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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Meteorological Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
Selecting the target year
Source Signature of Mass, Nitrate and Sulfate in Supermicron and Submicron Aerosols at Gosan Superstation on Jeju Island
Lim, S.H. ; Lee, M. ; Lee, G. ; Kang, K.S. ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 3, 2010, Pages 221~228
Aerosol particles with different size-cuts (
) were collected at Gosan Superstation on Jeju Island from August 2007 to June 2008. Mean concentrations of
, respectively. Soluble ions comprised 45.7%, 53.9%, and 60.3% of the total mass of
, respectively. While sulfate was the most dominant species of fine mode (
), nitrate was enriched in coarse mode (
). When the concentrations of coarse mode particles were greatly increased, nitrate tended to be enhanced in coarse mode with high calcium but low sulfate concentrations. During the high
events, however, nitrate was increased with sulfate at fine mode. Particularly, nitrate concentrations were substantially enhanced during high particle episodes, leading high ratios of nitrate to sulfate in air under northwest wind during wintertime. On the other hand, the levels of nitrate were lower than those of sulfate at average particle concentrations. The backward air mass trajectories indicated that nitrate concentrations were elevated in air arriving Gosan passing through Santung peninsula or near South Korea.
Determination and Predictability of Precipitation-type in Winter from a Ground-based Microwave Radiometric Profiler Radiometer
Won, Hye Young ; Kim, Yeon-Hee ; Chang, Dong-Eon ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 3, 2010, Pages 229~238
The 1,000~500 hPa thickness and the
isotherm at 850 hPa have been used as the traditional predictors for wintertime precipitation-type forecasts. New approaches are taking on added significance as preexistence method of determination for wintertime precipitation-type exhibits more or less prevalent false alarms. Moreover thicknesses and thermodynamic profiles from ordinary upper-air observation were not adequate to monitor the atmospheric structure. In this regard, Microwave radiometric profiler microwave radiometer is useful in wintertime precipitation-type forecasts because radiometric measurements provide soundings at high temporal resolution. In this study, the determination and the predictability of wintertime precipitation-type were examined by using the calculated thicknesses, temperature of 850 hPa (T850) from a microwave radiometer, and surface observation at National Center for Intensive Observation of severe weather (NCIO) located at Haenam, Korea. The critical values for traditional predictors (thickness of 1000~500 hPa and T850) were evaluated and adjusted to Haenam region because snow rarely occurred with a 1000-500 hPa thickness > 5,300 m and T850 >
. Three thicknesses (e.g., 1,000~850, 1000~700, and 850~700 hPa thickness), T850, surface air temperature, and wet-bulb temperature were also evaluated as the additional predictors. A simple nomogram and a flow chart were finally designed to determine the wintertime precipitation-type using the microwave radiometer. The skill scores for the predictability of precipitation-type determination are considerably improved and the predictors showed the temporal variations in 12 hours before precipitation. We can monitor the hit and run snowfall in winter successful by realtime watch of the predictors, especially in commutes of big cities.
