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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Meteorological Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
Selecting the target year
Lag-correlation of Korean Drought in East Asia
Jun, Kap Young ; Byun, Hi-Ryong ; Kim, Do-Woo ;
Atmosphere, volume 18, issue 4, 2008, Pages 249~266
The tendencies for teleconnection with a time lag and other characteristics of Korean summer droughts have been investigated and some clues to predict the drought occurrences several months before have been found. First, the May and June droughts in Korea are simultaneous with those over the northwestern part of Korea owing to the relation with the baroclinic wave. However, the July and August droughts occur over the mid-latitudes or southern part of Korea owing to the relation with the Changma front. Second, several months before the MJJA droughts in Korea, it is found that the effective drought index (EDI) over particular areas (hereafter, referred to as the omen areas) is large. Thailand, Carolina Island, Mongolia, and Central Bengal Bay were selected as the omen areas. Third, when the monthly minimum EDI (MME) of the omen area in winter is more than 0.7, it signifies that the precipitation is above normal, Korea has almost always experienced a summer drought. However, the droughts occurring with this type of relationship only represent half of the MJJA droughts in Korea. Fourth, the relationships between the Korean drought and the precipitation over omen areas in low latitudes are not valid over all the eight precipitation areas in Korea, but only over Areas I, II, and III, where heavy rains occur during spring and summer.
The Study on the Quantitative Dust Index Using Geostationary Satellite
Kim, Mee-Ja ; Kim, Yoonjae ; Sohn, Eun-Ha ; Kim, Kum-Lan ; Ahn, Myung-Hwan ;
Atmosphere, volume 18, issue 4, 2008, Pages 267~277
The occurrence and strength of the Asian Dust over the Korea Peninsular have been increased by the expansion of the desert area. For the continuous monitoring of the Asian Dust event, the geostationary satellites provide useful information by detecting the outbreak of the event as well as the long-range transportation of dust. The Infrared Optical Depth Index (IODI) derived from the MTSAT-1R data, indicating a quantitative index of the dust intensity, has been produced in real-time at Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) since spring of 2007 for the forecast of Asian dust. The data processing algorithm for IODI consists of mainly two steps. The first step is to detect dust area by using brightness temperature difference between two thermal window channels which are influenced with different extinction coefficients by dust. Here we use dynamic threshold values based on the change of surface temperature. In the second step, the IODI is calculated using the ratio between current IR1 brightness temperature and the maximum brightness temperature of the last 10 days which we assume the clear sky. Validation with AOD retrieved from MODIS shows a good agreement over the ocean. Comparison of IODI with the ground based PM10 observation network in Korea shows distinct characteristics depending on the altitude of dust layer estimated from the Lidar data. In the case that the altitude of dust layer is relatively high, the intensity of IODI is larger than that of PM10. On the other hand, when the altitude of dust layer is lower, IODI seems to be relatively small comparing with PM10 measurement.
Relationships between Summer Droughts in Korea and Activities of Tropical Cyclones over the Northwestern Pacific
Choi, Ki-Seon ; Kim, Do-Woo ; Byun, Hi-Ryong ;
Atmosphere, volume 18, issue 4, 2008, Pages 279~286
In the tropical western Pacific (especially, west of 135oE, including South China Sea and the Philippines), during boreal summer, it was found that a strong correlation exists between the tropical cyclone activity and the drought conditions in Korea. During the summer drought, firstly, there were strong ascending flows over the tropical western Pacific with more tropical cyclone genesis, and to compensate for this, descending flows develop in the mid-latitudes, thereby causing drought; in other words, a secondary circulation is formed between the tropical western Pacific and mid-latitudes of East Asia. Secondly, the developments of both the subtropical western Pacific high and the Manchurian low are suppressed. As a result, both the land-sea pressure gradient and the southerly flow from low-latitudes to Korean area are also weakened, which reduces approaches of tropical cyclones to this area despite the high frequency of their geneses.
