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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Meteorological Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
Selecting the target year
Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Wind Map over Korea Using Meteorological Resources
Heo, Cheol-Un ; Lee, YongSeob ; Lee, Eun-Jeong ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 2, 2010, Pages 63~71
In this study, we derived the wind speed at 50 m and 80 m above sea level from 567 stations over a period of 1 year and correlated to measured wind speed at 5 radiosonde sites. From these correlations, we derived and analyzed the spatial distribution of wind map over Korea based on hourly observational data recorded over a period of 5 years from 2004 to 2008. As a results, wind speed is generally high over seashores, mountains, and islands. Mean wind speed over Korea at 50 and 80 m above sea level for 5 years during 2004 to 2008 seasonally are highest at Spring, and then followed by Winter, Fall, and Summer. In 76 (14%) stations, mean wind speed at 80 m above sea level for 5 years during 2004 to 2008 are greater than
. The prevailing winds over Korea at 80 m above sea level for 5 years during 2004 to 2008 are North (44%), Northwest (16%), and West (15%). In 99 stations, the % of wind faster than
was higher than 40%, and in 62 stations, the % of wind faster than
was higher than 50%. In 178 station, the % of prevailing winds was higher than 30%, and there are 7 stations which also have wind speeds over
, ranking from highest to lowest, Dongsong, Daegwallyeong, Baekun Mt., Hyangrobong Mt., Sorak Mt., Gosan, and Misiryeong Mt..
Development of Updateable Model Output Statistics (UMOS) System for the Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature
Hong, Ki-Ok ; Suh, Myoung-Seok ; Kang, Jeon-Ho ; Kim, Chansoo ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 2, 2010, Pages 73~89
An updateable model output statistics (UMOS) system for daily maximum and minimum temperature (
) over South Korea based on the Canadian UMOS system were developed and validated. RDAPS (regional data assimilation and prediction system) and KWRF (Korea WRF) which have quite different physics and dynamics were used for the development of UMOS system. The 20 most frequently selected potential predictors for each season, station, and forecast projection time from the 68 potential predictors of the MOS system, were used as potential predictors of the UMOS system. The UMOS equations were developed through the weighted blending of the new and old model data, with weights chosen to emphasize the new model data while including enough old model data to ensure stable equations and a smooth transition of dependency from the old model to the new model. The UMOS equations are being updated by every 7 days. The validation results of
showed that seasonal mean bias, RMSE, and correlation coefficients for the total forecast projection times are -0.41-0.17 K, 1.80-2.46 K, and 0.80-0.97, respectively. The performance is slightly better in autumn and winter than in spring and summer. Also the performance of UMOS system are clearly dependent on location, better at the coastal region than inland area. As in the MOS system, the performance of UMOS system is degraded as the forecast day increases.
The South-North Oscillation Centered on 1996 in Korean Summer Rainfall Variability
Choi, Ki-Seon ; Oh, Su-Bin ; Kim, Do-Woo ; Byun, Hi-Ryong ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 2, 2010, Pages 91~100
In accordance with the time series of rainfall in summer (June, July and August) in South and North Korea for recent 28 years (1981-2008), rainfall is substantially increased in South Korea since 1996, while it is significantly decreased in North Korea. In particular, the decreasing tendency of rainfall in summer in North Korea is more definitely observed during the
rainy season (late August - mid September) in intraseasonal variation. Such a feature is also confirmed in the spatial distribution of oscillation pattern between South and North Korea on the basis of 1996 which is obtained by empirical orthogonal function analysis using the summer rainfall observed in all weather observation stations in South and North Korea. For the decreasing tendency of rainfall in North Korea, it is found that northeasterlies from anticyclonic circulation centered on around Baikal Lake weaken convective activity during summer. On the contrary, the increasing tendency of rainfall in South Korea is related to the strengthened cyclonic circulation in the southern region of China and accordingly, enhances southwesterlies in South Korea.
Evaluation of Health Information Service on the Internal and External Weather Agency Web sites
Oh, Jin-A ; Kim, Heon-Ae ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 2, 2010, Pages 101~109
The service of health information was provided through internal and external weather agency web sites. The purpose of this study was to analyze current status of the weather agency web sites dealing with health information in the internet, and to evaluate their contents and technical aspects. The evaluation tool consisted of five area (appropriateness, accessibility, supportiveness, feedback, and continuance) with nineteen items. For the public confidence, web sites were limited to national meteorological administration and representative weather agencies. The evaluating web sites were fourteen from eight countries. The evaluation scores of fourteen web sites were 37.8 out of 53.0 in total. Each subcategory score were 5-12 out of 12 in appropriate, 4-12 out of 12 in accessibility, 4-10 out of 11 in supportiveness, 2-8 out of 9 in feedback, and 2-8 out of 9 in continuance. The score of feedback was the lowest. Survey results indicated that Korean Meteorological Administration homepage was middle status compared with the others in side of depth of health information and feedback from expert. Climate change affect human health, so it will be possible to prevent some disease at first through climate information. It should be developed to provide high quality health information and system related climate on KMA homepage.
