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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Meteorological Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
Predictability Study of Snowfall Case over South Korea Using TIGGE Data on 28 December 2012
Lee, Sang-Min ; Han, Sang-Un ; Won, Hye Young ; Ha, Jong-Chul ; Lee, Jeong-Soon ; Sim, Jae-Kwan ; Lee, Yong Hee ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 1, 2014, Pages 1~15
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.1.001
This study compared ensemble mean and probability forecasts of snow depth amount associated with winter storm over South Korea on 28 December 2012 at five operational forecast centers (CMA, ECMWF, NCEP, KMA, and UMKO). And cause of difference in predicted snow depth at each Ensemble Prediction System (EPS) was investigated by using THe Observing system Research and Predictability EXperiment (THORPEX) Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) data. This snowfall event occurred due to low pressure passing through South Sea of Korea. Amount of 6 hr accumulated snow depth was more than 10 cm over southern region of South Korea In this case study, ECMWF showed best prediction skill for the spatio-temporal distribution of snow depth. At first, ECMWF EPS has been consistently enhancing the indications present in ensemble mean snow depth forecasts from 7-day lead time. Secondly, its ensemble probabilities in excess of 2~5 cm/6 hour have been coincided with observation frequencies. And this snowfall case could be predicted from 5-day lead time by using 10-day lag ensemble mean 6 hr accumulated snow depth distribution. In addition, the cause of good performances at ECMWF EPS in predicted snow depth amounts was due to outstanding prediction ability of forming inversion layer with below
temperature in low level (below 850 hPa) according to
at 1-day lead time.
Blocking Effects of Buildings on Sunshine Duration at Seoul and Daegu ASOSs
Park, Soo-Jin ; Kim, Jae-Jin ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 1, 2014, Pages 17~27
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.1.017
In this study, the observational environment for sunshine duration at Seoul and Daegu Automated Synoptic Observing Systems (ASOSs) was analyzed using a numerical model. In order to analyze the effects of topography and buildings on observational environment for sunshine duration, the model domains including the elevated building and mountainous areas around Seoul and Daegu ASOSs were considered. Three dimensional topography and buildings used as input data for the numerical model were constructed using a geographic information system (GIS) data. Solar azimuth and altitude angles calculated for the analysis period (one-week for each season in 2008) in this study were validated against those by Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI). The starting and ending times of sunshine duration observed at ASOSs largely differed from the respective sunrise and sunset times simply calculated using solar angles and information of ASOSs' latitude and longitude, because uneven topography and elevated buildings around ASOSs cut off sunshine duration right after the sunrise and right before the sunset. The model produced the sunshine indices for Seoul and Daegu ASOSs with the time interval of one minute and the period of one week for each season and we compared the hourly averaged indices with those observed at the ASOSs. One week of which the cloudiness is lowest for each season is selected for analysis. Not only the adjacent buildings but also distant buildings and mountain cut off sunshine duration right after the sunrise and right before the sunset. The buildings and topography cutting off sunshine duration were found for each analyzing date. It was suggested that, in order to evaluate the observational environment for sunshine duration, we need to consider even the information of topography and/or building far away from ASOSs. This study also showed that the analyzing method considering the GIS data is very useful for evaluation of observational environment for sunshine duration.
A Characteristic of Wintertime Snowfall and Minimum Temperature with Respect to Arctic Oscillation in South Korea During 1979~2011
Roh, Joon-Woo ; Lee, Yong Hee ; Choi, Reno K.Y. ; Lee, Hee Choon ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 1, 2014, Pages 29~38
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.1.029
A characteristic of snowfall and minimum temperature variability in South Korea with respect to the variability of Arctic Oscillation (AO) was investigated. The climatic snowfall regions of South Korea based on daily new fresh snowfall data of 59 Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) stations data corresponding to the sign of AO index during December to February 1979~2011 were classified. Especially, the differences between snowfalls of eastern regions and that of western regions in South Korea were seen by each mean 1000hPa geopotential height fields, which is one of physical structure, for the selected cases over the East Asia including the Korean Peninsula. Daily minimum temperature variability of 59 KMA station data and daily AO index during the same period were investigated using Cyclo-stationary empirical orthogonal function (CSEOF) analysis. The first CSEOF of wintertime daily AO index and that of minimum temperature of 59 KMA stations explain 33% and 66% of total variability, respectively. Correlation between principal component time series corresponding to the first CSEOF of AO index and that of temperature at the period of 1990s is over about -0.7 when that of AO index leads about 40 days.
Comparison of Cloud Top Height Observed by a Ka-band Cloud Radar and COMS
Oh, Su-Bin ; Won, Hye Young ; Ha, Jong-Chul ; Chung, Kwan-Young ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 1, 2014, Pages 39~48
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.1.039
This study provides a comparative analysis of cloud top heights observed by a Ka-band cloud radar and the Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) at Boseong National Center for Intensive Observation of severe weather (NCIO) from May 25, 2013 (1600 UTC) to May 27. The rainfall duration is defined as the period of rainfall from start to finish, and the no rainfall duration is defined as the period other than the rainfall duration. As a result of the comparative analysis, the cloud top heights observed by the cloud radar have been estimated to be lower than that observed by the COMS for the rainfall duration due to the signal attenuation caused by raindrops. The stronger rainfall intensity gets, the more the difference grows. On the other hand, the cloud top heights observed by the cloud radar have been relatively similar to that observed by the COMS for the no rainfall duration. In this case, the cloud radar can effectively detect cloud top heights within the range of its observation. The COMS indicates the cloud top heights lower than the actual ones due to the upper thin clouds under the influence of ground surface temperature. As a result, the cloud radar can be useful in detecting cloud top heights when there are no precipitation events. The COMS data can be used to correct the cloud top heights when the radar gets beyond the valid range of observation or there are precipitation events.
