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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Meteorological Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
Selecting the target year
Change of TC Activity Around Korea by Arctic Oscillation Phase
Choi, Ki-Seon ; Kim, Tae-Ryong ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 4, 2010, Pages 387~398
This study shows that frequency of tropical cyclone (TC) around Korea in summer (June-September) has positive relation with Arctic Oscillation (AO) in the preceding April. In a positive AO phase, each of anomalous cyclone and anomalous anticyclone is developed in low latitude and middle latitude regions of East Asia from the preceding April to summer. As a result, while anomalous southeasterly around Korea serves as a steering flow that TCs move toward this area is strengthened, northwesterly that reinforced in southeastern area of East Asia plays a role in preventing TCs from moving toward this area. In addition, due to this distribution of pressure systems developed in this AO phase, TCs tend to occur, move and recurve in further northeastern region in the western North Pacific than TCs in a negative AO phase. On the contrary, TCs in a negative AO phase mainly move westward toward southern China or Indochina Peninsula from Philippines. Eventually, intensity of TCs is weaker than those in a positive AO phase due to the terrain effect caused by high passage frequency of TCs in mainland China.
Forecast Sensitivity Analysis of An Asian Dust Event occurred on 6-8 May 2007 in Korea
Kim, Hyun Mee ; Kay, Jun Kyung ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 4, 2010, Pages 399~414
Sand and dust storm in East Asia, so called Asian dust, is a seasonal meteorological phenomenon. Mostly in spring, dust particles blown into atmosphere in the arid area over northern China desert and Manchuria are transported to East Asia by prevailing flows. An Asian dust event occurred on 6-8 May 2007 is chosen to investigate how sensitive the Asian dust transport forecast to the initial condition uncertainties and to interpret the characteristics of sensitivity structures from the viewpoint of dynamics and predictability. To investigate the forecast sensitivities to the initial condition, adjoint sensitivities that calculate gradient of the forecast aspect (i.e., response function) with respect to the initial condition are used. The forecast aspects relevant to Asian dust transports are dry energy forecast error and lower tropospheric pressure forecast error. The results show that the sensitive regions for the dry energy forecast error and the lower tropospheric pressure forecast error are initially located in the vicinity of the trough and then propagate eastward as the surface low system moves eastward. The vertical structures of the adjoint sensitivities for the dry energy forecast error are upshear tilted structures, which are typical adjoint sensitivity structures for extratropical cyclones. Energy distribution of singular vectors also show very similar structures with the adjoint sensitivities for the dry energy forecast error. The adjoint sensitivities of the lower tropospheric pressure forecast error with respect to the relative vorticity show that the accurate forecast of the trough (or relative vorticity) location and intensity is essential to have better forecasts of the Asian dust event. Forecast error for the atmospheric circulation during the dust event is reduced 62.8% by extracting properly weighted adjoint sensitivity perturbations from the initial state. Linearity assumption holds generally well for this case. Dynamics of the Asian dust transport is closely associated with predictability of it, and the improvement in the overall forecast by the adjoint sensitivity perturbations implies that adjoint sensitivities would be beneficial in improving the forecast of Asian dust events.
Land Cover Classification over East Asian Region Using Recent MODIS NDVI Data (2006-2008)
Kang, Jeon-Ho ; Suh, Myoung-Seok ; Kwak, Chong-Heum ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 4, 2010, Pages 415~426
A Land cover map over East Asian region (Kongju national university Land Cover map: KLC) is classified by using support vector machine (SVM) and evaluated with ground truth data. The basic input data are the recent three years (2006-2008) of MODIS (MODerate Imaging Spectriradiometer) NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) data. The spatial resolution and temporal frequency of MODIS NDVI are 1km and 16 days, respectively. To minimize the number of cloud contaminated pixels in the MODIS NDVI data, the maximum value composite is applied to the 16 days data. And correction of cloud contaminated pixels based on the spatiotemporal continuity assumption are applied to the monthly NDVI data. To reduce the dataset and improve the classification quality, 9 phenological data, such as, NDVI maximum, amplitude, average, and others, derived from the corrected monthly NDVI data. The 3 types of land cover maps (International Geosphere Biosphere Programme: IGBP, University of Maryland: UMd, and MODIS) were used to build up a "quasi" ground truth data set, which were composed of pixels where the three land cover maps classified as the same land cover type. The classification results show that the fractions of broadleaf trees and grasslands are greater, but those of the croplands and needleleaf trees are smaller compared to those of the IGBP or UMd. The validation results using in-situ observation database show that the percentages of pixels in agreement with the observations are 80%, 77%, 63%, 57% in MODIS, KLC, IGBP, UMd land cover data, respectively. The significant differences in land cover types among the MODIS, IGBP, UMd and KLC are mainly occurred at the southern China and Manchuria, where most of pixels are contaminated by cloud and snow during summer and winter, respectively. It shows that the quality of raw data is one of the most important factors in land cover classification.
