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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Meteorological Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
Inter-comparison of Total Ozone from the Ground-based and Satellite Measurements at Seoul
Hong, Hyunkee ; Kim, Jhoon ; Lee, Hanlim ; Cho, Hi Ku ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 2, 2013, Pages 123~130
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.2.123
Despite the extensive investigations to understand the difference between ground-based and space-borne measurements, there still exist differences in total ozone (TO) measured at those two different platforms. Comparisons were carried out for the first time between TO data obtaiend from the ground based Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers, and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board EOS-Aura satellite in a megacity site in Northeast Asia. The TO values retrieved by the OMI-DOAS (Differential optical absorption spectroscopy) algorithm tend to be lower than those measured by the ground based sensors in spring and summer as well as the low solar zenith angle condition. We found that such underestimation of the OMI-DOAS TO is caused by tropospheric ozone underestimated by the OMI-DOAS algorithm when tropospheric ozone are significantly enhanced.
Future Changes of Wildfire Danger Variability and Their Relationship with Land and Atmospheric Interactions over East Asia Using Haines Index
Lee, Mina ; Hong, Seungbum ; Park, Seon Ki ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 2, 2013, Pages 131~141
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.2.131
Many studies have related the recent variations of wildfire regime such as the increasing number of occurrances, their patterns and timing changes, and the severity of their extreme cases with global warming. However, there are only a few numbers of wildfire studies to assess how the future wildfire regime will change in the interactions between land and atmosphere with climate change especially over East Asia. This study was performed to estimate the future changing aspect of wildfire danger with global warming, using Haines Index (HI). Calculated from atmospheric instability and dryness, HI is the potential of an existing fire to become a dangerous wildfire. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, two separated 5-year simulations of current (1995~1999) and far future (2095~2099) were performed and analyzed. Community Climate System Model 3 (CCSM3) model outputs were utilized for the model inputs for the past and future over East Asia; future prediction was driven under the IPCC A1B scenario. The results indicate changes of the wildfire danger regime, showing overall decreasing the wildfire danger in the future but intensified regional deviations between north and south. The overall changes of the wildfire regime seems to stem from atmospheric dryness which is sensitive to soil moisture variation. In some locations, the future wildfire danger overall decreases in summer but increases in winter or fall when the actual fire occurrence are generally peaked especially in South China.
The Impact of Data Assimilation on WRF Simulation using Surface Data and Radar Data: Case Study
Choi, Won ; Lee, Jae Gyoo ; Kim, Yu-Jin ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 2, 2013, Pages 143~160
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.2.143
The effect of 3DVAR (Three Dimension Variational data Assimilation) was examined by comparing observation and the simulations of CNTL (to which data assimilation was not applied) and ALL (to which data assimilation was applied using ground observation data and radar data) for the case of a heavy snowfall event (case A) of 11-12 February 2011 in the Yeongdong region. In case A, heavy snow intensively came in the Yeongdong coastal region rather than Daegwallyeong, in particular, around the Gangneung and Donghae regions with total precipitation in Bukgangneung at approximately 91 mm according to the AWS observation. It can be seen that compared to CNTL, ALL simulated larger precipitation along the Yeongdong coastline extending from Sokcho to Donghae while simulating smaller precipitation for inland areas including Daegwallyeong. On comparison of the total accumulated precipitations from simulations of CNTL and ALL, and the observed total accumulated precipitation, the positive effect of the assimilation of ground observation data and radar data could be identified in Bukgangneung and Donghae, on the other hand, the negative effect of the assimilation could be identified in the Daegwallyeong and Sokcho regions. In order to examine the average accuracy of precipitation prediction by CNTL and ALL for the entire Gangwon region including the major points mentioned earlier, the three hour accumulated precipitation from simulations of CNTL and ALL were divided into 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mm/3hr and threat Scores were calculated by forecasting time. ALL showed relatively higher TSs than CNTL for all threshold values although there were some differences. That is, when considered generally based on the Gangwon region, the accuracy of precipitation prediction from ALL was improved somewhat compared to that from CNTL.
A Study of the Effects of SST Deviations on Heavy Snowfall over the Yellow Sea
Jeong, Jaein ; Park, Rokjin ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 2, 2013, Pages 161~169
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.2.161
We examine the effects of the sea surface temperature (SST) distribution on heavy snowfall over the Yellow Sea using high-resolution SST products and WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model simulations in 30 December 2010. First, we evaluate the model by comparing the simulated and observed fresh snowfall over the Korean peninsula (Ho-Nam province). The comparison shows that the model reproduces the distributions and magnitudes of the observed snowfall. We then conduct sensitivity model simulations where SST perturbations by
relative to baseline SST values (averaged SST for
) are uniformly specified over the region of interest. Results show that
SST perturbation simulations result in changes of air temperature by
, and by
hPa for sea level pressure, respectively, relative to the baseline simulation. Atmospheric responses to SST perturbations are found to be relatively linear. The changes in SST appear to perturb precipitation variability accounting for 10% of snow and graupel, and 18% of snowfall over the Yellow Sea and Ho- Nam province, respectively. We find that anomalies of air temperature, pressure, and hydrometeors due to SST perturbation propagate to the upper part of cloud top up to 500 hPa and show symmetric responses with respect to SST changes.
