Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Meteorological Society
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
Selecting the target year
Observing System Experiments Using KLAPS and 3DVAR for the Upper-Air Observations over the South and West sea during ProbeX-2009
Hwang, Yoon-Jeong ; Ha, Jong-Chul ; Kim, Yeon-Hee ; Kim, Ki-Hoon ; Jeon, Eun-Hee ; Chang, Dong-Eon ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 1, 2011, Pages 1~16
Numerical prediction capability has been improved over the decades, but progress of prediction for high-impact weather (HIW) was unsatisfactory. One reason of low predictability for HIW is lack of observation data. The National Institute of Meteorological Research (NIMR) has been performed observation program for improvement of predictability, and reduction in social and economical cost for HIW. As part of this observation program, summer intensive observation program (ProbeX-2009) was performed at the observation-gap areas from 25 August to 6 September 2009. Sounding observations using radiosonde were conducted in the Gisang2000 research vessel (R/V) from the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) over the West Sea and the Eardo R/V from the Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute (KORDI) over the South Sea. Observation System Experiment (OSE) is carried out to examine the effect of ProbeX-2009 data. OSEs using Korea Local Analysis and Prediction System (KLAPS) and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model are conducted to investigate the predictability for a short time forecast. And, OSEs using WRF/3DVAR system and WRF forecast model are conducted to study the predictability for an extended time. Control experiment (K_CTL and CNTL) used only GTS observation and experiment (K_EXP and SWEXP) used ProbeX-2009 data from two system are performed. ETS for 3hr accumulated rainfall simulated by KLAPS-WRF shows that K_EXP is higher than K_CTL. Also, ETS for 12hr accumulated rainfall of SWEXP from 3DVAR-WRF is higher than CNTL. The results indicate that observation over the ocean has positive impact on HIW prediction.
Construction of the Regional Prediction System using a Regional Climate Model and Validation of its Wintertime Forecast
Kim, Moon-Hyun ; Kang, Hyun-Suk ; Byun, Young-Hwa ; Park, Suhee ; Kwon, Won-Tae ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 1, 2011, Pages 17~33
A dynamical downscaling system for seasonal forecast has been constructed based on a regional climate model, and its predictability was investigated for 10 years' wintertime (December-January-February; DJF) climatology in East Asia. Initial and lateral boundary conditions were obtained from the operational seasonal forecasting data, which are realtime output of the Global Data Assimilation and Prediction System (GDAPS) at Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). Sea surface temperature was also obtained from the operational forecasts, i.e., KMA El-Nino and Global Sea Surface Temperature Forecast System. In order to determine the better configuration of the regional climate model for East Asian regions, two sensitivity experiments were carried out for one winter season (97/98 DJF): One is for the topography blending and the other is for the cumulus parameterization scheme. After determining the proper configuration, the predictability of the regional forecasting system was validated with respect to 850 hPa temperature and precipitation. The results showed that mean fields error and other verification statistics were generally decreased compared to GDAPS, most evident in 500 hPa geopotential heights. These improved simulation affected season prediction, and then HSS was better 36% and 11% about 850 hPa temperature and precipitation, respectively.
Characteristics of New Particle Formation and Growth Events Observed at Gosan Climate Observatory in Fall 2009
Kim, Yumi ; Kim, Sang-Woo ; Yoon, Soon-Chang ; Jang, Im-Suk ; Lee, Suk-Jo ; Lee, Meehye ; Kim, Ji-Hyoung ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 1, 2011, Pages 35~44
We investigated characteristics of new particle formation and growth events observed at Gosan climate observatory using Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) measurements of particle number size distribution with 54 size ranges from 10 to 487 nm in October 2009. Four days (17~20 October) and five days (22~26 October) were classified into strong new particle formation and growth event (
) and weak particle formation and growth event (
divided by increase of aerosol number concentration in nucleation mode and continuity of growth from nucleation to Aitken mode. Particle growth rates of
) were greater than that of
were analyzed with synoptic pattern over East Asia, meteorological elements, and sulfur dioxide (
) measured at Gosan. We found that
was characterized by a fast and northwesterly wind accompanied cold and dry airmass, but
was affected airmass originated from South China and come through the Korea Peninsula. The events (
) occurred at conditions of high solar flux (
) and low relative humidity (< 60%). The
was higher than that on case of non observed new particle formation.