The Variation of Radiative Equilibrium Temperatures with the Ice Crystal Habits and Sizes in Cirrus Clouds
Jee, Joon-Bum ; Lee, Won-Hak ; Lee, Kyu-Tae ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 4, 2010, Pages 427~436
The single-scattering optical properties of ice crystals in cirrus clouds by the aircraft measurement data were investigated, and the radiative equilibrium temperatures and radiative fluxes were calculated and analyzed by radiative convective model with the variations of ice crystal habits and sizes in cirrus clouds. The homogeneous cloud is assumed to be in the layer 200~260 hPa with an ice crystal content of
for the flux calculation. The profiles of temperature, humidity, and ozone typical of mid-latitude summer are used. The surface albedo is assumed to be 0.2 for all spectral bands and the cosine of solar zenith angles is 0.5. The result of radiative equilibrium temperature at surface was less than surface temperature of the standard atmosphere data in case of smaller effective ice crystal size and larger optical thickness. The column, aggregation and plate in 6 ice crystal habits were the most effective in positive greenhouse effect and bullet-4 was the worst in it. At the surface, the maximum difference of equilibrium temperature by 6 kinds of ice crystal habits were about 3~15 K with 30 sample aircraft measurement data.
The Relocation Effect of Observation Station on the Homogeneity of Seasonal Mean of Diurnal Temperature Range
Kim, Ji-Hyun ; Suh, Myoung-Seok ; Hong, Soon-Hee ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 4, 2010, Pages 437~449
The relocation effect of observation station (REOS) on the homogeneity of seasonal mean of maximum and minimum temperature, diurnal temperature range (DTR) and relative humidity (RH) was investigated using surface observation data and document file. Twelve stations were selected among the 60 stations which have been operated more than 30 years and relocated over one time. The data from Chunpungryeong station were used as a reference to separate the impacts of station relocation from the effects caused by increased green house gases, urbanization, and others. The REOS was calculated as a difference between REOS of relocated station and REOS of reference station. Although the REOS is clearly dependent on season, meteorological elements, and observing stations, statistically significant impacts are found in many stations, especially the environment of observing station after relocation is greatly changed. As a result, homogeneity of seasonal mean of meteorological elements, especially DTR and RH, is greatly reduced. The results showed that the effect of REOS, along with the effect of urbanization, should be eliminated for the proper estimation of climate change from the analysis of long-term observation data.
