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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Meteorological Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
Selecting the target year
Detection and Correction of Noisy Pixels Embedded in NDVI Time Series Based on the Spatio-temporal Continuity
Park, Ju-Hee ; Cho, A-Ra ; Kang, Jeon-Ho ; Suh, Myoung-Seok ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 337~347
In this paper, we developed a detection and correction method of noisy pixels embedded in the time series of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data based on the spatio-temporal continuity of vegetation conditions. For the application of the method, 25-year (1982-2006) GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Study) NDVI dataset over the Korean peninsula were used. The spatial resolution and temporal frequency of this dataset are
and 15-day, respectively. Also the land cover map over East Asia is used. The noisy pixels are detected by the temporal continuity check with the reference values and dynamic threshold values according to season and location. In general, the number of noisy pixels are especially larger during summer than other seasons. And the detected noisy pixels are corrected by the iterative method until the noisy pixels are completely corrected. At first, the noisy pixels are replaced by the arithmetic weighted mean of two adjacent NDVIs when the two NDVI are normal. After that the remnant noisy pixels are corrected by the weighted average of NDVI of the same land cover according to the distance. After correction, the NDVI values and their variances are increased and decreased by 5% and 50%, respectively. Comparing to the other correction method, this correction method shows a better result especially when the noisy pixels are occurred more than 2 times consistently and the temporal change rates of NDVI are very high. It means that the correction method developed in this study is superior in the reconstruction of maximum NDVI and NDVI at the starting and falling season.
The Variations of Stratospheric Ozone over the Korean Peninsula 1985~2009
Park, Sang Seo ; Kim, Jhoon ; Cho, Nayeong ; Lee, Yun Gon ; Cho, Hi Ku ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 349~359
The climatology in stratospheric ozone over the Korean Peninsula, presented in previous studies (e.g., Cho et al., 2003; Kim et al., 2005), is updated by using daily and monthly data from satellite and ground-based data through December 2009. In addition, long-term satellite data [Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), 1979~2009] have been also analyzed in order to deduce the spatial distributions and temporal variations of the global total ozone. The global average of total ozone (1979~2009) is 298 DU which shows a minimum of about 244 DU in equatorial latitudes and increases poleward in both hemispheres to a maximum of about 391 DU in Okhotsk region. The recent period, from 2006 to 2009, shows reduction in total ozone by 6% relative to the values for the pre-1980s (1979~1982). The long-term trends were estimated by using a multiple linear regression model (e.g., WMO, 1999; Cho et al., 2003) including explanatory variables for the seasonal variation, Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) and solar cycle over three different time intervals: a whole interval from 1979 to 2009, the former interval from 1979 to 1992, and the later interval from 1993 to 2009 with a turnaround point of deep minimum in 1993 is related to the effect of Mt. Pinatubo eruption. The global trend shows -0.93%
for the whole interval, whereas the former and the later interval trends amount to -2.59%
, respectively. Therefore, the long-term total ozone variations indicate that there are positive trends showing a recovery sign of the ozone layer in both North/South hemispheres since around 1993. Annual mean total ozone (1985~2009) is distributed from 298 DU for Jeju (
) to 352 DU for Unggi (
) in almost zonally symmetric pattern over the Korean Peninsula, with the latitudinal gradient of 6 DU
. It is apparent that seasonal variability of total ozone increases from Jeju toward Unggi. The annual mean total ozone for Seoul shows 323 DU, with the maximum of 359 DU in March and the minimum of 291 DU in October. It is found that the day to day variability in total ozone exhibits annual mean of 5.7% in increase and -5.2% in decrease. The variability as large as 38.4% in increase and 30.3% in decrease has been observed, respectively. The long-term trend analysis (e.g., WMO, 1999) of monthly total ozone data (1985~2009) merged by satellite and ground-based measurements over the Korean Peninsula shows increase of 1.27%
from Jeju to Unggi, respectively, showing systematic decrease of the trend magnitude with latitude. This study also presents a new analysis of ozone density and trends in the vertical distribution of ozone for Seoul with data up to the end of 2009. The mean vertical distributions of ozone show that the maximum value of the ozone density is 16.5 DU
in the middle stratospheric layer between 24 km and 28 km. About 90.0% and 71.5% of total ozone are found in the troposphere and in the stratosphere between 15 and 33 km, respectively. The trend analysis reconfirms the previous results of significant positive ozone trend, of up to 5%
, in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere (0~24 km), with negative trend, of up to -5%
, in the stratosphere (24~38 km). In addition, the Umkehr data show a positive trend of about 3%
in the upper stratosphere (38~48 km).