An Uncertainty Assessment for Annual Variability of Precipitation Simulated by AOGCMs Over East Asia
Shin, Jinho ; Lee, Hyo-Shin ; Kim, Minji ; Kwon, Won-Tae ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 2, 2010, Pages 111~130
An uncertainty assessment for precipitation datasets simulated by Atmosphere-Ocean Coupled General Circulation Model (AOGCM) is conducted to provide reliable climate scenario over East Asia. Most of results overestimate precipitation compared to the observational data (wet bias) in spring-fall-winter, while they underestimate precipitation (dry bias) in summer in East Asia. Higher spatial resolution model shows better performances in simulation of precipitation. To assess the uncertainty of spatiotemporal precipitation in East Asia, the cyclostationary empirical orthogonal function (CSEOF) analysis is applied. An annual cycle of precipitation obtained from the CSEOF analysis accounts for the biggest variability in its total variability. A comparison between annual cycles of observed and modeled precipitation anomalies shows distinct differences: 1) positive precipitation anomalies of the multi-model ensemble (MME) for 20 models (thereafter MME20) in summer locate toward the north compared to the observational data so that it cannot explain summer monsoon rainfalls across Korea and Japan. 2) The onset of summer monsoon in MME20 in Korean peninsula starts earlier than observed one. These differences show the uncertainty of modeled precipitation. Also the comparison provides the criteria of annual cycle and correlation between modeled and observational data which helps to select best models and generate a new MME, which is better than the MME20. The spatiotemporal deviation of precipitation is significantly associated with lower-level circulations. In particular, lower-level moisture transports from the warm pool of the western Pacific and corresponding moisture convergence significantly are strongly associated with summer rainfalls. These lower-level circulations physically consistent with precipitation give insight into description of the reason in the monsoon of East Asia why behaviors of individually modeled precipitation differ from that of observation.
Application of Images and Data of Satellite to a Conceptual Model for Heavy Rainfall Analysis
Lee, Kwang-Jae ; Heo, Ki-Young ; Suh, Ae-Sook ; Park, Jong-Seo ; Ha, Kyung-Ja ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 2, 2010, Pages 131~151
This study establishes a conceptual model to analyze heavy rainfall events in Korea using multi-functional transport satellite-1R satellite images. Three heavy rainfall episodes in two major synoptic types, such as synoptic low (SL) type and synoptic flow convergence (SC) type, are analyzed through a conceptual model procedure which proceeds on two steps: 1) conveyer belt model analysis to detect convective area, and 2) cloud top temperature analysis from black body temperature (TBB) data to distinguish convective cloud from stratiform cloud, and eventually estimate heavy rainfall area and intensity. Major synoptic patterns causing heavy rainfall are Changma, synoptic low approach, upper level low in the SL type, and upper level low, indirect effect of typhoon, convergence of tropical air in the SC type. The relationship between rainfall and TBBs in overall well resolved areas of heavy rainfall. The SC type tended to underestimate the intensity of heavy rainfall, but the analysis with the use of water vapor channel has improved the performance. The conceptual model improved a concrete utilization of images and data of satellite, as summarizing characteristics of major synoptic type causing heavy rainfall and composing an algorism to assess the area and intensity of heavy rainfall. The further assessment with various cases is required for the operational use.
Prototype for the Weather Monitoring System with Web - Based Data Management - Construction and Operation
Kim, Jinwoo ; Kim, Jin-Young ; Oh, Jai-Ho ; Kim, Do-Yong ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 2, 2010, Pages 153~160
In this paper, an attempt has been made to build and test self-configuring weather sensor networks and internet based observation system to gather atmospheric data. The aim is to provide integrated or real-time weather information in standard form using network data access protocol. This system was successfully developed to record weather information both digital as well as visual using sensor network and web-enabled surveillance cameras. These data were transformed by network based data access protocol to access and utilize for public domain. The competed system has been successfully utilized to monitor different types of weather. The results show that this is one of the most useful weather monitoring system.
Characteristics of East Asia Synoptic Meteorological Conditions in Association with Haze phenomena
Jo, Hyun-Young ; Kim, Cheol-Hee ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 2, 2010, Pages 161~172
In an effort to investigate the characteristics of synoptic meteorological conditions in association with long-range transport of haze phenomena occurred over Korea, we statistically classified characteristics of haze events into two types of haze: stagnant case and long-range transport case, based on the synoptic meteorological parameters, and analyze comparatively the characteristics of synoptic meteorological conditions for each case. The results showed that the occurrence frequency of stagnant case accounts for 64.5%, showing superiority of stagnant haze cases over the long-range transport case which occupies only 35.5% among total 67 cases for the period from 2000 to 2007. This result indicates that haze phenomena occurred over Korea has influenced by not only the emission in Korea by itself but long range transport effects originating from China inland. The synoptic condition on 850hPa level showed that, when stagnant case occurred, Korean peninsula was located under the effects of negative vorticity with the significantly weak wind speed and stable atmospheric condition. In contrast, long-range transport case shows positive vorticity and relatively strong wind speed over 850hPa level, especially with the location of high pressure system over the area of southwestern China. This location of high pressure system implies to induce the westerlies or northwesteries consistently due to its pressure gradient by itself. Also other comparative studies haze days (vs.) Asian dust days are carried out, and we found out that the patterns of long-range transport of haze phenomena in Korea shows similar to Asian dust case but the static stability condition indicates more stabilized atmospheric condition than dust phenomena.