Analysis of Vertical Profiles and Optical Characteristics of the Asian Dust Using Ground-based Measurements
Lee, Byung-Il ; Yoon, Soon-Chang ; Kim, Yoonjae ;
Atmosphere, volume 18, issue 4, 2008, Pages 287~297
The vertical profiles and optical properties of Asian dust are investigated using ground-based measurements from 1998 to 2002. Vertical profiles of aerosol extinction coefficient are evaluated using MPL (Micro Pulse Lidar) data. Optical parameters such as aerosol optical thickness (
), single scattering albedo (
), refractive index, and volume size distribution are analyzed with sun/sky radiometer data for the same period. We can separate aerosol vertical profiles into three categories. First category named as 'Asian dust case', which aerosol extinction coefficient is larger than
and dust layer exists from surface up to 3-4km. Second category named as 'Elevated aerosol case', which aerosol layer exists between 2 and 6km with 1-2.5km thickness, and extinction coefficient is smaller than
. Third category named as 'Clear sky case', which aerosol extinction coefficient appears smaller than
. and shows that diurnal variation of background aerosol in urban area. While optical parameters for first category indicate that
, respectively. Also, aerosol volume concentration is increased for range of 1 and
, in coarse mode. Optical parameters for second category can be separated into two different types. Optical properties of first type are very close to Asian dust cases. Also, dust reports of source region and backward trajectory analyses assure that these type is much related with Asian dust event. However, optical properties of the other type are similar to those of urban aerosol. For clear sky case,
is relatively smaller and
is larger compare with other cases. Each case shows distinct characteristics in aerosol optical parameters.
Observing System Experiments Using the Intensive Observation Data during KEOP-2005
Won, Hye Young ; Park, Chang-Geun ; Kim, Yeon-Hee ; Lee, Hee-Sang ; Cho, Chun-Ho ;
Atmosphere, volume 18, issue 4, 2008, Pages 299~316
The intensive upper-air observation network was organized over southwestern region of the Korean Peninsula during the Korea Enhanced Observing Program in 2005 (KEOP-2005). In order to examine the effect of additional upper-air observation on the numerical weather forecasting, three Observing System Experiments (OSEs) using Korea Local Analysis and Prediction System (KLAPS) and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with KEOP-2005 data are conducted. Cold start case with KEOP-2005 data presents a remarkable predictability difference with only conventional observation data in the downstream and along the Changma front area. The sensitivity of the predictability tends to decrease under the stable atmosphere. Our results indicates that the effect of intensive observation plays a role in the forecasting of the sensitive area in the numerical model, especially under the unstable atmospheric conditions. When the intensive upper-air observation data (KEOP-2005 data) are included in the OSEs, the predictability of precipitation is partially improved. Especially, when KEOP-2005 data are assimilated at 6-hour interval, the predictability on the heavy rainfall showing higher Critical Success Index (CSI) is highly improved. Therefore it is found that KEOP-2005 data play an important role in improving the position and intensity of the simulated precipitation system.
Structure of Mesoscale Heavy Precipitation Systems Originated from the Changma Front
Park, Chang-Geun ; Lee, Tae-Young ;
Atmosphere, volume 18, issue 4, 2008, Pages 317~338
Analyses of observational data and numerical simulations were performed to understand the mechanism of MCSs (Mesoscale Convective Systems) occurred on 13-14 July 2004 over Jindo area of the Korean Peninsula. Observations indicated that synoptic environment was favorable for the occurrence of heavy rainfall. This heavy rainfall appeared to have been enhanced by convergence around the Changma front and synoptic scale lifting. From the analyses of storm environment using Haenam upper-air observation data, it was confirmed that strong convective instability was present around the Jindo area. Instability indices such as K-index, SSI-index showed favorable condition for strong convection. In addition, warm advection in the lower troposphere and cold advection in the middle troposphere were detected from wind profiler data. The size of storm, that produced heavy rainfall over Jindo area, was smaller than
according to radar observation. The storm developed more than 10 km in height, but high reflectivity (rain rate 30 mm/hr) was limited under 6 km. It can be judged that convection cells, which form cloud clusters, occurred on the inflow area of the Changma front. In numerical simulation, high CAPE (Convective Available Potential Energy) was found in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. However, heavy rainfall was restricted to the Jindo area with high CIN (Convective INhibition) and high CAPE. From the observations of vertical drop size distribution from MRR (Micro Rain Radar) and the analyses of numerically simulated hydrometeors such as graupel etc., it can be inferred that melted graupels enhanced collision and coalescence process of heavy precipitation systems.