Forecast Sensitivity to Observations for High-Impact Weather Events in the Korean Peninsula
Kim, SeHyun ; Kim, Hyun Mee ; Kim, Eun-Jung ; Shin, Hyun-Cheol ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 2, 2013, Pages 171~186
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.2.171
Recently, the number of observations used in a data assimilation system is increasing due to the enormous amount of observations, including satellite data. However, it is not clear that all of these observations are always beneficial to the performance of the numerical weather prediction (NWP). Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effect of observations on these forecasts so that the observations can be used more usefully in NWP process. In this study, the adjoint-based Forecast Sensitivity to Observation (FSO) method with the KMA Unified Model (UM) is applied to two high-impact weather events which occurred in summer and winter in Korea in an effort to investigate the effects of observations on the forecasts of these events. The total dry energy norm is used as a response function to calculate the adjoint sensitivity. For the summer case, TEMP observations have the greatest total impact while BOGUS shows the greatest impact per observation for all of the 24-, 36-, and 48-hour forecasts. For the winter case, aircraft, ATOVS, and ESA have the greatest total impact for the 24-, 36-, and 48-hour forecasts respectively, while ESA has the greatest impact per observation. Most of the observation effects are horizontally located upwind or in the vicinity of the Korean peninsula. The fraction of beneficial observations is less than 50%, which is less than the results in previous studies. As an additional experiment, the total moist energy norm is used as a response function to measure the sensitivity of 24-hour forecast error to observations. The characteristics of the observation impact with the moist energy response function are generally similar to those with the dry energy response function. However, the ATOVS observations were found to be sensitive to the response function, showing a positive (a negative) effect on the forecast when using the dry (moist) norm for the summer case. For the winter case, the dry and moist energy norm experiments show very similar results because the adjoint of KMA UM does not calculate the specific humidity of ice properly such that the dry and moist energy norms are very similar except for the humidity in air that is very low in winter.
Vertical Atmospheric Structure and Sensitivity Experiments of Precipitation Events Using Winter Intensive Observation Data in 2012
Lee, Sang-Min ; Sim, Jae-Kwan ; Hwang, Yoon-Jeong ; Kim, Yeon-Hee ; Ha, Jong-Chul ; Lee, Yong-Hee ; Chung, Kwan-Young ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 2, 2013, Pages 187~204
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.2.187
This study analyzed the synoptic distribution and vertical structure about four cases of precipitation occurrences using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and upper level data of winter intensive observation to be performed by National Institute of Meteorological Research at Bukgangneung, Incheon, Boseong during 63days from 4 JAN to 6 MAR in 2012, and Observing System Experiment (OSE) using 3DVAR-WRF system was conducted to examine the precipitation predictability of upper level data at western and southern coastal regions. The synoptic characteristics of selected precipitation occurrences were investigated as causes for 1) rainfall events with effect of moisture convergence owing to low pressure passing through south sea on 19 JAN, 2) snowfall events due to moisture inflowing from yellow sea with propagation of Siberian high pressure after low pressure passage over middle northern region on 31 JAN, 3) rainfall event with effect of weak pressure trough in west low and east high pressure system on 25 FEB, 4) rainfall event due to moisture inflow according to low pressures over Bohai bay and south eastern sea on 5 MAR. However, it is identified that vertical structure of atmosphere had different characteristics with heavy rainfall system in summer. Firstly, depth of convection was narrow due to absence of moisture convergence and strong ascending air current in middle layer. Secondly, warm air advection by veering wind with height only existed in low layer. Thirdly, unstable layer was limited in the narrow depth due to low surface temperature although it formed, and also values of instability indices were not high. Fourthly, total water vapor amounts containing into atmosphere was small due to low temperature distribution so that precipitable water vapor could be little amounts. As result of OSE conducting with upper level data of Incheon and Boseong station, 12 hours accumulated precipitation distributions of control experiment and experiments with additional upper level data were similar with ones of observation data at 610 stations. Although Equitable Threat Scores (ETS) were different according to cases and thresholds, it was verified positive influence of upper level data for precipitation predictability as resulting with high improvement rates of 33.3% in experiment with upper level data of Incheon (INC_EXP), 85.7% in experiment with upper level data of Boseong (BOS_EXP), and 142.9% in experiment with upper level data of both Incheon and Boseong (INC_BOS_EXP) about accumulated precipitation more than 5 mm / 12 hours on 31 January 2012.
