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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Meteorological Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
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Classification of Intraseasonal Oscillation in Precipitation using Self-Organizing Map for the East Asian Summer Monsoon
Chu, Jung-Eun ; Ha, Kyung-Ja ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 3, 2011, Pages 221~228
The nonlinear characteristics of summer monsoon intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) in precipitation, which is manifested as fluctuations in convection and circulation, is one of the major difficulty on the prediction of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). The present study aims to identify the spatial distribution and time evolution of nonlinear phases of monsoon ISO. In order to classify the different phases of monsoon ISO, Self-Organizing Map(SOM) known as a nonlinear pattern recognition technique is used. SOM has a great attractiveness detecting self-similarity among data elements by grouping and clustering such self-similar components. The four important patterns are demonstrated as Meiyu-Baiu, Changma, post-Changma, and dry-spell modes. It is found that SOM well captured the formation of East Asian monsoon trough during early summer and its northward migration together with enhanced convection over subtropical western Pacific and regionally intensive precipitation including Meiyu, Changma and Baiu. The classification of fundamental large scale spatial pattern and evolutionary history of nonlinear phases of monsoon ISO provides the source of predictability for extended-range forecast of summer precipitation.
Effect of urbanization on the light precipitation in the mid-Korean peninsula
Eun, Seung-Hee ; Chae, Sang-Hee ; Kim, Byung-Gon ; Chang, Ki-Ho ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 3, 2011, Pages 229~241
The continuous urbanizations by a rapid economic growth and a steady increase in population are expected to have a possible impact on meteorology in the downwind region. Long-term (1972~2007) trends of precipitation have been examined in the mid-Korean peninsula for the westerly condition only, along with the sensitivity simulations for a golden day (11 February 2009). During the long-term period, both precipitation amount (PA) and frequency (PF) in the downwind region (Chuncheon, Wonju, Hongcheon) of urban area significantly increased for the westerly and light precipitation (
) cases, whereas PA and PF in the mountainous region (Daegwallyeong) decreased. The enhancement ratio of PA and PF for the downwind region vs. urban region remarkably increased, which implies a possible urbanization effect on downwind precipitation. In addition, the WRF simulation applied for one golden day demonstrates enhanced updraft and its associated convergence in the downwind area (about 60 km), leading to an increase in the cloud mixing ratio. The sensitivity experiments with the change in surface roughness demonstrates a slight increase in cloud water mixing ratio but a negligible effect on precipitation in the upwind region, whereas those with the change in heat source represents the distinctive convergence and its associated updraft in the downwind region but a decrease in liquid water, which may be attributable to the evaporation of cloud droplet by atmospheric heating induced by an increase in an anthropogenic heat. In spite of limitations in the observation-based analysis and one-day simulation, the current result could provide an evidence of the effect of urbanization on the light precipitation in the downwind region.
Development of Convective Cell Identification and Tracking Algorithm using 3-Dimensional Radar Reflectivity Fields
Jung, Sung-Hwa ; Lee, GyuWon ; Kim, Hyung-Woo ; Kuk, BongJae ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 3, 2011, Pages 243~256
This paper presents the development of new algorithm for identifying and tracking the convective cells in three dimensional reflectivity fields in Cartesian coordinates. First, the radar volume data in spherical coordinate system has been converted into Cartesian coordinate system by the bilinear interpolation. The three-dimensional convective cell has then been identified as a group of spatially consecutive grid points using reflectivity and volume thresholds. The tracking algorithm utilizes a fuzzy logic with four membership functions and their weights. The four fuzzy parameters of speed, area change ratio, reflectivity change ratio, and axis transformation ratio have been newly defined. In order to make their membership functions, the normalized frequency distributions are calculated using the pairs of manually matched cells in the consecutive radar reflectivity fields. The algorithms have been verified for two convective events in summer season. Results show that the algorithms have properly identified storm cells and tracked the same cells successively. The developed algorithms may provide useful short-term forecasting or nowcasting capability of convective storm cells and provide the statistical characteristics of severe weather.
