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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Meteorological Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
Selecting the target year
The effects of clouds on enhancing surface solar irradiance
Jung, Yeonjin ; Cho, Hi Ku ; Kim, Jhoon ; Kim, Young Joon ; Kim, Yun Mi ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 131~142
Spectral solar irradiances were observed using a visible and UV Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer on the rooftop of the Science Building at Yonsei University, Seoul (
, 86 m) during one year period in 2006. 1-min measurements of global(total) and diffuse solar irradiances over the solar zenith angle (SZA) ranges from
were used to examine the effects of clouds and total optical depth (TOD) on enhancing four solar irradiance components (broadband 395-955 nm, UV channel 304.5 nm, visible channel 495.2 nm, and infrared channel 869.2 nm) together with the sky camera images for the assessment of cloud conditions at the time of each measurement. The obtained clear-sky irradiance measurements were used for empirical model of clear-sky irradiance with the cosine of the solar zenith angle (SZA) as an independent variable. These developed models produce continuous estimates of global and diffuse solar irradiances for clear sky. Then, the clear-sky irradiances are used to estimate the effects of clouds and TOD on the enhancement of surface solar irradiance as a difference between the measured and the estimated clear-sky values. It was found that the enhancements occur at TODs less than 1.0 (i.e. transmissivity greater than 37%) when solar disk was not obscured or obscured by optically thin clouds. Although the TOD is less than 1.0, the probability of the occurrence for the enhancements shows 50~65% depending on four different solar radiation components with the low UV irradiance. The cumulus types such as stratoculmus and altoculumus were found to produce localized enhancement of broadband global solar irradiance of up to 36.0% at TOD of 0.43 under overcast skies (cloud cover 90%) when direct solar beam was unobstructed through the broken clouds. However, those same type clouds were found to attenuate up to 80% of the incoming global solar irradiance at TOD of about 7.0. The maximum global UV enhancement was only 3.8% which is much lower than those of other three solar components because of the light scattering efficiency of cloud drops. It was shown that the most of the enhancements occurred under cloud cover from 40 to 90%. The broadband global enhancement greater than 20% occurred for SZAs ranging from 28 to
. The broadband diffuse irradiance has been increased up to 467.8% (TOD 0.34) by clouds. In the case of channel 869.0 nm, the maximum diffuse enhancement was 609.5%. Thus, it is required to measure irradiance for various cloud conditions in order to obtain climatological values, to trace the differences among cloud types, and to eventually estimate the influence on solar irradiance by cloud characteristics.
A multi-scale analysis of the interdecadal change in the Madden-Julian Oscillation
Lee, Sang-Heon ; Seo, Kyong-Hwan ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 143~149
A new multi-timescale analysis method, Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), is used to diagnose the variation of the MJO activity determined by 850hPa and 200hPa zonal winds from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) Reanalysis data for the 56-yr period from 1950 to 2005. The results show that MJO activity can be decomposed into 9 quasi-periodic oscillations and a trend. With each level of contribution of the quasi-periodic oscillation discussed, the bi-seasonal oscillation, the interannual oscillation and the trend of the MJO activity are the most prominent features. The trend increases almost linearly, so that prior to around 1978 the activity of the MJO is lower than that during the latter part. This may be related to the tropical sea surface temperature(SST). It is speculated that the interdecadal change in the MJO activity appeared in around 1978 is related to the warmer SST in the equatorial warm pool, especially over the Indian Ocean.