A Numerical Simulation Study Using WRF of a Heavy Snowfall Event in the Yeongdong Coastal Area in Relation to the Northeasterly
Lee, Jae Gyoo ; Kim, Yu Jin ;
Atmosphere, volume 18, issue 4, 2008, Pages 339~354
A numerical simulation of a heavy snowfall event that occurred 13 January 2008 along the Yeongdong coastal area, was performed using WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) in order to reveal mesoscale structures and to construct a conceptual model showing the meteorological background that caused the large difference in snowfall amounts between the Yeongdong mountain area and the Yeongdong coastal area. The simulation results matched well with various observations such as corresponding 12h-accumulated observed precipitation, surface wind obscrvation, radar echoes, and satellite infrared images. The simulation and the observations showed that the scale of the event was of meso -
and meso -
scale. The simulation represented well the mesoscale process causing the large difference in snowfall amounts in the two areas. First, wind flow was kept, to a certain extent, from crossing the mountains due to the blocking effect of the low Froude number (~1). The northeast flow over the adjaccnt sea tumcd northwest as it approachcd the mountains, where it was trapped, allowing so-called cold air damming. Second, a strong convergence area formed where the cold northwest flow along the Yeongdong coastal area and the relatively warm and moist northeast flow advecting toward the coast met, supporting the fonllation of a coastal front. Thus, the vertical motion was strongest over the front located near the coast, leading to the heavy snowfall there rather than in the remote mountain area.
A Synoptic and Climatological Comparison of Record-breaking Heat Waves in Korea and Europe
Kim, Jiyoung ; Lee, Dae-Geun ; Kysely, Jan ;
Atmosphere, volume 18, issue 4, 2008, Pages 355~365
Synoptic and climatological characteristics of heat waves over Korea and Europe as well as their biometeorological impacts were compared. In July of 1994, excess deaths of about 2,388 in the population of South Korea are estimated by the modified excess death calculation algorithm ofKysely (2004). The excess deaths correspond to the net mortality increase of 12.5% in July of 1994 if we compare the estimated value to the expected number of deaths in this month (i.e., about 19,171). The comparative study of heat waves in Korea and Europe shows that the record-breaking heat waves in both regions are closely associated with prolonged droughts. In particular, reduction of soil moisture, precipitation and cloud cover and enhancement of insolation during the drought periods are very likely to be related to the increase in the intensity and the duration ofheat waves. Climate models predict that the frequency, intensity, and duration of heat waves in the 21 st century will be greatly enhanced in both areas. In order to reduce the biometeorological and socioeconomic impacts due to heat waves, not only the development of heat-related mortality prediction model that can be widely applied to many climate regimes, but also studies on the climatological association between extreme temperatures and abnormal hydrological cycle are needed.
A Numerical Case Study Examining the Orographic Effect of the Taebaek Mountains on Snowfall Distribution over the Yeongdong Area
Lee, Jae Gyoo ; Kim, Yu Jin ;
Atmosphere, volume 18, issue 4, 2008, Pages 367~386
The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was designed to identify the role of the Taebaek Mountains in the occurrence of heavy snowfall in Yeongdong area with a strong northeast wind on January 20-21, 2008. To this end, in addition to the control simulation with the realistic distribution of the Taebaek Mountains, a sensitivity experiment that removed the orography over the Taebaek Mountains was performed. The control simulation results showed that the resulting wind field and precipitation distribution were similar to what were observed. Results from the sensitivity experiment clearly demonstrates the presence of orographic lifting on the windward slope of the mountains. It is concluded that the altitude of the Taebaek Mountains is the main controlling factor in determining the distribution and amount of precipitation in the Yeongdong area for the case of heavy snowfall in January 2008.
Impact of Horizontal Resolution of Regional Climate Model on Precipitation Simulation over the Korean Peninsula
Lee, Young-Ho ; Cha, Dong-Hyun ; Lee, Dong-Kyou ;
Atmosphere, volume 18, issue 4, 2008, Pages 387~395
The impact of horizontal resolution on a regional climate model was investigated by simulating precipitation over the Korean Peninsula. As a regional climate model, the SNURCM(Seoul National University Regional Climate Model) has 21 sigma layers and includes the NCAR CLM(National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Land Model) for land-surface model, the Grell scheme for cumulus convection, the Simple Ice scheme for explicit moisture, and the MRF(Medium-Range Forecast) scheme for PBL(Planetary Boundary Layer) processing. The SNURCM was performed with 20 km resolution for Korea and 60 km resolution for East Asia during a 20-year period (1980-1999). Although the SNURCM systematically underestimated precipitation over the Korean Peninsula, the increase of model resolution simulated more precipitation in the southern region of the Korean Peninsula, and a more accurate distribution of precipitation by reflecting the effect of topography. The increase of precipitation was produced by more detailed terrain data which has a 10 minute terrain in the 20 km resolution model compared to the 30 minute terrain in the 60 km resolution model. The increase in model resolution and more detailed terrain data played an important role in generating more precipitation over the Korean Peninsula. While the high resolution model with the same terrain data resulted in increasing of precipitation over the Korean Peninsula including the adjoining sea, the difference of the terrain data resolution only influenced the precipitation distribution of the mountainous area by increasing the amount of non-convective rain. In conclusion, the regional climate model (SNURCM) with higher resolution simulated more precipitation over the Korean Peninsula by reducing the systematic underestimation of precipitation over the Korean Peninsula.