Characteristics and Trends of Tropical Night Occurrence in South Korea for Recent 50 Years (1958-2007)
Park, Woo-Sun ; Suh, Myoung-Seok ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 361~371
In this study, characteristics and trends of tropical night (TN) are investigated by using the KMA 14 observation data for the recent 50 years (1958-2007) over South Korea. The TN is defined as a day with a daily minimum temperature exceeds the absolute threshold temperature (
), and the relative deviation from normal temperature, 95th percentile of all observed daily minimum temperature. Although the spatial distribution of TN occurrence depends on the choice of the definitions, the frequency of TN shows strong spatial and interannual variations with the minimum at high land area (Chupungnyeong and wet years) and maximum at southern coastal area and large city area (Jeju, Busan, Seoul, Daegu). Most of TN occurs in August (56%) and July (41%), and the duration date of TN is proportional to the frequency of TN without regard to the definition method. In general, increasing trends are found in the TN time series without regard to the analysis method, but the trends are clearly depending on the analysis period and geographic locations. Decreasing trends are prominent during the most of analysis period, especially until the mid of 1990, whereas strong increasing trends are found during recent 30 years (1988-2007), especially at Jeju, Ulsan, Daegu and Pohang. Also the severity of TN is significantly increased in recent years.
WRF Sensitivity Experiments on the Choice of Land Cover Data for an Event of Sea Breeze Over the Yeongdong Region
Ha, Won-Sil ; Lee, Jae Gyoo ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 373~389
This research focuses on the sensitivity of the WRF(Weather Research and Forecasting) Model according to three different land cover data(USGS(United States Geological Survey), MODIS(Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)30s+USGS, and KLC (Korea Land Cover)) for an event of sea breeze, occurred over the Gangwon Yeongdong region on 13 May 2009. Based on the observation, the easterly into Gangneung, due to the sea-breeze circulation, was identified between 1000 LST and 1640 LST. It did not reach beyond the Taebaek Mountain Range and thus the easterly was not observed near Daegwallyeong. On the other hand, the numerical simulations utilizing land cover data of USGS, MODIS30s+USGS, and KLC showed easterlies beyond the Taebaek Mountain Range up to Daegwallyeong. In addition, rather different penetration distances of each easterly, and different timings of beginning and ending of sea breeze were identified among the simulations. The Bias, MAE(Mean Absolute Error) and RMSE(Root Mean Square Error) of the wind from WRF simulation using MODIS30s+USGS land cover data were the least among the simulations particularly over Gangwon Yeongdong coastal area(Sokcho, Gangneung and Donghae), while those of the wind over the Gangwon Mountain area(Daegwallyeong and Jinbu) from the simulation using KLC land cover data were the least among them. The wind field over Gangwon Yeongdong coastal area from the simulation using USGS land cover data was rather poor among them.