The Climatological Characteristics of the Landfall Typhoons on North Korea
Ahn, Suk-Hee ; Kim, Baek-Jo ; Park, So-Yeon ; Park, Gil-Un ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 3, 2010, Pages 239~246
In this study, the climatological characteristics of the landfall typhoons on North Korea are surveyed to estimate the frequency, the intensity, the track, and their damage. The data for the period of 1951-2008 are used from both RSMC (Regional Specialized Meteorological Center) Tokyo Typhoon Center and NCEP/NCAR (National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research), EM-DAT (Emergency Events Database). There are the ten highest frequencies from 1961 to 1965 and is one frequency for the period of both 1966-1979 and 1976-1980 respectively. Even if a clear trend on the frequency of typhoon is not defined, it is noticeable the intensity has been weak since the frequency of TS (Tropical Storm) decreased. In order to figure out both the characteristic of intensity and the relation between the typhoon track and the expansion of North Pacific High (NPH), Typhoon's tracks are classified into three types as follows: (I) landing on the west coast of North Korea through the mainland of China, (II) landing on the west coast of North Korea, (III) landing on a central/eastern part of the Korean peninsula through South Korea. More often than not, the characteristic of Type (I) is the case of a landfall after it becomes extratropical cyclone. Type(II) and Type(III) show a landfall as TS grade, by comparision. On the relation between the typhoon's track and the expansion of NPH analyzed, Type (I) shows the westward expansion while both Type (II) and Type (III) show the northward expansion and development of NPH. This means the intensity of a typhoon landfall on North Korea is variable depending on the development of NPH. Finally, only two cases are found among total five cases in EM-DAT, reportedly that North Korea was damaged. And therefore, the damage by the wind of Prapiroon (the
typhoon, 2000) and heavy rainfall with Rusa (the
typhoon, 2002) landing on North Korea was analyzed. Moreover, it is estimated both Prapiroon and Rusa have done badly damaged to North Korea as the economical losses of as much as six billion and five hundred-thousand US dollar, respectively.
Typhoon Researches Using the Ieodo Ocean Research Station: Part I. Importance and Present Status of Typhoon Observation
Moon, Il-Ju ; Shim, Jae-Seol ; Lee, Dong Young ; Lee, Jae Hak ; Min, In-Ki ; Lim, Kwan Chang ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 3, 2010, Pages 247~260
A recent dramatic increase of natural hazards in the Korean peninsular (KP) due to typhoons have raised necessities for the accurate typhoon prediction. Ieodo ocean research station (IORS) has been constructed in June 2003 at the open ocean where typhoons pass frequently, aiming to observe typhoons before the landfall to the KP and hence to improve the prediction skill. This paper investigates the importance of measurements at the IORS in the typhoon research and forecast. Analysis of the best track data in the N. W. Pacific shows that about one typhoon passes over the IORS per year on the average and 54% of the KP-landfall typhoons during 59 years (1950-2008) passed by the IORS within the range of the 150-km radius. The data observed during the event of typhoons reveals that the IORS can provide useful information for the typhoon prediction prior to the landfall (mainland: before 8-10 hrs, Jeju Island: before 4-6 hrs), which may contribute to improving the typhoon prediction skill and conducting the disaster prevention during the landfall. Since 2003, nine typhoons have influenced the IORS by strong winds above 17m/s. Among them, the typhoon Maemi (0314) was the strongest and brought the largest damages in Korea. The various oceanic and atmospheric observation data at the IORS suggest that the Maemi (0314) has kept the strong intensity until the landfall as passing over warm ocean currents, while the Ewiniar (0603) has weakened rapidly as passing over the Yellow Sea Bottom Cold Water (YSBCW), mainly due to the storm's self-induced surface cooling. It is revealed that the IORS is located in the best place for monitering the patterns of the warm currents and the YSBCW which varies in time and space.
Little Ice Age recorded in the YC-2 stalagmite of the Yongcheon Cave, Jeju Island (South Korea)
Ji, Hyo Seon ; Woo, Kyung Sik ; Yang, Dong Yoon ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 3, 2010, Pages 261~271
Carbon isotopic compositions of the YC-2 stalagmite in Yongcheon Cave were analyzed to delineate paleoclimatic variations near Korean peninsula for the past historical period. The YC-2 stalagmite is about 68 mm long and annual growth laminae are distinctively identified. Because the number of growth laminae is at least 242, the stalagmite can be estimated to be at least 241 years old. At about 15 mm from the bottom, one thick brown growth lamina is observed, and this lamina was likely to have been formed when the stalagmite ceased to grow, making the hiatus. High resolution, carbon isotope data indicate past fluctuations of East Asia monsoonal intensity (intimately related to the amount of precipitation). Based on the carbon isotope trend, the stalagmite can be divided into three stages (Stages I, II and III). The highest carbon isotopic compositions of Stage I (
=-3.3~0.4‰, PDB) indicate that the stalagmite grew during the Little Ice Age when cold and dry climate prevailed with less vegetation. Stage II is characterized by a transitional period from cold and dry to warm and wet climate with a increasing trend of carbon isotopic compositions (
=-9.6~-0.6‰) and this period indicates the weakening of the Little Ice Age climate. This decreasing trend also suggests that Little Ice Age was terminated near middle 1870's around Korean peninsula. Relatively low carbon isotopic compositions during Stage III (
=-11.0~-8.0‰) indicates that the climate was changed to warm and wet conditions which are similar to the present.
