectrophotometer (No.124) on the roof of the Science Building on Yonsei campus. From 2004 through 2006, major parts of the manual operations are automated in measuring total ozone amount and vertical ozone profile through Umkehr method, and calibrating instrument by standard lamp tests with new hardware and software including step motor, rotary encoder, controller, and visual display. This system takes full advantage of Windows interface and information technology to realize adaptability to the latest Windows PC and flexible data processing system. This automatic system also utilizes card slot of desktop personal computer to control various types of boards in the driving unit for operating Dobson spectrophotometer and testing devices. Thus, by automating most of the manual work both in instrument operation and in data processing, subjective human errors and individual differences are eliminated. It is therefore found that the ozone data quality has been distinctly upgraded after automation of the Dobson instrument.
A Numerical Simulation Study on the Sensitivity of WRF Model in the Wind Field to the Steepness of Mountain Slopes
Han, Seon-Ho ; Lee, Jae Gyoo ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 349~364
The main purpose of this study is to examine the sensitivity of the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) in the wind field to the steepness of mountains in the case with a strong downslope wind occurred in the Yeongdong province. We conducted WRF simulations for February 13 2006. The initial and boundary data are from the NCEP/NCAR
GDAS. Arbitrary terrains of the mountains with a symmetric orography and an asymmetric one with steeper leeward slope, were introduced to examine the sensitivity of the shape of the mountains. The simulation with an asymmetric terrain results in stronger maximum surface wind by about
than with a symmetric terrain, especially in the narrow region from the peak to ~ 4 km away in the downstream. However, the maximum surface wind speed is weaker by
than with a symmetric terrain away from the narrow peak region. This indicates that the steeper slope leads to the intensification of downslope wind in the narrower region leeward. In addition, for the simulation with an asymmetric terrain, the strength of wave breaking is greater and the Lee wave is more dominant than for that with a symmetric terrain.
ENSO Response to Global Warming as Simulated by ECHO-G/S
Lee, Hyo-Shin ; Kwon, Won-Tae ; Ahn, Joong-Bae ; Boo, Kyung-On ; Ch, Yu-Mi ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 365~379
Global warming may shift the properties and dynamics of ENSO. We study the changes in ENSO characteristics in a coupled general circulation model, ECHO-G/S. First, we analyse the mean state changes by comparing present day simulation and various high
climates. The model shows a little El Nino-like changes in the sea surface temperature and wind stress in the eastern tropical Pacific. As the mean temperature rises, the ENSO amplitude and the frequency of strong El Ninos and La Nina decrease. The analysis shows that the weakening of the oceanic sensitivities is related to the weakening of ENSO. In addition to the surface changes, the remote subsurface sea temperature response in the western Pacific to the wind stress in the eastern Pacific influences the subsequent ENSO amplitude. However, ENSO amplitude does not show linear response to the greenhouse gas concentrations.
The Effects of Obstacle Aspect Ratio on Surrounding Flows
Lee, Jae-Jin ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 381~391
The characteristics of flow around a single obstacle with fixed height and varied length and width are numerically investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. As the obstacle length increases, flow distortion near the upwind side of the obstacle increases and the size of the recirculation zone behind the obstacle also increases. As the obstacle width increases, the size of the recirculation zone decreases, despite almost invariable flow distortion near the upwind side of the obstacle. Flow passing through an obstacle is separated, one part going around the obstacle and the other crossing over the obstacle. The size of the recirculation zone is determined by the distance between the obstacle and the point (reattachment point) at which both the flows converge. When the obstacle width is relatively large, flows are reattached at the obstacle surface and their recoveries occur. Resultant shortening of the paths of flows crossing over and going around decreases the size of the recirculation zone. To support this, the extent of flow distortion defined based on the change in wind direction is analyzed. The result shows that flow distortion is largest near the ground surface and decreases with height. An increase in obstacle length increases the frontal area fraction of flow distortion around the obstacle. In the cases of increasing the width, the frontal area fraction near the upwind side of the obstacle does not change much, but near the downwind side, it becomes larger as the width increases. The frontal area fraction is in a better correlation with the size of the recirculation zone than the building aspect ratios, suggesting that the frontal area fraction is a good indicator for explaining the variation in the size of the recirculation zone with the building aspect ratios.
