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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Meteorological Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
Comparison of the Properties of Yeongdong and Yeongseo Heavy Rain
Kwon, Tae-Yong ; Kim, Jae-Sik ; Kim, Byung-Gon ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 3, 2013, Pages 245~264
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.3.245
Heavy rain over the Gangwon region has distinct characteristics in the temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall, most of which are concentrated on a very short period of time and either part of Yeongdong and Yeongseo regions. According to its regional distribution, heavy rain events over the Gangwon region may be classified into Yeongdong and Yeongseo heavy rain in which rainfalls of more than 110 mm
(heavy rain warning) have been observed in at least one of the weather stations over only Yeongdong or Yeongseo region, but over the other region the rainfalls are less than 70 mm
(heavy rain advisory). To differentiate between Yeongdong and Yeongseo heavy rain, 9 cases for Yeongdong heavy rain and 8 cases for Yeongseo heavy rain are examined on their synoptic and mesoscale environments using some meteorological parameters and ingredients. In addition, 8 cases are examined in which heavy rain warning or advisory are issued in both Yeongdong and Yeongseo regions. The cases for each heavy rain type have shown largely similar features in some meteorological parameters and ingredients. Based on an ingredient analysis, there are three common and basic ingredients for the three heavy rain types: instability, moisture, and lift. However, it is found that the distinct and important process producing strong upward vertical motions may discriminate among three heavy rain types very well. Yeongdong heavy rain is characterized by strong orographic lifting, Yeongseo heavy rain by high instability (high CAPE), and heavy rain over both regions by strong synoptic-scale ascent (strong 850 hPa Q-Vector convergence, diagnostics for ascent). These ingredients and diagnostics for the ingredients can be used to forecasting the potential for regional heavy rain. And also by knowing which of ingredients is important for each heavy rain type, forecasters can concentrate on only a few ingredients from numerous diagnostic and prognostic products for forecasting heavy rain events.
Analysis of Summer Rainfall Case over Southern Coast Using MRR and PARSIVEL Disdrometer Measurements in 2012
Moon, Ji-Young ; Kim, Dong-Kyun ; Kim, Yeon-Hee ; Ha, Jong-Chul ; Chung, Kwan-Young ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 3, 2013, Pages 265~273
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.3.265
To investigate properties of cloud and rainfall occurred at Boseong on 10 July 2012, Raindrop Size distributions (RSDs) and other parameters were analyzed using observation data collected by Micro Rain Radar (MRR) and PARticle SIze and VELocity (PARSIVEL) disdrometer located in the National center for intensive observation of severe weather at Boseong in the southwest of the Korean peninsula. In addition, time series of RSD parameters, relationship between reflectivity-rain rate, and vertical variation of rain rates-fall velocities below melting layer were examined. As a result, good agreements were found in the reflectivity-rain rate time series as well as their power relationships between MRR and PARSIVEL disdrometer. The rain rate was proportional to reflectivity, mean diameter, and inversely proportional to shape (
), slope (
), intercept (
) parameter of RSD. In comparison of the RSD, as rain rate was increased, the slope of RSD became less steep and the mean diameter became larger. Also, it was verified that reflectivities are classified in three categories (Category 1: Z (reflectivity) > 40 dBZ, Category 2: 30 dBZ < Z < 40 dBZ, Category 3: Z < 30 dBZ). As reflectivity was increased, rain rate was intensified and larger raindrops were existed, while reflectivity was decreased, shape (
), slope (
), intercept (
) parameter of RSD were increased. We expected that these results will lead to better understanding of microphysical process in convective rainfall system occurred during short-term period over Korean peninsula.
Development of Observational Environment Evaluation Model for Sunshine Duration at ASOSs Located in Urban Areas
Kim, Do-Yong ; Kim, Do-Hyoung ; Kim, Jae-Jin ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 3, 2013, Pages 275~282
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.3.275
In this study, the numerical model was developed to evaluate the observational environment of sunshine duration and, for evaluating the accuracy and utility of the model, it was verified against the observational data measured at Dae-gu Automated Synoptic Observing System (ASOS) located in an urban area. Three-dimensional topography and building configuration as the surface input data of the model were constructed using a Geographic Information System (GIS) data. First, the accuracy of the computing planetary positions suggested by Paul Schlyter was verified against the data provided by Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) and the results showed that the numerical model predicted the Sun's position (the solar azimuth and altitude angles) quite precisely. Then, this model was applied to reproduce the sunshine duration at the Dae-gu ASOS. The observed and calculated sunshine durations were similar to each other. However, the observed and calculated sunrise (sunset) times were delayed (curtailed), compared to those provided by KASI that considered just the ASOS's position information such as latitude, longitude, and elevation height but did not consider the building and topography information. Further investigation showed that this was caused by not only the topographic characteristic (higher in the east and lower in the west) but also the buildings located in the southeast near the sunrise and the southwest near the sunset. It was found that higher building resolution increased the accuracy of the model. It was concluded that, for the accurate evaluation of the sunshine duration, detailed building and topography information around the observing sites was required and the numerical model developed in this study was successful to predict and/or the sunshine duration of the ASOS located in an urban area.