The Features of Asian Dust Events Originated in Manchuria
Kim, Sumin ; Chun, Youngsin ; Kim, Seung-Bum ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 3, 2010, Pages 273~286
The northeast part of China(hereafter Manchuria) is one of Asian dust source regions along with Gobi, Inner Mongolia and Loess Plateau. In this study, a geographical survey over the area was carried out to determine its soil characteristics in June 2009. It revealed that some parts of the area, especially near Keerchin desert, consist of alkali clay soil mixed up with sand. Manchuria, where is a vast cornfield, can be a potential source region of Asian dust from fall to following spring after harvesting. The frequency of Asian dust over the region from 1996 to 2009 was examined using 3-hourly GTS SYNOP data and it showed that the occurrence of Asian dust over the region is high in the springtime. It was also revealed that snow cover is the key parameter affecting on the frequency through the analysis of NCEP reanalysis data. To scrutinize the path and structure of Asian dust from Manchuria, the event on 3~4 April 2008 and 25 January 2010 were intensively investigated with regard to features of synoptic weather patterns, satellite imagery, airstream, naked eye-observations, concentrations of PM10, 2.5 and 1.0. For this case, the Asian dust from the area reached to Korea less than a day. However, the duration time of the dust in Korea was short (< 7 hours). The average of hourly PM10 reached up to
at Baengnyeondo during the period. The high PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentrations were also observed at several sites in Korea, indicating that air pollutants could be transported along with the dust.
Typhoon Wukong (200610) Prediction Based on The Ensemble Kalman Filter and Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis
Park, Jong Im ; Kim, Hyun Mee ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 3, 2010, Pages 287~306
An ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model is applied for Typhoon Wukong (200610) to investigate the performance of ensemble forecasts depending on experimental configurations of the EnKF. In addition, the ensemble sensitivity analysis is applied to the forecast and analysis ensembles generated in EnKF, to investigate the possibility of using the ensemble sensitivity analysis as the adaptive observation guidance. Various experimental configurations are tested by changing model error, ensemble size, assimilation time window, covariance relaxation, and covariance localization in EnKF. First of all, experiments using different physical parameterization scheme for each ensemble member show less root mean square error compared to those using single physics for all the forecast ensemble members, which implies that considering the model error is beneficial to get better forecasts. A larger number of ensembles are also beneficial than a smaller number of ensembles. For the assimilation time window, the experiment using less frequent window shows better results than that using more frequent window, which is associated with the availability of observational data in this study. Therefore, incorporating model error, larger ensemble size, and less frequent assimilation window into the EnKF is beneficial to get better prediction of Typhoon Wukong (200610). The covariance relaxation and localization are relatively less beneficial to the forecasts compared to those factors mentioned above. The ensemble sensitivity analysis shows that the sensitive regions for adaptive observations can be determined by the sensitivity of the forecast measure of interest to the initial ensembles. In addition, the sensitivities calculated by the ensemble sensitivity analysis can be explained by dynamical relationships established among wind, temperature, and pressure.
