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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Meteorological Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
Vertical Distribution of Temperature and Tropopause Height Changes in Future Projections using HadGEM2-AO Climate Model
Lee, Jaeho ; Baek, Hee-Jeong ; Cho, Chunho ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 367~375
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.4.367
We present here the future changes in vertical distribution of temperature and tropopause height using the HadGEM2-AO climate model forced with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) scenarios. Projected changes during the 21st century are shown as differences from the baseline period (1971~2000) for global vertical distribution of temperature and tropopause height. All RCP scenarios show warming throughout the troposphere and cooling in the stratosphere with amplified warming over the lower troposphere in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes. Upper troposphere warming reaches a maximum in the tropics at the 300 hPa level associated with lapse-rate feedback. Also, the cooling in the stratosphere and the warming in the troposphere raises the height of the tropopause.
Changes in the Low Latitude Atmospheric Circulation at the End of the 21
Century Simulated by CMIP5 Models under Global Warming
Jung, Yoo-Rim ; Choi, Da-Hee ; Baek, Hee-Jeong ; Cho, Chunho ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 377~387
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.4.377
Projections of changes in the low latitude atmospheric circulation under global warming are investigated using the results of the CMIP5 ensemble mean. For this purpose, 30-yr periods for the present day (1971~2000) and the end of the
century (2071~2100) according to the RCP emission scenarios are compared. The wintertime subtropical jet is projected to strengthen on the upper side of the jet due to increase in meridional temperature gradient induced by warming in the tropical upper-troposphere and cooling in the stratosphere except for the RCP2.6. It is also found that a strengthening of the upper side of the wintertime subtropical jet in the RCP2.6 due to tropical upper-tropospheric warmings. Model-based projection shows a weakening of the mean intensity of the Hadley cell, an upward shift of cell, and poleward shift of the Hadley circulation for the winter cell in both hemispheres. A weakening of the Walker circulation, which is one of the most robust atmospheric responses to global warming, is also projected. These results are consistent with findings in the previous studies based on CMIP3 data sets. A weakening of the Walker circulation is accompanied with decrease (increase) in precipitation over the Indo-Pacific warm pool region (the equatorial central and east Pacific). In addition, model simulation shows a decrease in precipitation over subtropical regions where the descending branch of the winter Hadley cell in both hemispheres is strengthened.
Restoration and Analysis of Chugugi Rainfall Data by 『Gaksadeungnok』 for Gyeonggi Province During the Latter Part of the Joseon Dynasty (1830~1893)
Cho, Ha-Man ; Kim, Sang-Won ; Park, Jin ; Kim, Jin-A ; Chun, Young-Sin ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 389~400
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.4.389
Chugugi and Wootaeck rainfall data of Gyeonggi Province from 1830 to 1893 were restored from the "Gaksadeungnok" that is the government records between the central government and the local during the Joseon Dynasty. The restored data periods were 27, 10, 9 and 14 years for Kwangju, Suwon, Ganghwa and Gaeseong, and the total number of restored data was 655 for the Chugugi and 427 for the Wootaek, respectively. The variation pattern of monthly rainfall by Chugugi was investigated and it showed that the monthly rainfall more than 300 mm was recorded 25 times with 18 times in July, 5 times in August and 3 times in June. The cases of more than 500 mm were also recorded 8 times with the maximum 787 mm at the Kwangju in July 1862, showing the similar pattern to Seoul. The monthly mean rainfall for the Gyeonggi Province were 259 mm in July, 204 mm in August and 121 mm in June, which were about one third of that of Seoul. The correlation analysis between the Chugugi and Wootaek data was carried out to derive the quantitative values of Wootaek observations. It revealed that 1 'Ri' of Wootaek observation was equal to approximately 1 'Chon (Chugugi unit)' or 20 mm, while 1 'Seo' was very variable between 2 and 6 'Boon (Chugugi unit)' with the median value approximately 3 'Boon' or 6 mm. Recalculated Wootaek data showed that the monthly rainfall in July, August, and June were 289 mm, 154 mm, and 124 mm, respectively. Through this study, some features of the rainfall variation pattern during 1830~1893 were figured out, and quantitative interpretation of Wootaek data became possible based on the restored rainfall data from the "Gaksadeungnok". Though many pages of the book have been lost during the last hundreds years, "Gaksadeungnok" is still very meaningful and of practical use, for it contains plenty of the local data throughout the whole country during the latter part of Joseon Dynasty. Therefore, further studies are strongly recommended on the restoration of climate related data and on the climatic tendency of 19th century of Korean peninsular.