A Definition and Criterion on Typhoons Approaching to the Korean Peninsula for the Objective Statistical Analysis
Moon, Il-Ju ; Choi, Eu-Soo ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 1, 2011, Pages 45~55
A definition on the tropical cyclone (TC) that influenced the Korean Peninsula (KP), the KP-influence TC, is widely used in the TC communities, but its criterion is not clear mainly due to the ambiguity and subjectiveness of the term such as 'influence', which led to the inconsistent TC statistical analysis. This study suggests a definition and criterion on the TC approaching to the KP (KP-approach TC) additionally, which is more obvious and objective than the KP-influence TC. In this study, the criterion on the KP-approach TC is determined when the TC's center from the RSMC best track data encounters the box areas of
. The range is chosen by finding a minimum area that includes all official KP-influence TCs except three TCs that affected the KP as a tropical depression (TD). Statistical analysis reveals that, among total 1,537 TCs that occur in the western North Pacific during 1951-2008, the KP-approach TC was 472, the KP-influence TC was 187, and the KP-landfall TC was 87. August was the month that the largest TCs approach and influence to the KP. Finally, this paper suggests to determine the KP-influence TC by the strong wind and heavy rain advisories in the KP based on the observation after the storm's passage.
Characteristics of the Lidar Ratio Determined from Lidar and Sky Radiometer Measurements in Seoul
Kim, M.H. ; Kim, S.W. ; Yoon, S.C. ; Sugimoto, Nobuo ; Sohn, B.J. ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 1, 2011, Pages 57~67
Aerosol lidar ratio (extinction-to-backscatter ratio) at 532 nm was determined using 4-year measurements of elastic-backscatter lidar and sky radiometer at Seoul National University of Seoul, Korea. The mean lidar ratio (with standard deviation) based on 4 years of measurements is found to be
sr, and weak seasonal variations are noted with a maximum in JJA (
sr) and a minimum in DJF (
sr). The lidar ratios for clean, dust, and polluted conditions are estimated to be
sr, respectively. While the lidar ratio for the polluted condition is appears to be consistent with previous studies, clean and dust conditions tend to have larger ratios, compared to previous estimates. This discrepancy is thought to be mainly due to the anthropogenic aerosols existing throughout the year around Seoul, which may cause increased lidar ratios even for clean and dust conditions.
An Investigation of Synoptic Condition for Clear-Air Turbulence (CAT) Events Occurred over South Korea
Min, Jae-Sik ; Chun, Hye-Yeong ; Kim, Jung-Hoon ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 1, 2011, Pages 69~83
The synoptic condition of clear-air turbulence (CAT) events occurred over South Korea is investigated, using the Regional Data Assimilation and Prediction System (RDAPS) data obtained from the Korea Meteorological Agency (KMA) and pilot reports (PIREPs) collected by Korea Aviation Meteorological Agency (KAMA) from 1 Dec. 2003 to 30 Nov. 2008. Throughout the years, strong subtropical jet stream exists over the South Korea, and the CAT events frequently occur in the upper-level frontal zone and subtropical jet stream regions where strong vertical wind shears locate. The probability of the moderate or greater (MOG)-level turbulence occurrence is higher in wintertime than in summertime, and high probability region is shifted northward across the jet stream in wintertime. We categorize the CAT events into three types according to their generation mechanisms: i) upper-level front and jet stream, ii) anticyclonically sheared and curved flows, and iii) breaking of mountain waves. Among 240 MOG-level CAT events reported during 2003-2008, 103 cases are related to jet stream while 73 cases and 25 cases are related to the anticyclonic shear flow and breaking of mountain wave, respectively.
The Impact of Satellite Observations on the UM-4DVar Analysis and Prediction System at KMA
Lee, Juwon ; Lee, Seung-Woo ; Han, Sang-Ok ; Lee, Seung-Jae ; Jang, Dong-Eon ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 1, 2011, Pages 85~93
UK Met Office Unified Model (UM) is a grid model applicable for both global and regional model configurations. The Met Office has developed a 4D-Var data assimilation system, which was implemented in the global forecast system on 5 October 2004. In an effort to improve its Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system, Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) has adopted the UM system since 2008. The aim of this study is to provide the basic information on the effects of satellite data assimilation on UM performance by conducting global satellite data denial experiments. Advanced Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS), Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS) data, Global Positioning System Radio Occultation (GPSRO) data, Air Craft (CRAFT) data, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data were assimilated in the UM global system. The contributions of assimilation of each kind of satellite data to improvements in UM performance were evaluated using analysis data of basic variables; geopotential height at 500 hPa, wind speed and temperature at 850 hPa and mean sea level pressure. The statistical verification using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) showed that most of the satellite data have positive impacts on UM global analysis and forecasts.