Correction of One-layer Solar Radiation Model by Multi-layer Line-by-line Solar Radiation Model
Jee, Joon-Bum ; Lee, Won-Hak ; Zo, Il-Sung ; Lee, Kyu-Tae ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 151~162
One-layer solar radiation(GWNU; Gangneung-Wonju National University) model is developed in order to resolve the lack of vertical observations and fast calculation with high resolution. GWNU model is based on IQBAL(Iqbal, 1983) and NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory) methods and corrected by precise multi-layer LBL(Line-by-line) model. Input data were used 42 atmospheric profiles from Garand et al.(2001) for calculation of global radiation by the Multi-layer and one-layer solar radiation models. GWNU model has error of about -0.10% compared with LBL model while IQBAL and NREL models have errors of about -3.92 and -2.57%, respectively. Global solar radiation was calculated by corrected GWNU solar model with satellites(MODIS, OMI and MTSAT-1R), RDPS model prediction data in Korea peninsula in 2009, and the results were compared to surface solar radiation observed by 22 KMA solar sites. All models have correlation(
) of 0.91 with the observed hourly solar radiation, and root mean square errors of IQBAL, NREL and GWNU models are 69.16, 69.74 and
Development of Tools for calculating Forecast Sensitivities to the Initial Condition in the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) Unified Model (UM)
Kim, Sung-Min ; Kim, Hyun Mee ; Joo, Sang-Won ; Shin, Hyun-Cheol ; Won, DukJin ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 163~172
Numerical forecasting depends on the initial condition error strongly because numerical model is a chaotic system. To calculate the sensitivity of some forecast aspects to the initial condition in the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) Unified Model (UM) which is originated from United Kingdom (UK) Meteorological Office (MO), an algorithm to calculate adjoint sensitivities is developed by modifying the adjoint perturbation forecast model in the KMA UM. Then the new algorithm is used to calculate adjoint sensitivity distributions for typhoon DIANMU (201004). Major initial adjoint sensitivities calculated for the 48 h forecast error are located horizontally in the rear right quadrant relative to the typhoon motion, which is related with the inflow regions of the environmental flow into the typhoon, similar to the sensitive structures in the previous studies. Because of the upward wave energy propagation, the major sensitivities at the initial time located in the low to mid- troposphere propagate upward to the upper troposphere where the maximum of the forecast error is located. The kinetic energy is dominant for both the initial adjoint sensitivity and forecast error of the typhoon DIANMU. The horizontal and vertical energy distributions of the adjoint sensitivity for the typhoon DIANMU are consistent with those for other typhoons using other models, indicating that the tools for calculating the adjoint sensitivity in the KMA UM is credible.
Perspective of East Asian Reanalysis Data Production
Park, Sang-Jong ; Choi, Yong-Sang ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 173~183
Production of reanalysis data is important since it contributes to develop all fields of atmospheric sciences and to profit national economy. The developed countries such as USA, EU, and Japan have manufactured the global reanalysis data since the 1990s, but their data present a lack of detailed regional climates. For those who need to analyze the regional climate in/around Korea, a high-resolution reanalysis data should essentially be made. This study reviewed the existing reanalysis data and the applications, and the available observations for the data production. We also investigated the opinions and needs of the potential data users in Korea. We suggest the specifications of the data to have the domain of 55-5N, 80-150E (which includes Mongolia and most Southeast Asian countries), the spatial resolution of 10-20 km, and the period of most recent 30 years. With the specifications and climate models operated in KMA, this study argues that production of the reanalysis data with functional climate information is feasible in both technical and economic aspects. Finally, for successful data production, the framework of the future reanalysis data project was suggested.