Characteristic Features Observed in the East-Asian Cold Anomalies in January 2011
Choi, Wookap ; Jung, Jiyeon ; Jhun, Jong-Ghap ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 401~412
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.4.401
East Asia experienced extremely cold weather in January 2011, while the previous December and the following February had normal winter temperature. In this study National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data are used to investigate the characteristic features observed in the meteorological fields such as temperature, sea-level pressure, geopotential height, and wind during this winter period. In January the planetary-wave pattern is dominated by stationary-wave form in the mid-to-high latitude region, while transient waves are significant in the previous month. To understand the planetary-wave features quantitatively, harmonic analyses have been done for the 500-hPa geopotential height field. In the climatological-mean geopotential heights the wave numbers 1, 2, and 3 are dominant during the whole winter. In January 2011 the waves of number 1, 2, and 3 are dominant and stationary as in the climatological-mean field. In December 2010 and February 2011, however, the waves of number 4, 5, and 6 play a major role and show a transient pattern. In addition to the distinctive features in each month the planetary-wave patterns dependent on the latitude are also discussed.
Spatial Distribution of Urban Heat Island based on Local Climate Zone of Automatic Weather Station in Seoul Metropolitan Area
Hong, Je-Woo ; Hong, Jinkyu ; Lee, Seong-Eun ; Lee, Jaewon ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 413~424
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.4.413
Urban Heat Island (UHI) intensity is one of vital parameters in studying urban boundary layer meteorology as well as urban planning. Because the UHI intensity is defined as air temperature difference between urban and rural sites, an objective sites selection criterion is necessary for proper quantification of the spatial variations of the UHI intensity. This study quantified the UHI intensity and its spatial pattern, and then analyzed their connections with urban structure and metabolism in Seoul metropolitan area where many kinds of land use and land cover types coexist. In this study, screen-level temperature data in non-precipitation day conditions observed from 29 automatic weather stations (AWS) in Seoul were analyzed to delineate the characteristics of UHI. For quality control of the data, gap test, limit test, and step test based on guideline of World Meteorological Organization were conducted. After classifying all stations by their own local climatological properties, UHI intensity and diurnal temperature range (DTR) are calculated, and then their seasonal patterns are discussed. Maximum UHI intensity was
in autumn and minimum was
in spring. Maximum DTR appeared in autumn as
, but minimum was
in summer. UHI intensity and DTR showed large variations with different local climate zones. Despite limited information on accuracy and exposure errors of the automatic weather stations, the observed data from AWS network represented theoretical UHI intensities with difference local climate zone in Seoul.
Estimates of the Water Cycle and River Discharge Change over the Global Land at the End of 21st Century Based on RCP Scenarios of HadGEM2-AO Climate Model
Kim, Moon-Hyun ; Kang, Hyun-Suk ; Lee, Johan ; Baek, Hee-Jeong ; Cho, ChunHo ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 425~441
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.4.425
This study investigates the projections of water cycle, budget and river discharge over land in the world at the end of twenty-first century simulated by atmosphere-ocean climate model of Hadley Centre (HadGEM2-AO) and total runoff integrating pathways (TRIP) based on the RCP scenario. Firstly, to validate the HadGEM2-AO hydrology, the surface water states were evaluated for the present period using precipitation, evaporation, runoff and river discharge. Although this model underestimates the annual precipitation about 0.4 mm
, evaporation 3.7 mm
, total runoff 1.6 mm
and river discharge 8.6% than observation and reanalysis data, it has good water balance in terms of inflow and outflow at surface. In other words, it indicates the -0.3 mm
of water storage (P-E-R) compared with ERA40 showing -2.4 mm
for the present hydrological climate. At the end of the twenty-first century, annual mean precipitation may decrease in heavy rainfall region, such as northern part of South America, central Africa and eastern of North America, but for increase over the Tropical Western Pacific and East Asian region. Also it can generally increase in high latitudes inland of the Northern Hemisphere. Spatial patterns of annual evaporation and runoff are similar to that of precipitation. And river discharge tends to increase over all continents except for South America including Amazon Basin, due to increased runoff. Overall, HadGEM2-AO prospects that water budget for the future will globally have negative signal (-8.0~-0.3% of change rate) in all RCP scenarios indicating drier phase than the present climate over land.