A Study on the Generation and Movement of Low-concentration
in Summer at Gosan, Korea
Kang, Kyeoung-Sik ; Moon, Il-Ju ; Hwang, Seung-Man ; Shin, Dong-Suk ; Yoon, Soon-Chang ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 3, 2010, Pages 307~318
This study investigates the generation and movement of low-concentration
observed in Gosan during summer from 2002 to 2006. For analysis, additional
data in Anmyeondo, Ryori, Barrow, and Minamitorishima as well as NOAA/ESRL daily global
fields, background trajectories data, and 850 hPa wind fields are also used. Based on analyses using various observed data, we classified three types of low-concentration
in Gosan according to its origin: i) the origin of the Siberian continental, in which the consumption of
is active due to photosynthesis from broad forests, ii) the origin of Okhotsh and Artic seas, in which the low-concentration
is dominant due to high primary productivity by a plankton bloom, and iii) the origin of the Northwestern Pacific which is related to the entry of air mass from high latitudes. These results show that the low-concentration
observed in Gosan during summer is not originated from the Pacific oceans as known in previous studies, but originated from high latitude regions such as the Siberian continental and the Okhotsh and Artic seas.
Sensitivity Evaluation of Wind Fields in Surface Layer by WRF-PBL and LSM Parameterizations
Seo, Beom-Keun ; Byon, Jae-Young ; Choi, Young-Jean ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 3, 2010, Pages 319~332
Sensitivity experiments of WRF model using different planetary boundary layer (PBL) and land surface model (LSM) parameterizations are evaluated for prediction of wind fields within the surface layer. The experiments were performed with three PBL schemes (YSU, Pleim, MYJ) in combination with three land surface models (Noah, RUC, Pleim). The WRF model was conducted on a nested grid from 27-km to 1-km horizontal resolution. The simulations validated wind speed and direction at 10 m and 80 m above ground level at a 1-km spatial resolution over the South Korea. Statistical verification results indicate that Pleim and YSU PBL schemes are in good agreement with observations at 10 m above ground level, while the MYJ scheme produced predictions similar to the observed wind speed at 80 m above ground level. LSM comparisons indicate that the RUC model performs best in predicting 10-m and 80-m wind speed. It is found that MYJ (PBL) - RUC (LSM) simulations yielded the best results for wind field in the surface layer. The choice of PBL and LSM parameterization will contribute to more accurate wind predictions for air quality studies and wind power using WRF.
Rainfall Characteristics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation from TRMM Precipitation Radar: Convective and Stratiform Rain
Son, Jun-Hyeok ; Seo, Kyong-Hwan ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 3, 2010, Pages 333~341
The stratiform rain fraction is investigated in the tropical boreal winter Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) and summer intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Rader data for the 11-yr period from 1998 to 2008. Composite analysis shows that the MJO/ISO produces larger stratiform rain rate than convective rain rate for nearly all phases following the propagating MJO/ISO deep clouds, with the greatest stratiform rainfall amount when the MJO/ISO center is located over the central-eastern Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. The fraction of the intraseasonally filtered stratiform rainfall compared to total rainfall (i.e., convective plus stratiform rainfall) amounts to 53~56%, which is 13~16% larger than the stratiform rain fraction estimated for the same data on seasonal-to-annual time scales by Schumacher and Houze. This indicates that the MJO/ISO exhibits the organized rainfall process which is characterized by the shallow convection/heating at the incipient phase and the subsequent flare-up of strong deep convection, followed by the development of stratiform clouds at the upper troposphere.