Impact of Cumulus Parameterization Schemes with Different Horizontal Grid Sizes on Prediction of Heavy Rainfall
Lee, Jae-Bok ; Lee, Dong-Kyou ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 391~404
This study investigates the impact of cumulus parameterization scheme (CPS) with different horizontal grid sizes on the simulation of the local heavy rainfall case over the Korean Peninsula. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-based real-time forecast system of the Joint Center for High-impact Weather and Climate Research (JHWC) is used. Three CPSs are used for sensitivity experiments: the BMJ (Betts-Miller-Janjic), GD (Grell-Devenyi ensemble), and KF (Kain-Fritsch) CPSs. The heavy rainfall case selected in this study is characterized by low-level jet and low-level transport of warm and moist air. In 27-km simulations (DM1), simulated precipitation is overestimated in the experiment with BMJ scheme, and it is underestimated with GD scheme. The experiment with KF scheme shows well-developed precipitation cells in the southern and the central region of the Korean Peninsula, which are similar to the observations. All schemes show wet bias and cold bias in the lower troposphere. The simulated rainfall in 27-km horizontal resolution has influence on rainfall forecast in 9-km horizontal resolution, so the statements on 27-km horizontal resolution can be applied to 9-km horizontal resolution. In the sensitivity experiments of CPS for DM3 (3-km resolution), the experiment with BMJ scheme shows better heavy rainfall forecast than the other experiments. The experiments with CPS in 3-km horizontal resolution improve rainfall forecasts compared to the experiments without CPS, especially in rainfall distribution. The experiments with CPS show lower LCL(Lifted Condensation Level) than those without CPS at the maximum rainfall point, and weaker vertical velocity is simulated in the experiments with CPS compared to the experiments without CPS. It means that CPS suppresses convective instability and influences mainly convective rainfall. Consequently, heavy rainfall simulation with BMJ CPS is better than the other CPSs, and even in 3-km horizontal resolution, CPS should be applied to control convective instability. This conclusion can be generalized by conducting more experiments for a variety of cases over the Korean Peninsula.
A Study on Changes in Local Meteorological Fields due to a Change in Land Use in the Lake Shihwa Region Using Synthetic Land Cover Data and High-Resolution Mesoscale Model
Park, Seon Ki ; Kim, Jee-Hee ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 405~414
In this study, the influence of a change in land use on the local weather fields is investigated around the Lake Shihwa area using synthetic land cover data and a high-resolution mesoscale model - the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF). The default land cover data generally used in the WRF is based on the land use category of the United States Geological Survey (USGS), which erroneously presents most land areas of the Korean Peninsula as savannas. To revise such a fault, a multi-temporal land cover data, provided by the Ministry of Environment of Korea, was employed to generate a land cover map of 2005 subject to the land use in Korea at that time. A new land cover map of 1989, before the construction of the Lake Shihwa, was made based on the 2005 map and the Landsat 4-5 TM satellite images of two years. Over the areas where the land use had been changed (e.g., from sea to wetlands, towns, etc.) due to the Lake Shihwa development project, the skin temperature decreased by up to
in the winter case while increased by as much as
in the summer case. Changes in the water vapor mixing ratio were mostly affected by advection and topography in both seasons, with considerable increase in the summer case due to continuous sea breeze. Local decrease in water vapor occurred over high land use change areas and/or over downstream of such areas where alteration in wind fields were induced by changes in skin temperature and surface roughness at the areas of land use changes. The albedo increased by about 0.1% in the regions where sea was converted into wetland. In the regions where urban areas were developed, such as Songdo New Town and Incheon International Airport, the albedo increased by up to 0.16%.
Impacts of Land Surface Boundary Conditions on the Short-range weather Forecast of UM During Summer Season Over East-Asia
Kang, Jeon-Ho ; Suh, Myoung-Seok ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 415~427
In this study, the impacts of land surface conditions, land cover (LC) map and leaf area index (LAI), on the short-range weather forecast over the East-Asian region were examined using Unified Model (UM) coupled with the MOSES 2.2 (Met-Office Surface Exchange Scheme). Four types of experiments were performed at 12-km horizontal resolution with 38 vertical layers for two months, July and August 2009 through consecutive reruns of 72-hour every 12 hours, 00 and 12 UTC. The control experiment (CTRL) uses the original IGBP (International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme) LC map and old MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) LAI, the new LAI experiment (NLAI) uses improved monthly MODIS LAI. The new LC experiment (NLCE) uses KLC_v2 (Kongju National Univ. land cover), and the new land surface experiment (NLSE) uses KLC_v2 and new LAI. The reduced albedo and increased roughness length over southern part of China caused by the increased broadleaf fraction resulted in increase of land surface temperature (LST), air temperature, and sensible heat flux (SHF). Whereas, the LST and SHF over south-eastern part of Russia is decreased by the decreased needleleaf fraction and increased albedo. The changed wind speed induced by the LC and LAI changes also contribute the LST distribution through the change of vertical mixing and advection. The improvement of LC and LAI data clearly reduced the systematic underestimation of air temperature over South Korea. Whereas, the impacts of LC and LAI conditions on the simulation skills of precipitation are not systematic. In general, the impacts of LC changes on the short range forecast are more significant than that of LAI changes.