Analysis of Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions over South China Sea and its Relationship with Northeast Asian Precipitation Variability during Summer
Jang, Hye-Yeong ; Yeh, Sang-Wook ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 3, 2013, Pages 283~291
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.3.283
This study investigates the changes in the atmosphere-ocean interactions over the South China Sea (SCS) by analyzing their variables in the period of 1979~2011 during the boreal summer (June-July-August). It is found that a simultaneous correlation coefficient between sea surface temperature (SST) and precipitation over SCS during summer is significantly changed before and after the late-1990s. That is, the variation of precipitation over SCS is negatively (positively) correlated with the SST variations before (after) the late-1990s. Our further correlation analysis indicates that the atmospheric forcing of the SST is dominant before the late-1990s accompanying with wind-evaporation feedback and cloud-radiation feedback. After the late-1990s, in contrast, the SST forcing of the atmosphere through the latent heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere is dominant. It is found that the change in the relationship of atmosphere-ocean interactions over SCS are associated with the changes in the relationship with Northeast Asian summer precipitation. In particular, a simultaneous correlation coefficient between the precipitation over SCS and Northeast Asia becomes stronger during after the late-1990s than before the late-1990s. We argue that the increase of the SST forcing of the atmosphere over SCS may lead a direct relationship of precipitation variations between SCS and Northeast Asia after the late-1990s.
Nonhydrostatic Effects on Convectively Forced Mesoscale Flows
Woo, Sora ; Baik, Jong-Jin ; Lee, Hyunho ; Han, Ji-Young ; Seo, Jaemyeong Mango ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 3, 2013, Pages 293~305
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.3.293
Nonhydrostatic effects on convectively forced mesoscale flows in two dimensions are numerically investigated using a nondimensional model. An elevated heating that represents convective heating due to deep cumulus convection is specified in a uniform basic flow with constant stability, and numerical experiments are performed with different values of the nonlinearity factor and nonhydrostaticity factor. The simulation result in a linear system is first compared to the analytic solution. The simulated vertical velocity field is very similar to the analytic one, confirming the high accuracy of nondimensional model's solutions. When the nonhydrostaticity factor is small, alternating regions of upward and downward motion above the heating top appear. On the other hand, when the nonhydrostaticity factor is relatively large, alternating updraft and downdraft cells appear downwind of the main updraft region. These features according to the nonhydrostaticity factor appear in both linear and nonlinear flow systems. The location of the maximum vertical velocity in the main updraft region differs depending on the degrees of nonlinearity and nonhydrostaticity. Using the Taylor-Goldstein equation in a linear, steady-state, invscid system, it is analyzed that evanescent waves exist for a given nonhydrostaticity factor. The critical wavelength of an evanescent wave is given by
is the nonhydrostaticity factor. Waves whose wavelengths are smaller than the critical wavelength become evanescent. The alternating updraft and downdraft cells are formed by the superposition of evanescent waves and horizontally propagating parts of propagating waves. Simulation results show that the horizontal length of the updraft and downdraft cells is the half of the critical wavelength (
) in a linear flow system and larger than
in a weakly nonlinear flow system.
Quality Control and Characteristic of Eddy Covariance Data in the Region of Nakdong River
Lee, Young-Hee ; Lee, Byoungju ; Kahng, Keumah ; Kim, Soo-Jin ; Hong, Seon-Ok ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 3, 2013, Pages 307~320
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.3.307
We performed comprehensive quality control for eddy-covariance measurements from 3 farmland sites and 1 industrial site adjacent to Nakdong river. The quality control program is based on Foken and Wichura (1996) and Vicker and Mahrt (1997) and we added criteria for trend and standard deviation for scalar variables and modified criteria for non-stationarity condition of Foken and Wichura (1996) to consider random error of fluxes. The classification of data quality is designed for the raw data and the processed flux data, separately. Use of added criteria efficiently reduces the number of outlier for water vapor and
fluxes and use of modified criteria for non-stationarity reduces the number of outlier for scalar fluxes and increases the number of data with accepted quality for further work. Energy balance ratio is higher in farmlands than industrial site, which is due to neglect of heat storage term in industrial site. Among farmland sites, C4 site shows higher energy balance ratio than other sites. This is due to more homogeneous surface of C4 site than other farmland sites. However, energy balance ratio is very low or even negative at night. Mismatch between the flux footprint and the other energy component footprint over the heterogeneous surface is main cause for energy imbalance at night. Other possible causes are also discussed.