Characteristics of Tropical Cyclones Over the Western North Pacific in 2009
Cha, Eun-Jeong ; Kwon, H. Joe ; Kim, Sejin ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 4, 2010, Pages 451~466
This edition has continued since 2006 tropical cyclone season our effort to provide standard tropical cyclone summaries by the western North Pacific basin and detailed reviews of operationally or meteorologically significant tropical cyclones to document significant challenges and shortfalls in the tropical cyclone warning system to serve as a focal point for research and development efforts. The tropical cyclone season of 2009 in the western North Pacific basin is summarized and the main characteristics of general atmospheric circulation are described. Also, the official track and intensity forecasts of these cyclones are verified. The total number is less than 59-year (1951~2009) average frequency of 26.4. The 2009 western North Pacific season was an inactive one, in which 22 tropical storms generated. Of these, 13 TCs reached typhoon (TY) intensity, while the rest 9 TCs only reached severe tropical storm (STS) and tropical storm (TS) intensity - three STS and six TS storms. On average of 22 TCs in 2009, the Korea Meteorological Administration official track forecast error for 48 hours was 219 km. There was a big challenge for individual cyclones such as 0902 CHAN-HOM, 0909 ETAU, and 0920 LUPIT resulting in significant forecast error, with both intricate tracks and irregular moving speed. There was no tropical cyclone causing significant direct impact to the country. The tropical cyclone season in 2009 began in May with the formation of KUJIRA (0901). In September and October, ten TSs formed in the western North Pacific in response to enhanced convective activity. On the other hand, the TC activity was very weak from June to July. It is found that the unusual anti-cyclonic circulation in the lower level and weak convection near the Philippines are dominant during summertime. The convection and atmospheric circulation in the western North Pacific contributed unfavorable condition for TC activity in the 2009 summertime. Year 2009 has continued the below normal condition since mid 1990s which is apparent in the decadal variability in TC activity.
Analysis of Stability Indexes for Lightning by Using Upper Air Observation Data over South Korea
Eom, Hyo-Sik ; Suh, Myoung-Seok ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 4, 2010, Pages 467~482
In this study, characteristics of various stability indexes (SI) and environmental parameters (EP) for the lightning are analysed by using 5 upper air observatories (Osan, Gwangju, Jeju, Pohang, and Baengnyeongdo) for the years 2002-2006 over South Korea. The analysed SI and EP are the lifted index, K-index, Showalter stability index, total precipitable water, mixing ratio, wind shear and temperature of lifting condensation level. The lightning data occurred on the range of -2 hr~+1 hr and within 100 km based on the launch time of rawinsonde and observing location are selected. In general, summer averaged temperature and mixing ratio of lower troposphere for the lightning cases are higher about 1 K and
than no lightning cases, respectively. The Box-Whisker plot shows that the range of various SI and EP values for lightning and no lightning cases are well separated but overlapping of SI and EP values between lightning and no lightning are not a little. The optimized threshold values for the detection of lightning are determined objectively based on the highest Heidke skill socre (HSS), which is the most favorable validation parameter for the rare event, such as lightning, by using the simulation of SI and EP threshold values. Although the HSS is not high (0.15~0.30) and the number and values of selected SI and EP are dependent on geographic location, the new threshold values can be used as a supplementary tool for the detection or forecast of lightning over South Korea.
Measurements of the Lidar Ratio for Asian Dust and Pollution Aerosols with a Combined Raman and Back-scatter Lidar
Yoon, S.C. ; Lee, Y.J. ; Kim, S.W. ; Kim, M.H. ; Sugimoto, N. ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 4, 2010, Pages 483~494
The vertical profiles of the extinction coefficient, the backscatter coefficient, and the lidar ratio (i.e., extinction-to-backscattering ratio) for Asian dust and pollution aerosols are determined from Raman (inelastic) and elastic backscatter signals. The values of lidar ratios during two polluted days is found between 52 and 82 sr (July 22, 2009) and 40~60 sr (July 31, 2009) at 52 nm, with relatively low value of particle depolarization ratio (<5%) and high value of sun photometer-derived Angstrom exponent (> 1.2). However, lidar ratios between 25 and 40 sr are found during two Asian dust periods (October 20, 2009 and March 15, 2010), with 10~20% of particle depolarization ratio and the relatively low value of sun photometer-derived Angstrom exponent (< 0.39). The lidar ratio, particle depolarization ratio and color ratio are useful optical parameter to distinguish non-spherical coarse dust and spherical fine pollution aerosols. The comparison of aerosol extinction profiles determined from inelastic-backscatter signals by the Raman method and from elastic-backscatter signals by using the Fernald method with constant value of lidar ratio (50 sr) have shown that reliable aerosol extinction coefficients cannot be determined from elastic-backscatter signals alone, because the lidar ratio varies with aerosol types. A combined Raman and elastic backscatter lidar system can provide reliable information about the aerosol extinction profile and the aerosol lidar ratio.