A Qualitative Analysis of WRF Simulation Results of Typhoon 'Rusa' Case
Kim, Jin-Won ; Lee, Jae Gyoo ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 393~405
Analysis of Aerosol Optical Properties in Seoul Using Skyradiometer Observation
Koo, Ja-Ho ; Kim, Jhoon ; Kim, Mi-Jin ; Cho, Hi Ku ; Aoki, Kazuma ; Yamano, Maki ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 407~420
Optical characteristics of aerosols in Seoul are investigated from the measurements of sky radiance by Skyradiometer at Yonsei University from December 2005 to November 2006. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) shows a maximum in June due to weak ventilation and particle growth by aging process and hygroscopic effect. Single scattering albedo (SSA) and Angstrom Exponent (AE) show the lowest value in spring due to the Asian dust. It is clear that coarse mode is dominant in spring and fine mode is dominant in summer from the volume size distribution measured in this study. The explanations on the changes of aerosol loadings are provided through the correlation between AOD and AE, while the pattern of wavelength dependency related to particle size is shown through the correlation between SSA and AE. Backward trajectory analysis by HYSPLIT provides information about origin of aerosol, which allows us to classify the case according to the source region and the path distance. Although the direction of backward trajectory traces back mostly to west, coarse mode particle is dominant in the case of long pathway and fine mode particle is dominant in the case of short pathway. This discrepancy is caused by the regional difference of emitted particles.
Seasonal Characteristics of Turbulent Fluxes Observed at leodo Ocean Research Station
Oh, Hyun-Mi ; Ha, Kyung-Ja ; Shim, Jae Seol ; Hyun, Yu-Kyung ; Yun, Kyung-Sook ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 421~433
We have investigated the seasonal characteristics of surface turbulent fluxes observed at Ieodo Ocean Research Station from 2005 to 2006. Both 10Hz and 30 minutes flux data are quality controled, and tilt correction is performed in 10Hz data before quality control. The turbulent fluxes of open sea shows clear seasonal variations, though diurnal variations are barely shown. The seasonal ratio of stable and unstable conditions are closely related to the temperature difference between sea surface and air. In stable and semi-stable condition, latent and sensible heat fluxes have very small values without any relationship with wind speed. Though friction velocity shows slightly increasing trend with wind speed, it has many outliers. In unstable condition, turbulent fluxes increased with wind speed. Especially, latent heat flux increased rapidly during DJF. The latent heat flux at high wind speeds is more scatter.
Sensitivity Analysis of Simulated Precipitation System to the KEOP-2004 Intensive Observation Data
Park, Young-Youn ; Park, Chang-Geun ; Choi, Young-Jean ; Cho, Chun-Ho ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 435~453
KEOP (Korea Enhanced Observing Period)-2004 intensive summer observation was carried out from 20 June to 5 July 2004 over the Southwestern part of the Korean peninsula. In this study, the effects of KEOP-2004 intensive observation data on the simulation of precipitation system are investigated using KLAPS (Korea Local Analysis and Prediction System) and PSU/NCAR MM5. Three precipitation cases during the intensive observation are selected for detailed analysis. In addition to the control experiments using the traditional data for its initial and boundary conditions, two sensitivity experiments using KEOP data with and without Jindo radar are performed. Although it is hard to find a clear and consistent improvement in the verification score (threat score), it is found that the KEOP data play a role in improving the position and intensity of the simulated precipitation system. The experiments started at 00 and 12 UTC show more positive effect than those of 06 and 18 UTC. The effect of Jindo radar is dependent on the case. It plays a significant role in the heavy rain cases related to a mesoscale low over Changma front and the landing of a Typhoon. KEOP data produce more strong difference in the 06/18 UTC experiments than in 00/12 UTC, but give more positive effects in 00/12 UTC experiments. One of the possible explanations for this is that : KEOP data could properly correct the atmosphere around them when there are certain amounts of data, while gives excessive effect to the atmospheric field when there are few data. CRA analysis supports this reasoning. According to the CRA (Contiguous Rain Area) analysis, KEOP data in 00/12 UTC experiments improve only the surrounding area, resulting in essentially same precipitation system so the effects remain only in each convective cell rather than the system itself. On the other hand, KEOP data modify the precipitation system itself in 06/18 UTC experiments. Therefore the effects become amplified with time integration.