Recent Variations of UV Irradiance at Seoul 2004~2010
Kim, Jhoon ; Park, Sang Seo ; Cho, Nayeong ; Kim, Woogyung ; Cho, Hi Ku ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 429~438
The climatology of surface UV radiation for Seoul, presented in Cho et al. (1998; 2001), has been updated using measurement of surface erythemal ultraviolet (EUV) and total ultraviolet (TUV) irradiance (wavelength 286.5~363.0 nm) by a Brewer Spectrophotometer (MK-IV) for the period 2004~2010. The analysis was also carried out together with the broadband total (global) solar irradiance (TR ; 305~2800 nm) and cloud amount to compare with the UV variations, measured by Seoul meteorological station of Korean Meteorological Agency located near the present study site. Under all-sky conditions, the day-to-day variability of EUV exhibits annual mean of 98% in increase and 31% in decrease. It has been also shown that the EUV variability is 17 times as high as the total ozone in positive change, whereas this is 6 times higher in negative change. Thus, the day to day variability is dominantly caused rather by the daily synoptic situations than by the ozone variability. Annual mean value of daily EUV and TUV shows
respectively, whereas mean value of TR is
). The yearly maximum in noon-time UV Index (UVI) varies between 9 and 11 depending on time of year. The highest UVI shows 11 on 20 July, 2008 during the period 2004~2010, but for the period 1994~2000, the index of 12 was recorded on 13 July, 1994 (Cho et al., 2001). A 40% of daily maximum UVI belongs to "low (UVI < 2)", whereas the UVI less than 5% of the maximum show "very high (8 < UVI < 10)". On average, the maximum UVI exceeded 8 on 9 days per year. The values of Tropospheric Emission Monitoring Internet Service (TEMIS) EUV and UVI under cloud-free conditions are 1.8 times and 1.5 times, respectively, higher than the all-sky measurements by the Brewer. The trend analysis in fractional deviation of monthly UV from the reference value shows a decrease of -0.83% and -0.90%
in the EUV and TUV, respectively, whereas the TR trend is near zero (+0.11%
). The trend is statistically significant except for TR trend (p = 0.279). It is possible that the recent UV decrease is mainly associated with increase in total ozone, but the trend in TR can be attributed to the other parameters such as clouds except the ozone. Certainly, the cloud effects suggest that the reason for the differences between UV and TR trends can be explained. In order to estimate cloud effects, the EUV, TUV and TR irradiances have been also evaluated for clear skies (cloud cover < 25%) and cloudy skies (cloud cover
75%). Annual mean values show that EUV, TUV and TR are
for clear skies, and
for cloudy skies, respectively. As results, the transmission of radiation through clouds under cloudy-sky conditions is observed to be 58%, 55% and 40% for EUV, TUV and TR, respectively. Consequently, it is clear that the cloud effects on EUV and TUV are 18% and 15%, respectively lower than the effects on TR under cloudy-sky conditions. Clouds under all-sky conditions (average of cloud cover is 5 tenths) reduced the EUV and TUV to about 25% of the clear-sky (cloud cover < 25%) values, whereas for TR, this was 31%. As a result, it is noted that the UV radiation is attenuated less than TR by clouds under all weather conditions.