An Analysis of Aerosols Impacts on the Vertical Invigoration of Continental Stratiform Clouds
Kim, Yoo-Jun ; Han, Sang-Ok ; Lee, Chulkyu ; Lee, Seoung-Soo ; Kim, Byung-Gon ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 3, 2013, Pages 321~329
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.3.321
This study examines the effect of aerosols on the vertical invigoration of continental stratiform clouds, using a dataset of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Intensive Operational Period (IOP, March 2000) at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. To provide further support to our observation-based findings, the weather research and forecasting (WRF) sensitivity simulations with changing cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations have been carried out for the golden episode over SGP. First, cross correlation between observed aerosol scattering coefficient and cloud liquid water path (LWP) with a 160-minutes lag is the highest of r = 0.83 for the selected episode, which may be attributable to cloud vertical invigoration induced by an increase in aerosol loading. Modeled cloud fractions in a control run are well matched with the observation in the perspective of cloud morphology and lasting period. It is also found through a simple sensitivity with a change in CCN that aerosol invigoration (AIV) effect on stratiform cloud organization is attributable to a change in the cloud microphysics as well as dynamics such as the corresponding modification of cloud number concentrations, drop size, and latent heating rate, etc. This study suggests a possible cloud vertical invigoration even in the continental stratiform clouds due to aerosol enhancement in spite of a limited analysis based on a few observed continental cloud cases.
A Case Study of Mesoscale Snowfall Development Associated with Tropopause Folding
Kim, Jinyeon ; Min, Ki-Hong ; Kim, Kyung-Eak ; Lee, Gyuwon ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 3, 2013, Pages 331~346
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.3.331
A case study of mesoscale snowfall with polar low signature during 25~26 December 2010 in South Korea is presented. The data used for analysis include surface and upper level weather charts, rain gauge, sea surface temperature, satellite imagery, sounding, and global
reanalysis data. The system initiated with a surface trough near the bay of Bohai but quickly intensified to become a polar low within 12 hours. The polar low moved southeastward bringing snowfall to southwestern Korea. There was strong instability layer beneath 800 hPa but baroclinicty was weak and disappeared as the low progressed onto land. Shortwave at 500 hPa and the surface trough became in-phase which hindered the development of the polar low while it approached Korea. However, there were strong tropopause folding (~500 hPa) and high potential vorticity (PV), which allowed the system to maintain its structure and dump 20.3 cm of snow in Jeonju. Synoptic, thermodynamic, dynamic, and moisture analyses reveal that polar low developed in an area of baroclinicity with strong conditional instability and warm air advection at the lower levels. Further, the development of a surface trough to polar low was aided by tropopause folding with PV advection in the upper level, shortwave trough at 500 hPa, and moisture advection with low-level jet (LLJ) of 15 m
or more at 850 hPa. Maximum snowfall was concentrated in this region with convection being sustained by latent heat release.
Application of the WRF Model for Dynamical Downscaling of Climate Projections from the Community Earth System Model (CESM)
Seo, Jihyun ; Shim, Changsub ; Hong, Jiyoun ; Kang, Sungdae ; Moon, Nankyoung ; Hwang, Yun Seop ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 3, 2013, Pages 347~356
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.3.347
The climate projection with a high spatial resolution is required for the studies on regional climate changes. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) has provided downscaled RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) scenarios over Korea with 1 km spatial resolution. If there are additional climate projections produced by dynamically downscale, the quality of impacts and vulnerability assessments of Korea would be improved with uncertainty information. This technical note intends to instruct the methods to downscale the climate projections dynamically from the Community Earth System Model (CESM) to the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. In particular, here we focus on the instruction to utilize CAM2WRF, a sub-program to link output of CESM to initial and boundary condition of WRF at Linux platform. We also provide the example of the dynamically downscaled results over Korean Peninsula with 50 km spatial resolution for August, 2020. This instruction can be helpful to utilize global scale climate scenarios for studying regional climate change over Korean peninsula with further validation and uncertainty/bias analysis.
A Study of Public-Academia Cooperative Research in the USA for Improvement of Atmospheric Research in Korea: Based on the CIRES Case
Song, Byunghyun ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 3, 2013, Pages 357~365
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.3.357
A public-academia cooperative research system is suggested to improve the level of national research on atmospheric science and to enable the National Institute of Meteorological Research (NIMR) to meet its overloaded demand for research and results. As a practical example of cooperative research the CIRES case was reviewed. CIRES, the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, located at the University of Colorado Boulder, is one of NOAA's 18 cooperative research centers located at universities across the U.S. NOAA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, as a part of government, gives clear guideline for research topics and supplies research funds to research centers and audits their research processes and accomplishments. NOAA Boulder Laboratories, as a large, well-established government research center managed by government scientists, supplies depth of experiences and major research infra-structure to CIRES. CIRES pursues innovative and challenging research with their younger and brand-new researchers who are university employees. This cooperative work between government research organizations and the university produces high level research efficiently. Not only does Boulder have a beautiful natural setting where researchers live and work but also the city is a home to many scientific agencies and research facilities. This robust scientific network provides rich opportunities for CIRES researchers to collaborate with others in their scientific fields.