Characteristics of Urban Meteorology in Seoul Metropolitan Area of Korea
Kim, Yeon-Hee ; Choi, Da-Young ; Chang, Dong-Eon ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 3, 2011, Pages 257~271
The aim of this study is to examine weather modification by urbanization and human activities. The characteristics of the urban heat island (UHI) and precipitation in Seoul metropolitan area of Korea are investigated to demonstrate that cities can change or modify local and nearby weather and climate, and to confirm that cities can initiate convection, change the behavior of convective precipitation, and enhance downstream precipitation. The data used in this study are surface meteorological station data observed in Seoul and its nearby 5 cities for the period of 1960 to 2009, and 162 Automatic Weather System stations data observed in the Seoul metropolitan area from 1998 to 2009. Air temperature and precipitation amount tend to increase with time, and relative humidity decreases because of urbanization. Similar to previous studies for other cities, the average maximum UHI is weakest in summer and is strong in autumn and winter, and the maximum UHI intensity is more frequently observed in the nighttime than in the daytime, decreases with increasing wind speed, and is enhanced for clear skies. Relatively warm regions extend in the east-west direction and relatively cold regions are located near the northern and southern mountains inside Seoul. The satellite cities in the outskirts of Seoul have been rapidly built up in recent years, thus exhibiting increases in near-surface air temperature. The yearly precipitation amount during the last 50 years is increased with time but rainy days are decreased. The heavy rainfall events of more than
increases with time. The substantial changes observed in precipitation in Seoul seem to be linked with the accelerated increase in the urban sprawl in recent decades which in turn has induced an intensification of the UHI effect and enhanced downstream precipitation. We also found that the frequency of intense rain showers has increased in Seoul metropolitan area.
Characteristics of Satellite Brightness Temperature and Rainfall Intensity over the Life Cycle of Convective Cells-Case Study
Kim, Deok Rae ; Kwon, Tae Yong ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 3, 2011, Pages 273~284
This study investigates the characteristics of satellite brightness temperature (TB) and rainfall intensity over the life cycle of convective cells. The convective cells in the three event cases are detected and tracked from the growth stage to the dissipation stage using the half-hourly infrared (IR) images. For each IR images the values of minimum, mean, and variance for the convective cell's TBs and the sizes of convective cells are calculated and also the relationship between TB and rainfall intensity are investigated, which is obtained using the pixel values of satellite TB and the ground rainfall intensity measured by AWS (Automatic Weather Station). At the growth stage of the convective cells, the TB's variance and cloud size consistently increased, whereas TB's minimum and mean consistently decreased. At this stage the empirical relationships between TB and rainfall intensity are statistically significant and their slopes (intercepts) in absolute values are relatively large (small) compared to those at the dissipation stage. At the dissipation stage of the convective cells, the variability of TB distributions shows the opposite trend. The statistical significance of the empirical relationships are relatively weak, but their slopes (intercepts) vary over life cycle. These results indicate that satellite IR images can provide valuable information in identifying the convective cell's maturity stage and in the growth stage, they may be used in providing considerably accurate rainfall estimates.
Elimination of Chaff Echoes in Reflectivity Composite from an Operational Weather Radar Network using Infrared Satellite Data
Han, Hye-Young ; Heo, Bok-Haeng ; Jung, Sung-Hwa ; Lee, GyuWon ; You, Cheol-Hwan ; Lee, Jong-Ho ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 3, 2011, Pages 285~300
To discriminate and eliminate chaff echoes in radar measurements, a new removal algorithm in two-dimensional reflectivity composite at the height of 1.5 km has been developed by using the brightness temperature(
) obtained from MTSAT-1R. This algorithm utilizes the fact that chaffs are not appeared in infrared satellite data of MTSAT-1R, but detected in radar measurements due to their significant backscattering in the given radar wavelength. The algorithm is evaluated for three different situations: chaff only, chaff mixed with convective storms, and chaff covered with clouds. The algorithm shows excellent performance for the cases of chaff only and chaff mixed with convective storms. However, the performance of the algorithm significantly depends on the presence of clouds. Thus, the statistical analysis of
is performed in order to optimize the monthly threshold.