The Variation of Extreme Values in the Precipitation and Wind Speed During 56 Years in Korea
Choi, Eu-Soo ; Moon, Il-Ju ;
Atmosphere, volume 18, issue 4, 2008, Pages 397~416
This study investigates a long-term variation of the annual extreme value for the instantaneous wind speed and the daily precipitation during 56 years (1951-2006) in Korea. Results show that there is a uptrend for both wind and precipitation extreme records, although regional trends are different from overall pattern in some places, particularly for wind speed. The estimated linear trends are 230 mm/56 yr in the daily precipitation and
/56 yr in the maximum instantaneous wind speed. For precipitation, other indexes such as total annual precipitation, the number of extreme precipitation event, and precipitation intensity have dramatically increased as well, while there has been a clear downtrend for the number of strong wind events (>
). It is found that the minimum surface pressure recorded during typhoon attacks in Korea tends to be decreasing, about 10 hPa/56 yr. This partly explains why the extreme values in the precipitation are increasing in Korea.
Comparative Research of Fog Using the Regular Observation and GPS Integrated Water Vapor
Lee, Jaewon ; Cho, Jungho ; Baek, Jeongho ; Park, Jong-Uk ; Park, Chieup ;
Atmosphere, volume 18, issue 4, 2008, Pages 417~427
In this paper, we analyzed the physical and thermodynamic characteristics of fog by using the integrated water vapor (IWV) from Global Positioning System (GPS) networks and the regular observation data of meteorological stations in GPS sites. The cases of a radiation and an advection fog were selected as samples, the conversions of water substance from the water vapor to cloud water in fog were detected by the Bulk Water-Continuity Model, and the pattern analysis is adapted on GPS IWV, temperature, wind and relative humidity. Under the specific hypothesis (saturation and stable), GPS IWV could detect quantitatively the phase changing between the water vapor and cloud water content with condensation/evaporation during the formation and dissipation of fog. After it reaches to the saturation, the relative humidity can be a limited indicator for fog. However, GPS IWV can detect the status change of fog even after the saturation. It has indicated that GPS IWV could be a new observing technique for the processes of the fog formation and the dissipation.
Variations of the Polar Temperature in the Lower Stratosphere during 1955-2004
Choi, Wookap ; Kim, Dongjoon ;
Atmosphere, volume 18, issue 4, 2008, Pages 429~439
The lower-stratospheric polar temperature in winter and spring for both hemispheres is investigated based on the NCEP/NCAR 50-year reanalysis data with respect to the strength of the stratospheric eddy heat flux. Both the polar temperature and the eddy heat flux show significant variation on the decadal and year-to-year time scales except during the Southern Hemisphere winter. The year-to-year variation in the polar temperature is mainly determined by the eddy heat flux convergence. The eddy heat flux convergence is compared with the diabatic heating rate obtained from a two-dimensional model. Radiative heating caused by absorption of solar radiation is comparable to the heating caused by the eddy heat flux convergence in the Southern Hemisphere. The effect of ozone depletion on diabatic heating has been found to be secondary in the Northern Hemisphere, even in March 1997 when the record depletion of ozone took place.