A Study on Upper Ocean Response to Typhoon Ewiniar (0603) and Its Impact
Jeong, Yeong Yun ; Moon, Il-Ju ; Kim, Sung-Hun ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 2, 2013, Pages 205~220
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.2.205
Upper ocean response to typhoon Ewiniar (0603) and its impact on the following typhoon Bilis (0604) are investigated using observational data and numerical experiments. Data used in this study are obtained from the Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS), ARGO, and satellite. Numerical simulations are conducted using 3-dimensional Princeton Ocean Model. Results show that when Ewiniar passes over the western North Pacific, unique oceanic responses are found at two places, One is in East China Sea near Taiwan and another is in the vicinity of IORS. The latter are characterized by a strong sea surface cooling (SSC),
in simulation and observation, under the condition of typhoon with a fast translation speed (8m
) and lowering intensity (970 hPa). The record-breaking strong SSC is caused by the Yellow Sea Bottom Cold Water, which produces a strong vertical temperature gradient within a shallow depth of Yellow Sea. The former are also characterized by a strong SSC,
in simulation, with a additional cooling of
after a storm's passage mainly due to enhanced and maintained upwelling process by the resonance coupling of storm translation speed and the gravest mode internal wave phase speed. The numerical simulation reveals that the Ewiniar produced a unfavorable upper-ocean thermal condition, which eventually inhibited the intensification of the following typhoon Bilis. Statistics show that 9% of the typhoons in western North Pacific are influenced by cold wakes produced by a proceeding typhoon. These overall results demonstrate that upper ocean response to a typhoon even after the passage is also important factor to be considered for an accurate intensity prediction of a following typhoon with similar track.
Future Prediction of Heat and Discomfort Indices based on two RCP Scenarios
Lee, Suji ; Kwon, Bo Yeon ; Jung, Deaho ; Jo, Kyunghee ; Kim, Munseok ; Ha, Seungmok ; Kim, Heona ; Kim, Byul Nim ; Masud, M.A. ; Lee, Eunil ; Kim, Yongkuk ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 2, 2013, Pages 221~229
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.2.221
There has been an increasing need to assess the effects of climate change on human health. It is hard to use climate data to evaluate health effects because such data have a grid format, which could not represent specific cities or provinces. Therefore, the grid-format climate data of South Korea based on RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) scenarios were modified into area-format climate data according to the major cities or provinces of the country, up to the year 2100. Moreover, heat index (HI) and discomfort index (DI) databases were developed from the modified climate database. These databases will soon be available for experts via a Website, and the expected HI and DI of any place in the country, or at any time, can be found in the country's climate homepage (http://www.climate.go.kr). The HI and DI were analyzed by plotting the average indices every ten years, and by comparing cities or provinces with index level changes, using the geographic information system (GIS). Both the HI and DI are expected to continually increase from 2011 to 2100, and to reach the most dangerous level especially in August 2100. Among the major cities of South Korea, Gwangju showed the highest HI and DI, and Gangwon province is expected to be the least affected area in terms of HI and DI among all the country's provinces.
WRF Physics Models Using GP-GPUs with CUDA Fortran
Kim, Youngtae ; Lee, Yong Hee ; Chung, Kwan-Young ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 2, 2013, Pages 231~235
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.2.231
We parallelized WRF major physics routines for Nvidia GP-GPUs with CUDA Fortran. GP-GPUs are originally designed for graphic processing, but show high performance with low electricity for calculating numerical models. In the CUDA environment, a data domain is allocated into thread blocks and threads in each thread block are computing in parallel. We parallelized the WRF program to use of thread blocks efficiently. We validated the GP-GPU program with the original CPU program, and the WRF model using GP-GPUs shows efficient speedup.
Implementation of GrADS and R Scripts for Processing Future Climate Data to Produce Agricultural Climate Information
Lee, Kyu Jong ; Lee, Semi ; Lee, Byun Woo ; Kim, Kwang Soo ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 2, 2013, Pages 237~243
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.2.237
A set of scripts for GrADS (Grid Analysis and Display System) and R was implemented to produce agricultural climate information using the future climate scenarios based on the Representative Concentration Pathways. The GrADS script was used to calculate agricultural climate indices including growing degree days and cooling degree days. The script generated agricultural climate maps of these indices, which are compatible with common Geographic Information System (GIS) applications. To perform a statistical analysis using the agricultural climate maps, a script for R, which is open source statistical software, was used. Because a large number of spatial climate data were produced, parallel processing packages such as SNOW, doSNOW, and foreach were used to perform a simple statistical analysis in the R script. The parallel script of R had speedup on workstations with multi-CPU cores.