Comparison of light-absorption properties of aerosols observed in East and South Asia
Lee, Hae-Jung ; Kim, Sang-Woo ; Yoon, Soon-Chang ; Lee, Sihye ; Kim, Ji-Hyoung ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 3, 2011, Pages 301~309
In this study, we compared light-absorption properties of aerosols observed in East and South Asia from black carbon (BC) mass concentration, aerosol scattering (
) and absorption (
) coefficients measurements at four sites: Korea Climate Observatory-Gosan (KCO-G), Korea Climate Observatory-Anmyeon (KCO-A), Maldives Climate Observatory-Hanimaadhoo (MCO-H) and Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P). No significant seasonal variations of BC mass concentration,
, despite of wet removal of aerosols by precipitation in summer, were observed in East Asia, whereas dramatic changes of light-absorbing aerosol properties were observed in South Asia between dry and wet monsoon periods. Although BC mass concentration in East Asia is generally higher than that observed in South Asia, BC mass concentration at MCO-H during winter dry monsoon is similar to that of East Asia. The observed solar absorption efficiency (
) at 550 nm, where
, at KCO-G and KCO-A is higher than that in MCO-H due to large portions of BC emission from fossil fuel combustion. Interestingly,
at NCO-P is 0.14, which is two times great than that in MCO-H and is about 40% higher than that in East Asia, though BC mass concentration at NCO-P is the lowest among four sites. Consistently, the highest elemental carbon to sulphate ratio is found at NCO-P.
Comparison of Aerosol Optical Properties from Different Models of Skyradiometer
Choi, Yongjoo ; Ghim, Young Sung ; Sohn, Byung-Ju ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 3, 2011, Pages 311~317
Aerosol optical properties from the radiation measurements by SKYNET PREDE skyradiometers, POM-01 and POM-02 were compared during the inter-calibration campaign at Seoul in February 2009. The monochromatic solar flux at the top of the atmosphere (
) gave a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 9-10% for both instruments. This comparatively high value of RSD was probably because
was determined at short time intervals, in the morning and afternoon, using the measurements made in the polluted environment of Seoul. Although POM-02 was more effective in tracking the solar radiation, aerosol optical depths (AODs) from the two instruments were very similar after the cloud screening procedure. The squared correlation coefficients (
) of single scattering albedo (SSA) and real and imaginary refractive indices between the two instruments was around 0.5 but increased to 0.7-0.8 when only using AOD greater than 0.4. Nevertheless, mean values of the Angstrom exponent, SSA, and the imaginary refractive index of POM-02 were higher than those of POM-01.
Capability Assessment on Meteorological Technology - Comparative Study of Technological Prowess on Korea, U.S., and Japan -
Kim, Se-Won ; Park, Gil-Un ; Cho, Changbum ; Lee, Young-Gon ; Yim, Deok-Bin ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 3, 2011, Pages 319~336
The objective of this study was to assess the meteorological capability of Korea by comparing with that of the U.S. and Japan as of 2010. The research was conducted based on various indices and surveys, and quantified the results using the Gordon's scoring model. The index assessment used 11 items derived from 9 segments - surface observation, advanced observation and observations quality in the observation field; data assimilation, numerical model and infrastructure in the data processing field; forecast accuracy in the forecast field; climate prediction and climate change in the climate field - in this research, we classified the meteorological technology into four fields. In the survey assessment, another 10 items in addition to the above 11 ones (total 21 items) were used. In the field of climate, Korea was found to lag far behind the U.S. (96.5p) and Japan (90.5p) with 77.6 points out of 100, which is 18.9 and 12.9 points lower than them respectively. On the other hand, Korea showed the narrowest gap with Japan (95.3p) and the U.S. (94.2) in the forecasting field, recording 90.3 points. Particularly, in surface observation, infrastructure and forecast accuracy segment, Korea was on a par with the U.S. and Japan, boasting 100.5 percent compared to their counterparts. However, in advanced observation, data quality and climate change segment, Korea was only at the level of 81.5 percent compared to that of the U.S. and Japan. All in all, the technological prowess of Korea, scoring 84.6 points, stood at 89.7 percent of that of the U.S. (94.3p) and 91.9 percent of Japan (92.1p).