Operation and Application Guidance for the Ground Based Dual-band Radiometer
Jeon, Eun-Hee ; Kim, Yeon-Hee ; Kim, Ki-Hoon ; Lee, Hee-Sang ;
Atmosphere, volume 18, issue 4, 2008, Pages 441~458
A TP/WVP-3000A, ground-based microwave radiometer, that was first introduced to South Korea has been operated since August 22, 2007 at the National Center for Intensive Observation of Severe Weathers (NCIO). Using the dual-band, the radiometer provides temperature and humidity soundings from the surface up to 10 km height with the high-temporal resolution of a few minutes. In this study, the performance of the radiometer on the predictability of the high impact weathers was evaluated and various practical applications were investigated. To verify the retrieved profile data from the radiometer, temperature and relative humidity soundings are compared with those from the rawinsonde launched at the NCIO and Gwangju station. The root mean squared errors for temperature and relative humidity soundings were smaller under rainy weather conditions. The correlation coefficient between PWVs (Precipitable Water Vapors) obtained from the radiometer and Global Positioning System satellite at Mokpo station is 0.92 on average. In order to investigate the structure and characteristics of precipitation, stability indexes related to rainfall such as the Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), K-index, and Storm RElative Helicity (SREH) were calculated using windprofiler at the NCIO from 14 to 16 September, 2007. CAPE and K-index tended to be large when the thermodynamic unstability was strong. On the other hand, SREH index was dominantly large when the dynamic unstability was strong due to the passage of the typhoon 'Nari'.
Nephelometer Measurement of Aerosol Scattering Coefficients at Seoul
Shim, Sungbo ; Yoon, Young Jun ; Yum, Seong Soo ; Cha, Joo Wan ; Kim, Jong Hwan ; Kim, Jhoon ; Lee, Bang-Yong ;
Atmosphere, volume 18, issue 4, 2008, Pages 459~474
Aerosol scattering coefficients for three different wavelengths (
=450,550,700 nm) are measured almost continuously by a nephelometer in Seoul for a period of 13 months (February 2007-February 2008), which includes two weeks break in August 2007 for measurements at Daegwallyeong and YoungJongdo. The mean of the daily average scattering coefficients at
=550 nm is
and the minimum and maximum are
, respectively. The scattering coefficient shows a general increasing trend with atmospheric relative humidity (RH). When the data are classified according to weather conditions, the days with no major weather events show the smallest scattering coefficient and also the lowest RH. Surprisingly haze/fog days show the largest scattering coefficient and Asian dust days comes in second. Although the variation is large within a season, winter shows the largest and autumn shows the smallest scattering coefficient. The average
for the entire Seoul measurement. As expected, Asian dust days show the smallest
exponent and haze/fog days are the next, suggesting more efficient hygroscopic growth of aerosols for this weather condition. Aerosol scattering coefficient seems to show better correspondence with CCN concentration rather than total aerosol concentration, which may indicate that CCN active aerosols are also good scattering aerosols.
Analysis of Diurnal and Semidiurnal Cycles of Precipitation over South Korea
Lee, Gyu-Hwan ; Seo, Kyong-Hwan ;
Atmosphere, volume 18, issue 4, 2008, Pages 475~483
The hourly precipitation data from 1973 to 2007 observed at 60 weather stations over Korea are used to characterize the diurnal and semidiurnal cycles of total precipitation amount, intensity and frequency and examine their spatial patterns and interannual variations. The results show that the diurnal cycle peaks in the morning (03-09LST) and the semidiurnal cycle peaks in the late afternoon (16-20LST). It is found that the spatial variations of the peak phase of diurnal or semidiurnal cycle relative to their corresponding seasonal mean cycle are considerably small (large) for total precipitation amount and intensity (frequency, respectively) in both winter and summer seasons. Also, the diurnal phase variations for individual years relative to the seasonal mean precipitation show the significant interannual variability with dominant periods of 2-5 years for all three elements of precipitation and the slightly decreasing trend in total precipitation amount and intensity. To compare the relative contributions of frequency and intensity to the diurnal and semidiurnal cycles (and their sum) of total precipitation amount, the percentage variance of each cycle of precipitation amount explained by frequency is estimated. The fractional variance accounted for by precipitation intensity is greater than that of frequency for these three cycles. All above analyses suggest that intensity plays a more important role than frequency in the diurnal variations of total precipitation amount.