The Performance Assessment of Special Observation Program (ProbeX-2009) and the Analysis on the Characteristics of Precipitation at the Ulleungdo
Kim, Ki-Hoon ; Kim, Yeon-Hee ; Kim, Do-Woo ; Chang, Dong-Eon ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 185~196
The performance assessment in radiosonde observation on the special observation program (ProbeX-2009) is performed and the characteristics of precipitation using Auto Weather System (AWS) and radiosonde data in 2009 at the Ulleungdo are investigated. The launching time, observation time, and maximum altitude of radiosonde are satisfied with the regulation from Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and World Meteorological Organization (WMO) but the duration of observational time of radiosonde is much shorter than that of the ProbeX-2007 because the altitude of launching site is higher than others in 2007. From the analysis of trajectories of radiosonde, most radiosondes at the Ulleungdo tend to move into the east because the westerly prevail at the middle latitude. However, when the Okhotsk high is expanded to the Korean peninsula and the north-westerly winds strengthen over the East Sea as the subtropical high is retreated, radiosonde tends to move into the south-west and south-east, respectively. Maximum distance appears at the end of observation level before May but the level of maximum distance is changed into 100 hPa after June because the prevailing wind direction is reversed from westerly to easterly at the stratosphere during summer time. The condition of precipitation was more correlated with the dynamic instability except Changma season. Precipitation in 2009 at the Ulleungdo occurred under the marine climate so that total precipitation amounts and precipitation intensity were increased and intensified during nighttime. The local environment favorable for the precipitation during nighttime was while the wind speed at the surface and the inflow from the shoreline were strengthened. Precipitation events also affected by synoptic condition but the localized effect induced by topography was more strengthened at the northern part of Ulleungdo.
WRF-Based Short-Range Forecast System of the Korea Air Force : Verification of Prediction Skill in 2009 Summer
Byun, Ui-Yong ; Hong, Song-You ; Shin, Hyeyum ; Lee, Ji-Woo ; Song, Jae-Ik ; Hahm, Sook-Jung ; Kim, Jwa-Kyum ; Kim, Hyung-Woo ; Kim, Jong-Suk ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 197~208
The objective of this study is to describe the short-range forecast system of the Korea Air Force (KAF) and to verificate its performace in 2009 summer. The KAF weather prediction model system, based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (i.e., the KAF-WRF), is configured with a parent domain overs East Asia and two nested domains with the finest horizontal grid size of 2 km. Each domain covers the Korean peninsula and South Korea, respectively. The model is integrated for 84 hour 4 times a day with the initial and boundary conditions from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast System (GFS) data. A quantitative verification system is constructed for the East Asia and Korean peninsula domains. Verification variables for the East Asia domain are 500 hPa temperature, wind and geopotential height fields, and the skill score is calculated using the difference between the analysis data from the NCEP GFS model and the forecast data of the KAF-WRF model results. Accuracy of precipitation for the Korean penisula domain is examined using the contingency table that is made of the KAF-WRF model results and the KMA (Korea Meteorological Administraion) AWS (Automatic Weather Station) data. Using the verification system, the operational model and parallel model with updated version of the WRF model and improved physics process are quantitatively evaluated for the 2009 summer. Over the East Aisa region, the parallel experimental model shows the better performance than the operation model. Errors of the experimental model in 500 hPa geopotential height near the Tibetan plateau are smaller than errors in the operational model. Over the Korean peninsula, verification of precipitation prediction skills shows that the performance of the operational model is better than that of the experimental one in simulating light precipitation. However, performance of experimental one is generally better than that of operational one, in prediction.
Dynamic data-base Typhoon Track Prediction (DYTRAP)
Lee, Yunje ; Kwon, H. Joe ; Joo, Dong-Chan ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 2, 2011, Pages 209~220
A new consensus algorithm for the prediction of tropical cyclone track has been developed. Conventional consensus is a simple average of a few fixed models that showed the good performance in track prediction for the past few years. Meanwhile, the consensus in this study is a weighted average of a few models that may change for every individual forecast time. The models are selected as follows. The first step is to find the analogous past tropical cyclone tracks to the current track. The next step is to evaluate the model performances for those past tracks. Finally, we take the weighted average of the selected models. More weight is given to the higher performance model. This new algorithm has been named as DYTRAP (DYnamic data-base Typhoon tRAck Prediction) in the sense that the data base is used to find the analogous past tracks and the effective models for every individual track prediction case. DYTRAP has been applied to all 2009 tropical cyclone track prediction. The results outperforms those of all models as well as all the official forecasts of the typhoon centers. In order to prove the real usefulness of DYTRAP, it is necessary to apply the DYTRAP system to the real time prediction because the forecast in typhoon centers usually uses 6-hour or 12-hour-old model guidances.