Development and Verification of the Fog Stability Index for Incheon International Airport based on the Measured Fog Characteristics
Song, Yunyoung ; Yum, Seong Soo ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 443~452
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.4.443
The original Fog Stability Index (FSI) is formulated as FSI=
is dew point deficit (temperature-dew point temperature),
is atmospheric stability measure (temperature-temperature at 850 hPa altitude) and
is wind speed at 850 hPa altitude. As a way to improve fog prediction at Incheon International Airport (IIA), we develop the modified FSI for IIA, using the meteorological data at IIA for two years from June 2011 to May 2013, the first one year for development and the second one year for validation. The relative contribution of the three parameters of the modified FSI is 9: 1: 0, indicating that
is found to be a non-contributing factor for fog formation at IIA. The critical success index (CSI) of the modified FSI is 0.68. Further development is made to consider the fact that fogs at IIA are highly influenced by advection of moisture from the Yellow Sea. One added parameter after statistical evaluation of the several candidate parameters is the dew point deficit at a buoy over the Yellow Sea. The relative contribution of the four parameters (including the new one) of the newly developed FSI is 10: 2: 0.5: 6.4. The CSI of the new FSI is 0.50. Since the developmental period of one year is too short, the FSI should be refined more as the data are accumulated more.
Development of Pre-Processing and Bias Correction Modules for AMSU-A Satellite Data in the KIAPS Observation Processing System
Lee, Sihye ; Kim, Ju-Hye ; Kang, Jeon-Ho ; Chun, Hyoung-Wook ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 453~470
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.4.453
As a part of the KIAPS Observation Processing System (KOPS), we have developed the modules of satellite radiance data pre-processing and quality control, which include observation operators to interpolate model state variables into radiances in observation space. AMSU-A (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) level-1d radiance data have been extracted using the BUFR (Binary Universal Form for the Representation of meteorological data) decoder and a first guess has been calculated with RTTOV (Radiative Transfer for TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder) version 10.2. For initial quality checks, the pixels contaminated by large amounts of cloud liquid water, heavy precipitation, and sea ice have been removed. Channels for assimilation, rejection, or monitoring have been respectively selected for different surface types since the errors from the skin temperature are caused by inaccurate surface emissivity. Correcting the bias caused by errors in the instruments and radiative transfer model is crucial in radiance data pre-processing. We have developed bias correction modules in two steps based on 30-day innovation statistics (observed radiance minus background; O-B). The scan bias correction has been calculated individually for each channel, satellite, and scan position. Then a multiple linear regression of the scan-bias-corrected innovations with several predictors has been employed to correct the airmass bias.
Analysis of the Fog Detection Algorithm of DCD Method with SST and CALIPSO Data
Shin, Daegeun ; Park, Hyungmin ; Kim, Jae Hwan ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 471~483
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.4.471
Nighttime sea fog detection from satellite is very hard due to limitation in using visible channels. Currently, most widely used method for the detection is the Dual Channel Difference (DCD) method based on Brightness Temperature Difference between 3.7 and 11
channel (BTD). However, this method have difficulty in distinguishing between fog and low cloud, and sometimes misjudges middle/high cloud as well as clear scene as fog. Using CALIPSO Lidar Profile measurements, we have analyzed the intrinsic problems in detecting nighttime sea fog from various satellite remote sensing algorithms and suggested the direction for the improvement of the algorithm. From the comparison with CALIPSO measurements for May-July in 2011, the DCD method excessively overestimates foggy pixels (2542 pixels). Among them, only 524 pixel are real foggy pixels, but 331 pixels and 1687 pixels are clear and other type of clouds, respectively. The 514 of real foggy pixels accounts for 70% of 749 foggy pixels identified by CALIPSO. Our proposed new algorithm detects foggy pixels by comparing the difference between cloud top temperature and underneath sea surface temperature from assimilated data along with the DCD method. We have used two types of cloud top temperature, which obtained from 11
brightness temperature (B_S1) and operational COMS algorithm (B_S2). The detected foggy 1794 pixels from B_S1 and 1490 pixel from B_S2 are significantly reduced the overestimation detected by the DCD method. However, 477 and 446 pixels have been found to be real foggy pixels, 329 and 264 pixels be clear, and 989 and 780 pixels be other type of clouds, detected by B_S1 and B_S2 respectively. The analysis of the operational COMS fog detection algorithm reveals that the cloud screening process was strictly enforced, which resulted in underestimation of foggy pixel. The 538 of total detected foggy pixels obtain only 187 of real foggy pixels, but 61 of clear pixels and 290 of other type clouds. Our analysis suggests that there is no winner for nighttime sea fog detection algorithms, but loser because real foggy pixels are less than 30% among the foggy pixels declared by all algorithms. This overwhelming evidence reveals that current nighttime sea fog algorithms have provided a lot of misjudged information, which are mostly originated from difficulty in distinguishing between clear and cloudy scene as well as fog and other type clouds. Therefore, in-depth researches are urgently required to reduce the enormous error in nighttime sea fog detection from satellite.