Global Distribution of Surface Layer Wind Speed for the years 2000-2009 Based on the NCEP Reanalysis
Byon, Jae-Young ; Choi, Young-Jean ; Lee, Jae-Won ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 439~446
NCEP reanalysis data were analyzed in order to provide distribution of global wind resource and wind speed in the surface layer for the years 2000-2009. Wind speed at 10 m above ground level (AGL) was converted to wind speed at 80 m above the ground level using the power law. The global average 80 m wind speed shows a maximum value of
at the storm track region. High wind speed over the land exists in Tibet, Mongolia, Central North America, South Africa, Australia, and Argentina. Wind speed over the ocean increased with a large value in the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, East Sea of the Korea. Sea surface wind in Western Europe and Scandinavia are suitable for wind farm with a value of
. Areas with great potential for wind farm are also found in Eastern and Western coastal region of North America. Sea surface wind in Southern Hemisphere shows larger values in the high latitude of South America, South Africa and Australia. The distribution of low-resolution reanalysis data represents general potential areas for wind power and can be used to provide information for high-resolution wind resource mapping.
PM10 Mass Concentration at Keumgangsan, North Korea - from September 2007 to May 2008 -
Kim, Jeong Eun ; Shim, Wonbo ; Lim, Jaechul ; Chun, Youngsin ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 447~454
As dust storms originated in Neimongu Plateau and Manchuria became more frequent in Korea, there was a growing need for Asian Dust (Hwangsa) monitoring stations in North Korea, which is a pathway of Asian Dust to South Korea. The South Korean and the North Korean Governments agreed to build the Automatic Weather System and the PM10 measurement instruments in the Gaeseong Industrial Zone and the Keumgangsan Tourist Region, North Korea in 2007. PM10 mass concentration data in the Keumgangsan Tourist Region could be collected only during the period from September 2007 to May 2008. In this study, daily, monthly and diurnal variations of PM10 mass concentration of the Keumgangsan are analyzed and compared with those of Sokcho and Gwangdeoksan. Three sites show similar variations in daily and monthly means. Correlation coefficients (r) between Sokcho and Keumgangsan, and between Gwangdeoksan and Keumgangsan are 0.89 and 0.67, respectively. But diurnal variation at Keumgangsan has a distinct feature compared to the other sites. Diurnal PM10 variation shows two peaks around 8 AM and 4-5 PM and very low at night. The difference between the daily maximum and minimum is
during September to November 2007. Temperature, relative humidity and wind speed from the Keumgangsan AWS data were compared with those from the Changjon station, and showed good correlation each other except wind speed.
A Study of the Changdeok Palace Chugudae and its Inscriptions - Focused on 『Cheoljae Jinjeok (澈齋眞蹟)』 -
Jeon, Tae-Il ; Lee, Dan ; Chun, Youngsin ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 455~469
The Chugudae is a pedestal for the Chugugi. While many Chugudae were made during the Joseon Dynasty period, seven remained in existence until the early 20th century. Only five of them remain to this day-Gwansanggam (Royal Office of Astronomy and Meteorology), the Seonhwadang in Daegu, the Changdeok Palace, Tongyeong, and Yeongyeongdang. The Changdeok Palace Chugudae is the only existing model made not only as a meteorological instrument but also as a memorial statue. It has been a challenge to decipher 41 of the 368 characters in 'Chugugi-myeong (The title of the inscriptions on the Changdeok Palace Chugudae)' as these had been eroded. However, the interpretation of the full text of 'Chugugi-myeong' became possible thanks to the "Cheoljae Jinjeok (澈齋眞蹟)" which was discovered through this study. The key sentences of the 'Chugugi-myeong' include the reason for creation, the size and functions of the Chugugi and a eulogy to the reigns of King Sejong, Youngjo and Jeongjo. Moreover, its splendid design is worthy of further study. To conclude its true meaning and value, the Changdeok Palace Chugudae requires a more extensive investigation from the viewpoint of an art history.
Development of wind Map Over North Korea using the Mesoscale Model WRF
Seo, Beom-Keun ; Byon, Jae-Young ; Choi, Young-Jean ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 471~480
This study investigates the characteristics of surface wind in North Korea using mesoscale model WRF. Hourly wind fields were simulated for one year representing mean characteristics of an 11-years period from 1998 to 2008. The simulations were performed on a nested grid from 27 km to 1 km horizontal resolution. The simulated wind map at 10 m above ground level is verified with 27 surface observations. Statistical verification skill score indicates that wind speed tends to overestimate in surface layer. The average RMSE value of the simulated wind speed is around
. Wind map in North Korea showed that strong wind speed is distributed in the mountainous and western coastal region. The results of this wind mapping study contribute for the founding of wind energy potential location.