A Study on the Positive Economic Values of Rain After a Long Drought: for the Rainfall Case of 20~21 April, 2009
Lee, Young-Gon ; Kim, Baek-Jo ; Cha, Kee-Uk ; Park, Gil-Un ; Ryoo, Kyong-Sik ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 2, 2010, Pages 173~186
The impact of the precipitation has been focused on losses in social and economical sectors. However, as growing the concerns of the future water shortage caused by the climate change, the precipitation should be consider in various views for an effective planning in the water resource management. A precipitation case occurred from 20 to 21 April 2009 was recorded as a welcome rain because it reduced the severe drought continued in Korea from winter season of 2008. In this study, economic values of the event was calculated with positive aspects in various sectors. The estimation is based on four major parts such as a secure of water resources, the improvement of air quality, the decrease of forest fires, and the reduction of the drought impact. The water resources only considered inflow waters into dams and the reservoirs managed by Korean public institutions and their economic values accounts for 5.92 billion won. Decreases of four air pollutants(
, CO, and
) were considered as the positive effects of the rainfall and estimated 175.4 billion won. The preventive effect of the forest fire after the rainfall results in 0.48 billion won. Finally, the rainfall during the drought period is effective to reduce the social costs of 108.65 billion won. Although the economic values estimated in this study explain parts of the positive effects of the precipitation, it can help to develop a comprehensive and systematic valuation system for the whole process of the precipitation. For doing this, various rainfall types should be analyzed in social-economic terms including economics, environments and hydrology.
Estimation for the Economic Benefit of weather modification (Precipitation Enhancement and Fog Dissipation)
Lee, Chulkyu ; Chang, Ki-Ho ; Cha, Joo-Wan ; Jung, Jae-Won ; Jeong, Jin-Yim ; Yang, Ha-Young ; Seo, Sung-Kyu ; Bae, Jin-Young ; Kang, Sun-Young ; Choi, Young-Jean ; Cho, Ha-Man ; Choi, Chee-Young ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 2, 2010, Pages 187~194
We estimate the economic benefit of weather modification (precipitation enhancement and fog dissipation) by assuming its operation for the considered regions. Based on the statistical data, the economic benefit of the virtually operational precipitation enhancement experiments for the Andong and Imha basins, where the natural precipitation is relatively lack in South Korea, is calculated 348 for the water resources, 22,458 for forest fire prevention, and 28,458 million won/year for the drought relief. The benefit of the fog dissipation operation for the Incheon International Airport is estimated 7,365 million won/year for the flight delay due to fog. The calculated ratio of benefit to cost for precipitation enhancement operation for the basins is 14.07, which is comparable to that conducted in other countries.
Characteristics of a Wind Map over the Korean Peninsula Based on Mesoscale Model WRF
Byon, Jae-Young ; Choi, Young-Jean ; Seo, Beom-Keum ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 2, 2010, Pages 195~210
This study uses mesoscale model WRF to investigate characteristics of wind fields in South Korea, a region with a complex terrain. Hourly wind fields were simulated for one year representing mean characteristics of an 11-year period from year 1998 to year 2008. The simulations were performed on a nested grid from 27 km down to 1 km horizontal resolution. Seasonal variation of wind speed indicates that wind is strongest during the spring and winter seasons. Spatial distribution of mean wind speed shows wind energy potential at its peak in mountainous region of Gangwon-do, the east coast, and Jeju Island. Wind speed peaks at night in mountainous and eastern coastal regions, and in the afternoon inland and in the southwestern coastal region. The simulated wind map was verified with four upper-air sounding observations. Wind speed was shown to have a more pronounced overestimation tendency relative to observation in the winter rather than summer. The results of this wind mapping study help identify locations with the highest wind energy potential in South Korea.
Ocean Dynamic Processes Responsible for the Interannual Variability of the Tropical Indian Ocean SST Associated with ENSO
Kug, Jong-Seong ; An, Soon-Il ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 2, 2010, Pages 211~219
The interannual variability of the tropical Indian Ocean SST is investigated by analyzing the ocean assimilation data. It is significant that since 1970, ENSO events frequently followed the Indian Ocean Dipole event. The SST tendency due to the dynamical SST advections over the tropical Indian Ocean sufficiently overwhelms that due to other thermodynamic process during the fall and winter of ENSO. Especially, the strong cooling due to the anomalous vertical advection by the mean upwelling and the warming due to the horizontal advection are attributed to the cold SST during the fall and the warm SST during the winter, respectively. The significant warming between winter and spring over the southwestern Indian Ocean turns out to be due to the vertical advection of the mean subsurface temperature by the anomalous upwelling during the winter and the vertical advection of the anomalous subsurface temperature by the mean upwelling from winter to spring. We speculate that when the Indian Ocean Dipole events concurred with the ENSO, the surface wind is so strong enough as to generate the change in the SST dynamically and overwhelm the SST changes associated with other effects.