Analysis of Characteristics of Air Pollution Over Asia with Satellite-derived
and HCHO using Statistical Methods
Baek, K.H. ; Kim, Jae Hwan ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 4, 2010, Pages 495~503
Satellite data have an intrinsic problem due to a number of various physical parameters, which can have a similar effect on measured radiance. Most evaluations of satellite performance have relied on comparisons with limited spatial and temporal resolution of ground-based measurements such as soundings and in-situ measurements. In order to overcome this problem, a new way of satellite data evaluation is suggested with statistical tools such as empirical orthogonal function(EOF), and singular value decomposition(SVD). The EOF analyses with OMI and OMI HCHO over northeast Asia show that the spatial pattern show high correlation with population density. This suggests that human activity is a major source of as well as HCHO over this region. However, this analysis is contradictory to the previous finding with GOME HCHO that biogenic activity is the main driving mechanism(Fu et al., 2007). To verify the source of HCHO over this region, we performed the EOF analyses with vegetation and HCHO distribution. The results showed no coherence in the spatial and temporal pattern between two factors. Rather, the additional SVD analysis between
and HCHO shows consistency in spatial and temporal coherence. This outcome suggests that the anthropogenic emission is the main source of HCHO over the region. We speculate that the previous study appears to be due to low temporal and spatial resolution of GOME measurements or uncertainty in model input data.
Experimental Study for Influence of Summertime Heat Sources and Basic States on Rossby Wave Propagation
Kim, Seong-Yeol ; Ha, Kyung-Ja ; Yun, Kyung-Sook ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 4, 2010, Pages 505~518
We investigated the impacts of the diabatic heating location, vertical profile and basic state on the Rossby wave propagation. To examine the dynamical process of individual responses on the regional heat source, a dry version of the linear baroclinic model was used with climatological summertime (JJA) mean basic state and vertical structure of the diabatic heating for 1979-2008. Two sets of diabatic heating were constructed of those positioned in the mid-latitudes (Tibetan Plateau, eastern Mediterranean Sea, and the west-central Asia) and the tropics (the southern India, Bay of Bengal, and western Pacific). It was found that using the principal component analysis, atmospheric response to diabatic heating reaches to the steady state in 19th days in time. The prescribed mid-latitude forcing forms equivalent barotropic Rossby wave propagation along the westerly Asia jets, whereas the tropical forcing generates the Rossby wave train extending from the tropics to mid-latitudes. In relation to the maximum vertical profile, the mid-level forcing reveals a stronger response than the lower-level forcing, which may be caused by more effective Rossby wave response by the upper-level divergent flow. Under the different sub-seasonal mean state, both of the tropical and mid-latitude forcing induce the different sub-seasonal response intensity, due to the different basic-state wind.
Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to Study on the Climate Impacts of the Atmospheric Brown Clouds
Kim, Sang-Woo ; Yoon, Soon-Chang ;
Atmosphere, volume 20, issue 4, 2010, Pages 519~530
In this paper we review current research on Atmospheric Brown Clouds (ABCs) with lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and miniaturized instruments. The UAV technology for in-situ measurements, including aerosol concentration, aerosol size distribution, aerosol absorption, cloud drop size distribution, solar radiation fluxes (visible and broadband), and spectral radiative fluxes, is a leading-edge technology for cost-effective atmospheric sounding, which can fill the gap between the ground measurement and satellite observation. The first experimental observation with UAVs in Korea, Cheju ABC Plume Monsoon Experiment (CAPMEX), conducted during summer 2008 revealed that the Beijing plumes exerted a strong positive influence on the net warming and fossil-fuel-dominated black-carbon plumes were approximately 100% more efficient warming agents than biomass-burning-dominated plumes. Long-term sustainable routine UAV measurements will eventually provide truly three-dimensional data of ABCs, which is necessary for the better understanding of their climate impacts and for the improvement of numerical models for air pollution, weather forecast and climate change.