Research and Development for Atmospheric Sciences and Earthquake of Korea
Kim, Do-Yong ; Oh, Jai-Ho ; Lee, Chan-Goo ; Hahm, In-Kyeong ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 455~462
Of late, natural disasters are becoming more frequent and the damages caused by these are quite substantial. All these are mainly due to a climate change. Many scientists from various countries are therefore engaged in research on atmospheric sciences and seismology. Korea meteorological administration (KMA) has established an advanced research and development center "CATER" for atmospheric sciences and earthquake. CATER has been managing and promoting the five major fields of research such as strategic meteorology, applied meteorology, climate change/countermeasure, earthquake, and research planning for CATER. Compared to 2006, CATER in 2007 has increased the funding by 7% and 5% for the climate change/countermeasure and the earthquake research fields, respectively. Also, the distribution rate of funding in 2007 has increased in 12% for basic research, 6% for university research organization, and 13% for the local area. CATER is trying to construct basic system and infrastructure for atmospheric sciences and earthquake research based on information technology. KMA has also a middle-term vision plan "World Best 365" for atmospheric science and earthquake research. These will give us a chance to become advanced nation in field of atmospheric sciences and seismology.
Characteristics of daily mortality due to heat waves in Busan in July 1994
Lee, Dae-Geun ; Kim, Jiyoung ; Cho, Byoung-Cheol ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 463~470
This study aims to assess the impact of the hot summer weather on daily mortality in Busan. Daily total all-caused mortality in the entire population in Busan has been examined during 1991-2005. The daily deaths were standardized to account for the long-term trend in mortality and their seasonal and weekly cycles. We found the net increase (about 8.2%) of excess deaths during the extraordinary heat wave period in July of 1994. It corresponds to the excess deaths of 109.5 during the month. The abnormality of temperature extremes in July of 1994 and their impacts on human health were also investigated. Unusual heat wave appeared in the first ten days in July of 1994. The excess deaths are likely to be attributable to the record-breaking heat waves. The result suggests that unusual early heat waves would be dangerous, even for inhabitants who live in an acclimated region to the heat waves such as Busan.
Climatic Characteristics of August and Summer of 2007 and Long Term Trend of August and Summer Climate
Shin, Im Chul ; Kim, Tae Ryong ; Lee, Eun-Jung ; Kim, Eun-Hee ; Kim, Eun Suk ; Park, Yeon Ok ; Bae, Sun-Hee ; Yi, Hi-Il ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 471~481
Temperature and precipitation, particularly August and summer, in the Korean peninsular are analyzed. The analyzed period is 1973-2007 for the Korean peninsular (that is, 60 meteorological station average). In addition, 100 year record (1908-2007) of temperature and precipitation in Seoul are also analyzed. Results indicate that the temperatures (mean, maximun, and minimum) of August and summer of 2007, both in Korean peninsular and Seoul, are higher than normal. The increasing rate of minimum temperature for the August and summer during the period from 1973 to 2007 shows greater than the mean and maximum temperature both in Korean peninsular and Seoul due to the global warming and urbanization. Number of tropical night days, defined by the days with above
in minimum temperature, shows increasing trend both in August and summer from 1973 to 2007 due to the combination effect of the global warming and urbanization. The amount of precipitation, both in August and summer, for Korean peninsular and Seoul shows increasing trend from 1973 to 2007, and 1908 to 2007, respectively. Amount of precipitation and rainy days, both August and summer, during 2000s show greater than those of the 1970s both in Korean peninsular and Seoul. Extreme rainy days (greater than 120mm/day, greater than 80mm/day, greater than 30mm in any 1-hour period and greater than 10mm in any 10-minute period) show increasing trend from 1973 to 2007 for both in August and in summer.
Progresses of Climate Change Sciences in IPCC Assessment Reports
Kwon, Won-Tae ; Koo, Gyo-Sook ; Boo, Kyung-On ;
Atmosphere, volume 17, issue 4, 2007, Pages 483~492
The objective of this study is to describe scientific progresses in understanding of climate change in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment reports, contributed by Working group I. Since 1988, IPCC's four assessment reports showed significant improvements in understanding of observed climate change, drivers of climate change, detection and attribution of climate change, climate models, and future projection. The results are based on large amounts of observation data, sophisticated analyses of data, improvements of climate models and the simulations. While the First Assessment Report (FAR) in 1990 reported that a detectable anthropogenic influence on climate has little observational evidence, the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) reported that warming of the climate system is unequivocal and is very likely due to human influences. It is also noted that anthropogenic warming and sea level rise would continue for centuries due to the time scales associated with climate processes and feedbacks, even if greenhouse gas were to be stabilized.