Study on Sensitivities and Fire Area Errors in WRF-Fire Simulation to Different Resolution Data Set of Fuel and Terrain, and Surface Wind
Seong, Ji-Hye ; Han, Sang-Ok ; Jeong, Jong-Hyeok ; Kim, Ki-Hoon ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 485~500
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.4.485
This study conducted WRF-Fire simulations in order to investigate sensitivities of the resolution of fire fuel and terrain data sets, and the surface wind to simulated fire area. The sensitivity simulations were consisted of 8 different WRF-Fire runs, each of which used different combination of data sets of fire fuel and terrain with different resolution. From the results it was turned out that the surface wind was most sensitive. The next was fire fuel and then fire terrain. Unfortunately, every run produced too much fire area. In other words no simulations succeeded in simulating such proper fire area so as for the WRF-Fire to be used realistically. It was verified that the errors of fire area from each runs were contributed by 41%, 53%, and 6% from surface wind, fire fuel, and fire terrain, respectively. Finally this study suggested that the selection of Anderson fuel category in the area of interest seemed to be very critical in the performance of WRF-Fire simulations.
On the Determination Method of Background Aerosol Concentration
Heo, Junghwa ; Kim, Sang-Woo ; Yoon, Soon-Chang ; Kim, Ji-Hyoung ; Kim, Man-Hae ; Kim, Yumi ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 501~511
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.4.501
In this study, we estimate the background concentration of black carbon (BC) mass concentration measured at Gosan Climate Observatory from January 2008 to December 2011 by applying six methods: (1) Mean and Median (2) Trimmed mean method deployed in Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network program (hereafter, IMPROVE method), (3) Concentration-frequency distribution analysis method, (4) Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) method (hereafter, AGAGE method), (5) Kaufman et al. (2001) method (hereafter, Kaufman method), and (6) Airmass sector analysis. The background concentration of BC mass concentrations is estimated to be about 400~900 ng
, but each method shows a large difference. The estimated background concentration, in general, is arranged in the order of: mean > IMPROVE method > median > Kaufman method > concentration-frequency distribution analysis method > AGAGE method. The background concentration estimated by the airmass sector analysis is found to be about 550 ng
which is lower than those estimated by other methods. When we apply the same analytical period (i.e., 4-day and 6-day) to both AGAGE and Kaufman methods, the estimated background concentrations are quite similar. However, further researches on the development of statistical method for estimating background concentration for various gas-phase and particulate pollutants under different environment are needed.
A Wind Tunnel Study on Influences of ILS Tower on Wind Speed Measurement
Choi, Cheol-Min ; Kim, Kye-Hwan ; Kim, Young-Chul ; Kwon, Kybeom ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 513~517
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.4.513
In this study, it is first intended to simulate the vertical profile of atmospheric flow in a short wind tunnel. In order to accomplish it, proper devices are designed properly to reduce freestream flow momentum and it is confirmed from the measured velocity profile using hot-wire anemometer that momentum flux of the tunnel free stream can be reduced and desired atmospheric boundary can be created. Second, experiments are performed to identify influences of a surrounding structure measuring correct wind velocity by an anemometer, which are located nearby due to area limitation in actual airport and correction factors are proposed from experimental results. One of findings is that in order to limit the velocity attenuation due to a nearby structure under 10%, wind velocity measuring equipment should be installed at least 6 times of the structure height away from the structure of concern.