Effects of an Apartment Complex on Flow and Dispersion in an Urban Area
Lee, Young-Su ; Kim, Jae-Jin ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 1, 2011, Pages 95~108
The effects of an apartment complex on flow and pollutant dispersion in an urban area are numerically investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The CFD model is based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and includes the renormalization group k-
turbulence model. The geographic information system (GIS) data is used as an input data of the CFD model. Eight numerical simulations are carried out for different inflow directions and, for each inflow direction, the effects of an apartment complex are investigated, comparing the characteristics of flow and dispersion before and after construction of the apartment complex in detail. The observation data of automatic weather system (AWS) is analyzed. The windrose analysis shows that the wind speed and direction after the construction of the complex are quite different from those before the construction. The construction of the apartment complex resulted in the decrease in wind speed at the downwind region. It is also shown that the wind speed increased partially inside the apartment complex due to the channeling effect to satisfy the mass continuity. On the whole, the wind speed decreased at the downwind region due to the drag effect by the apartment complex. As a result, the passive pollutant concentration increased (decreased) near the downwind region of (within) the apartment complex compared with that before the construction.
A New Look at Changma
Seo, Kyong-Hwan ; Son, Jun-Hyeok ; Lee, June-Yi ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 1, 2011, Pages 109~121
This study revisits the definition of Changma, which is the major rainy season in Korea and corresponds to a regional component of the East Asian summer monsoon system. In spite of several decades of researches on Changma, questions still remain on many aspects of Changma that include its proper definition, determination of its onset and retreat, and relevant large-scale dynamical and thermodynamical features. Therefore, this study clarifies the definition of Changma (which is a starting point for the study of interannual and interdecadal variability) using a basic concept of air mass and front by calculating equivalent potential temperature (
) that considers air temperature and humidity simultaneously. A negative peak in the meridional gradient of this quantity signifies the approximate location of Changma front. This front has previously been recognized as the boundary between the tropical North Pacific air mass and cold Okhotsk sea air mass. However, this study identifies three more important air masses affecting Changma: the tropical monsoon air mass related to the intertropical convergence zone over Southeast Asia and South China Sea, the tropical continental air mass over North China, and intermittently polar continental air mass. The variations of these five air masses lead to complicated evolution of Changma and modulate intensity, onset and withdrawal dates, and duration of Changma on the interannual time scale. Importantly, use of
, 500-hPa geopotential height and 200 hPa zonal wind fields for determining Changma onset and withdrawal dates results in a significant increase (up to~57%) in the hindcast skill compared to a previous study.
The Radiative Characteristics of EUV-B over the Korean Peninsula and Exposure Time for Synthesizing Adequate Vitamin D
Kwak, Min Kyoung ; Kim, Jae Hwan ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 1, 2011, Pages 123~130
In this study, we have analyzed the radiative characteristics of erythemal ultraviolet-B (EUV-B from 1999 to 2005) over the Korean Peninsula. EUV-B measured at Gangneung, Anmyondo, Mokpo, and Gosan represents the measurements from clean areas and that at Seoul represents from a polluted area. The magnitudes of EUV-B increase in proportion to the latitudinal decrease. Monthly mean variation of EUV-B at noon shows the maximum value of
in August and the minimum value of
in December in the clean areas. Seasonal mean diurnal variation of EUV-B shows a peak around noon (12:00 ~ 13:00 hr) and its intensity varies along with a season in order of summer > spring > fall > winter. The maximum value of
in summer is three times higher than that in winter (
). The value of EUV-B in the polluted area is lower than that in the clean areas, resulting from the effects of the blocking, reflection, and scattering of EUV-B due to high concentrations of PM10. UV-B is an essential element to synthesize vitamin D in human body. 200 IU(International Unite) of vitamin D can be formed by an exposure of 6-10% of body surface area to 0.5 MED(Minimal Erythemal Dose). In order to form vitamin D, the calculated exposure times to EUV-B are 15 min. in spring, 12 min. in summer, 18 min. in fall, and 37 min. in winter for the clean areas and 16, 16, 24, and 37 min. for the polluted area.