Characteristics of Tropical Cyclone Activity Influenced by Decadal Variability of SST
Kim, Dong-Hyeok ; Kang, In-Sik ;
Atmosphere, volume 18, issue 4, 2008, Pages 485~492
This study confirms that a decadal variation of the SST (Sea Surface Temperature) in the WNP (Western North Pacific) has an influence on the genesis and passage ofa Tropical Cyclone. The decadal mode was obtained by calculating the SST anomaly on the domain
. Such decadal variation was subsequently analyzed to confirm that it is a dominant mode in central Pacific region. Next, after classifying the years into relatively positive years and relatively negative years, the characteristics of Tropical Cyclone in each year, such as a genesis and passage frequency, were investigated. Compared to the relatively negative years, during the relatively positive years, the location of Tropical Cyclone genesis was biased toward South-Eastern region, while the characteristics of the cyclone were more distinct during late season of the year trom September to December than in mid season from June to August. Examining the movement passage through the observation of passage fiequency, there was a significant difference between positive year and negative year in their passages at a 90% confidence level. Moreover, the number of Tropical Cyclone, maximum wind, and life time also showed higher values in positive years than in negative years. These features were confirmed by examining the 850hPa cyclonic flow field, vorticity field, and vertical wind shear field, all of which contribute to the genesis of a Tropical Cyclone.
Characteristics of Recent Occurrence Frequency of Asian dust over the Source Regions - Analysis of the dust Occurrences since 2002
Lee, Jong-Jae ; Kim, Cheol-Hee ;
Atmosphere, volume 18, issue 4, 2008, Pages 493~506
In order to examine the variational features of Asian dust outbreak in recent years, observed WMO synop data were employed for the period from 1996 to 2007. We first divided Asian dust source regions into four subregions; 1) Taklamakan, 2) Gobi, 3) Inner Mongolia-Manchuria and 4) Loess, and the meteorogical variables such as wind speed, precipitation and threshold wind speed observed during the Asian dust outbreak period were compared with those during non-Asian dust period. The results showed that temporal variation of occurrence frequency of dust outbreak had a strong positive correlation with the frequency of strong wind speed and low precipitation in each of the 4 source regions. Spatial distributions of frequency of dust occurrence after 2002 showed increasing trend in Gobi and Inner Mongolia-Manchuria but decreasing trend in Loess region. This is showing a shift in main source region toward Northwest, especially since 2003.
An Uncertainty Assessment of AOGCM and Future Projection over East Asia
Kim, Min-Ji ; Shin, Jin-Ho ; Lee, Hyo-Shin ; Kwon, Won-Tae ;
Atmosphere, volume 18, issue 4, 2008, Pages 507~524
In this paper, future climate changes over East Asia(
) are projected by anthropogenic forcing of greenhouse gases and aerosols using coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) simulations based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) B1, A1B and A2 scenarios. Before projection future climate, model performance is assessed by the
Century (20C3M) experiment with bias, root Mean Square Error (RMSE), ratio of standard deviation, Taylor diagram analysis. The result of examination of the seasonal uncertainty of T2m and PCP shows that cold bias, lowered than that of observation, of T2m and wet bias, larger than that of observation, of PCP are found over East Asia. The largest wet bias is found in winter and the largest cold bias is found in summer. The RMSE of temperature in the annual mean increases and this trend happens in winter, too. That is, higher resolution model shows generally better performances in simulation T2m and PCP. Based on IPCC SRES scenarios, East Asia will experience warmer and wetter climate in the coming
century. It is predict the T2m increase in East Asia is larger than global mean temperature. As the latitude goes high, the warming over the continents of East Asia showed much more increase than that over the ocean. An enhanced land-sea contrast is proposed as a possible mechanism of the intensified Asian summer monsoon. But, the inter-model variability in PCP changes is large.
Influence of Typhoon Landfall and Its Track Characteristics in Gyeongsangbuk-do
Park, Doo-Seon ; Ho, Chang-Hoi ; Hwang, Jongkook ;
Atmosphere, volume 18, issue 4, 2008, Pages 525~532
This study has examined influences of tropical cyclone (TC) landfalls on the Gyoengsangbuk-do region, located in southeast of Korea, for the period 1978-2006. This region is known as one of major pass ways of landfalling TCs, and has many cultural properties including Bulguksa, Sukgulam, etc. Thus the influences caused by TCs (i.e., TC damages) may be larger than elsewhere in the nation. Here, TC influence is defined as the cases of strong instantaneous wind speed (
) and heavy rainfall (
) at each station. This study analyzed long-term trends ofTC influences and the relationship with TC tracks are examined. As a result, it is found that large increase of the heavy rainfall cases along the coastal region. By contrast, there are marginal changes in the strong wind speed associated with TC landfalls. Further, it is also found that the cases of the heavy rainfall only are related with TCs passing through the Yellow Sea and the cases of both the strong wind and the heavy rainfall are related with TCs landing from southern Korea.