Aerosol Vertical Distribution Measured by LIDARs in Baengnyeongdo, Munsan, and Gunsan during 10~11 May 2010
Lee, Hae-Jung ; Kim, Jeong Eun ; Chun, Youngsin ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 519~526
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.4.519
This study aims to analyze the vertical distribution of Asian dust measured by LIDARs at three weather stations in Baengnyeongdo (BND), Munsan (MS), and Gunsan (GS) during 10~11 May 2010, and thereby investigate their effectiveness. Asian dust passed through from central to south-western part of Korea. Although dust particles were detected over the surface in MS and GS, LIDAR data showed that the Asian dust with non-spherical particles was observed in all of the three regions. It seems that the naked-eye observation could not detect dust over the surface of BND due to the temperature inversion below a height of 0.45 km. During the Asian dust events, the duration time of dust presented 9.5 hr (BND), 19.5 hr (MS), and 24.5 hr (GS), respectively with the longest time in GS, whereas dust altitudes ranged from 0.4 to 1.3 km (BND), 0.1 to 2.8 km and 4.1 to 4.2 km (MS), and 0.2 to 2.0 km (GS), respectively, while showing the highest altitude in MS. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrieved by LIDAR and skyradiometer (SR), located close to the LIDAR sites, was compared. MS (LIDAR) and Seoul (SR) attained the AOT of 0.64 and 0.50, and GS (LIDAR) and Gongju (SR) attained the AOT of 0.38 and 0.54, respectively. As SR-derived angstrom exponents (AE) during the time period determined as Asian dust by LIDAR data were 0.17 in Seoul (near MS) and 0.30 in Gongju (near GS), it can be said that the characteristics of dust particles were appeared. During the study period, depolarization ratio could serve as a useful indicator to determine dust aerosol. But, it still seems essential to conduct further investigation with longer period of data to better describe the discrepancy of AOT between LIDARs and SR.
Present-Day Climate of the Korean Peninsula Centered Northern East Asia Based on CMIP5 Historical Scenario Using Fine-Resolution WRF
Ahn, Joong-Bae ; Hong, Ja-Young ; Seo, Myung-Suk ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 527~538
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.4.527
In this study, climate over Korea based on the Historical scenario induced by HadGEM2-AO is simulated by WRF. For this purpose, a system that can be used be for numerical integration over the Far East Asian area of the center of the Korean Peninsula with 12.5 km-horizontal resolution was set-up at "Haebit", the early portion of KMA Supercomputer Unit-3. Using the system, the downscaling experiments were conducted for the period 1979-2010. The simulated results of HadGEM2-AO and WRF are presented in terms of 2 m-temperature and precipitation during boreal summer and winter of Historical for the period 1981~2005, compared with observation. As for the mean 2 m-temperature, the general patterns of HadGEM2-AO and WRF are similar with observation although WRF showed lower values than observation due to the systematic bias. WRF reproduced a feature of the terrain-following characteristics reasonably well owing to the increased horizontal resolution. Both of the models simulated the observed precipitation pattern for DJF than JJA reasonably, while the rainfall over the Korean Peninsula in JJA is less than observation. HadGEM2-AO in DJF 2 m-temperature and JJA precipitation has warm and dry biases over the Korean Peninsula, respectively. WRF showed cold bias over JJA 2 m-temperature and wet bias over DJF precipitation. The larger bias in WRF was attributed to the addition of HadGEM2-AO's bias to WRF's systematic bias. Spatial correlation analysis revealed that HadGEM2-AO and WRF had above 0.8 correlation coefficients except for JJA precipitation. In the EOF analysis, both models results explained basically same phase changes and variation as observation. Despite the difference in mean and bias fields for both models, the variabilities of the two models were almost similar with observation in many respects, implying that the downscaled results can be effectively used for the study of regional climate around the Korean Peninsula.
Standar Dization and Evaluation of PDSI Calculation Method for Korean Drought Management Agencies
Bae, Deg-Hyo ; Sohn, Kyung-Hwan ; Kim, Hyun-Kyung ; Lee, Joo-Heon ; Lee, Dong-Ryul ; Ahn, Jae-Hyun ; Kim, Tae-Woong ;
Atmosphere, volume 23, issue 4, 2013, Pages 539~547
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.4.539
The objective of this study is to standardize the calculation method of Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for the three Drought Management Agencies (DMA) in south Korea, and to evaluate the PDSI applicability. For comparison and review of the method, the code and input data of PDSI are collected from each DMA. The calculation method is the same, but the used input data (number of meteorological stations, normal year period, Available Water Capacity (AWC) of the soil) are different. Through discussions with drought experts and literature review, the standardized method is determined. 61 stations which have the data period more than 30 years are selected. Also the normal year is fixed for 30 years and updated every 10 years. The observed AWC is utilized using GIS data. Empirical equation of PDSI is re-estimated according to domestic climate characteristics. For evaluating the standardized PDSI, past drought events are investigated and drought indices including the existing SPI and PDSI are used for comparative analysis. As results, although the accuracy of standardized PDSI through ROC analysis is lower than SPI, the newly standardized PDSI is better than existing PDSI from DMA, Also it reasonably explain the spatial drought situation through the spatial analysis.