An improvement on the Criteria of Special Weather Report for Heavy Rain Considering the Possibility of Rainfall Damage and the Recent Meteorological Characteristics
Kim, Yeon-Hee ; Choi, Da-Young ; Chang, Dong-Eon ; Yoo, Hee-Dong ; Jin, Gee-Beom ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 481~495
This study is performed to consider the threshold values of heavy rain warning in Korea using 98 surface meteorological station data and 590 Automatic Weather System stations (AWSs), damage data of National Emergency Management Agency for the period of 2005 to 2009. It is in need to arrange new criteria for heavy rain considering concept of rainfall intensity and rainfall damage to reflect the changed characteristics of rainfall according to the climate change. Rainfall values from the most frequent rainfall damage are at 30 mm/1 hr, 60 mm/3 hr, 70 mm/6 hr, and 110 mm/12 hr, respectively. The cumulative probability of damage occurrences of one in two due to heavy rain shows up at 20 mm/1 hr, 50 mm/3 hr, 80 mm/6 hr, and 110 mm/12 hr, respectively. When the relationship between threshold values of heavy rain warning and the possibility of rainfall damage is investigated, rainfall values for high connectivity between heavy rain warning criteria and the possibility of rainfall damage appear at 30 mm/1 hr, 50 mm/3 hr, 80 mm/6 hr, and 100 m/12 hr, respectively. It is proper to adopt the daily maximum precipitation intensity of 6 and 12 hours, because 6 hours rainfall might be include the concept of rainfall intensity for very-short-term and short-term unexpectedly happened rainfall and 12 hours rainfall could maintain the connectivity of the previous heavy rain warning system and represent long-term continuously happened rainfall. The optimum combinations of criteria for heavy rain warning of 6 and 12 hours are 80 mm/6 hr or 100 mm/12 hr, and 70 mm/6 hr or 110 mm/12 hr.
Development of the Korean Mid- and Upper-Level Aviation Turbulence Guidance (KTG) System Using the Regional Unified Model
Kim, Jung-Hoon ; Chun, Hye-Yeong ;
Atmosphere, volume 21, issue 4, 2011, Pages 497~506
Korean mid- and upper-level aviation turbulence guidance (KTG) system is developed using the unified model (UM)-based regional data assimilation and prediction system (RDAPS) of the Korea Meteorological Administration. The KTG system includes three steps. First, the KTG system calculates a suite of diagnostics in the UM-RDAPS domain. Second, component diagnostics that have different units and numerical magnitudes are normalized into the values between 0 and 1, according to their own thresholds in the KTG system. Finally, normalized diagnostics are combined into one KTG predictor by measuring the weighting scores based on the probability of detection, which is calculated using the observed pilot reports (PIREPs) exclusively of moderate-or-greater (MOG) and null (NIL) intensities. To investigate the optimal performance of the KTG system, two types (RD-KTG and UM-KTG) of the KTG systems are developed and evaluated using the PIREPs over Korea and East Asia. Component diagnostics and their thresholds in the RD-KTG are founded on the 8-yrs (2002.12-2010.11) MM5-based RDAPS (previous version of the RDAPS;
= 30 km) and PIREPs data, while those in the UM-KTG are based on the 6 months (2010.12-2011.5) UM-based RDAPS (
= 12 km) and PIREPs data. In comparison between the RD-KTG and UM-KTG, overall performance of the UM-KTG (0.815) is better than that of the RD-KTG (0.79) during the recent 6 months, because forecasting skill for the upper-level wind is higher in the UM-RDAPS than in the MM5-RDAPS. It is also found that the UM-KTG is more efficient than the RD-KTG according to the statistical evaluations and sensitivity tests to the number of component diagnostics.