The assessment of the Spatial Variation of the Wind Field using the Meso-velocity Scale and its Contributing Factors
Lee, Seong-Eun ; Shin, Sun-Hee ; Ha, Kyung-Ja ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 3, 2010, Pages 343~353
A regional wind network with complex surface conditions must be designed with sufficient space and time resolution to resolve the local circulations. In this study, the spatial variations of the wind field observed in the Seoul and Jeju regional networks were evaluated in terms of annual, seasons, and months to assess the spatial homogeneity of wind fields within the regional networks. The coherency of the wind field as a function of separation distance between stations indicated that significant coherency was sometimes not captured by the network, as inferred by low correlations between adjacent stations. A meso-velocity scale was defined in terms of the spatial variability of the wind within the network. This problem is predictably most significant with weak winds, dull prevailing wind, clear skies and significant topography. The relatively small correlations between stations imply that the wind at a given point cannot be estimated by interpolating winds from the nearest stations. For the Seoul and Jeju regional network, the meso-velocity scale has typically a same order of magnitude as the speed of the network averaged wind, revealing the large spatial variability of the Jeju network station imply topography and weather. Significant scatter in the relationship between spatial variability of the wind field and the wind speed is thought to be related to thermally-generated flows. The magnitude of the mesovelocity scale was significantly different along separation distance between stations, wind speed, intensity of prevailing wind, clear and cloudy conditions, topography. Resultant wind vectors indicate much different flow patterns along condition of contributing factors. As a result, the careful considerations on contributing factors such as prevailing wind in season, weather, and complex surface conditions with topography and land/sea contrast are required to assess the spatial variations of wind field on a regional network. The results in the spatial variation from the mesovelocity scale are useful to represent the characteristics of regional wind speed including lower surface conditions over the grid scale of large scale atmospheric model.
Annual Variation and Trends of the Arctic Tropopause Pressure
Choi, Woo Kap ; Kim, Hyesil ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 3, 2010, Pages 355~366
The tropopause pressure in the Arctic region is calculated by the conventional thermal and dynamical methods using 30-year reanalysis data. The tropopause pressures determined thermally and dynamically both show semiannual cycles with one peak in April and May, and another in October, contrary to the tropopause temperatures. Although tropopause levels are higher both in January and July, the level of the tropopause in January seems to be associated with the stratospheric temperatures while that of July seems to be associated with the tropospheric temperatures. During the 30-year period the most significant trend appears in April, and it is shown that the altitude of the Arctic tropopause has been rising. Although a potential reason for this trend is stratospheric cooling due to ozone depletion, significant tropospheric warming in April is considered to be another reason.
Variation of Tracer Distribution During the Antarctic Polar Vortex Breakup Shown in ILAS and ILAS-II Data
Choi, Wookap ; Lim, Kyungsoo ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 3, 2010, Pages 367~377
Variation of tracer distribution during the vortex-breakup period in the Antarctic region was observed by the data from the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) and ILAS-II. All four trace species including methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, and water vapor show similar patterns of vertical gradient in spite of different structures of zonal mean mixing ratio. Timings of vortex breakup on each level are estimated by two different methods, and they are compared with zonal standard deviations following the latitude circle of each trace species. Although the tracers have different chemical life times and sink/source, the zonal standard deviation patterns show remarkable similarities. The zonal standard deviation shown here to measure the zonal asymmetry of tracer distribution is believed to diagnose the timing of the Antarctic polar-vortex breakup reasonably well.
Impact of Climate Change on the Ocean Environment in the Viewpoint of Paleoclimatology
Yi, Hi-Il ; Shin, Im Chul ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 3, 2010, Pages 379~386
Impact of global warming on the ocean environment is reviewed based on most recently published publications. The most significant impact of global warming on marine environment is due to the melting of mountain and continental glaciers. Ice melting causes slow down and/or shut down of thermohaline circulation, and makes hypoxic environment for the first time, then makes anoxic with time. This can cause decreasing biodiversity, and finally makes global extinction of animals and plants. Furthermore, global warming causes sea-level rise, soil erosion and changes in calcium carbonate compensation depth (CCD). These changes also can make marine ecosystem unstable. If we emit carbon dioxide at a current rate, the global mean temperature will rise at least
at the end of this century, as predicted by IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). In this case, the ocean waters become acidic and anoxic, and the thermohaline circulation will be halted, and marine ecosystems collapsed.