WRF Numerical Study on the Convergent Cloud Band and Its Neighbouring Convective Clouds
Kim, Yu-Jin ; Lee, Jae Gyoo ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 1, 2014, Pages 49~68
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.1.049
This study analyzed atmospheric conditions for the convergent cloud band (Cu-Cb line) in developing stage and its neighbouring convections formed over the East Sea on 1 February 2012, by using synoptic, satellites data, and WRF numerical simulation output of high resolution. In both satellite images and the WRF numerical simulation outputs, the Cu-Cb line that stretched out toward northwest-southeast was shown in the East Sea, and cloud lines of the L mode were aligned in accordance with the prevailing surface wind direction. However, those of the T mode were aligned in the direction of NE-SW, which was nearly perpendicular direction to the surface winds. The directions of the wind shear vectors connecting top winds and bottom winds of the moist layers of the L mode and the T mode were identical with those of the cloud lines of L mode and T mode, respectively. From the WRF simulation convection circulations with a convergence in the lower layer of atmosphere and a divergence above 1.5 km ASL (Above Sea Level) were identified in the Cu-Cb line. A series of small sized vortexes (maximum vortex:
) of meso-
-scale formed by convergences was found along the Cu-Cb lines, suggesting that Cu-Cb lines, consisting of numerous convective clouds, were closely associated with a series of the small vortexes. There was an absolute unstable layer (
< 0) between sfc and ~0.3 km ASL, and a stable layer (
> 0) above ~2 km ASL over the Cu-Cb line and cloud zones. Not only convectively unstable layers (
< 0) but also neutral layers (
) in the lower atmosphere (sfc~1.5 km ASL) were scattered around over the cloud zones. Particularly, for the Cu-Cb line there were convectively unstable layers in the surface layer, and neutral layers (
) between 0.2 and ~1.5 km ASL over near the center of the Cu-Cb line, and the neutralization of unstable layers came from the release of convective instability.
The Changes of Meteorological Environment by Urban Development
Kim, Geun-Hoi ; Kim, Yeon-Hee ; Koo, Hae-Jung ; Kim, Kyu-Rang ; Jung, Hyun-Sook ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 1, 2014, Pages 69~76
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.1.069
Urbanization affects the local thermal environment due to the large scale land use changes. To investigate the weather environment change of large scale urban redevelopment, 9 surface temperature and humidity observations were accomplished at Eunpyeong new town area. The observation period is from March 2007 to February 2010. In the center of development area, the air temperature has increased and relative humidity has decreased, by the changes of the land cover and building construction. In the area where the green zone is maintained, air temperature and relative humidity were not changed significantly. The air temperature and relative humidity for the other development observation stations is decreased and increased, respectively. The relative temperature difference between study area and a neighboring rural location was increased during observation periods. The difference is the highest during winter. The urban-rural minimum temperature difference was increased at development area, which means that urbanization affects increasing of minimum temperature in study area.
Analysis of Quality Control Technique Characteristics on Single Polarization Radar Data
Park, Sora ; Kim, Heon-Ae ; Cha, Joo Wan ; Park, Jong-Seo ; Han, Hye-Young ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 1, 2014, Pages 77~87
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.1.077
The radar reflectivity is significantly affected by ground clutter, beam blockage, anomalous propagation (AP), birds, insects, chaff, etc. The quality of radar reflectivity is very important in quantitative precipitation estimation. Therefore, Weather Radar Center (WRC) of Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) employed two quality control algorithms: 1) Open Radar Product Generator (ORPG) and 2) fuzzy quality control algorithm to improve quality of radar reflectivity. In this study, an occurrence of AP echoes and the performance of both quality control algorithms are investigated. Consequently, AP echoes frequently occur during the spring and fall seasons. Moreover, while the ORPG QC algorithm has the merit of removing non-precipitation echoes, such as AP echoes, it also removes weak rain echoes and snow echoes. In contrast, the fuzzy QC algorithm has the advantage of preserving snow echoes and weak rain echoes, but it eliminates the partial area of the contaminated echo, including the AP echoes.
Relation between Climate Variability in Korea and Two Types of El Niño, and Their Sensitivity to Definition of Two Types of El Niño
Kim, Jin-Soo ; Kug, Jong-Seong ; Yeh, Sang-Wook ; Kim, Hyun-Kyung ; Park, E-Hyung ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 1, 2014, Pages 89~99
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.1.089
Recently, several studies pointed out that there are distinct two types of El Ni
o events based on the spatial pattern of SST. Since the two types of El Ni
o have different impacts on global climate, it is quite important to identify the type to assess and predict the regional climate variability. So far, however, there are still many different definitions to identify the two types of El Ni
o from the different studies. In this study, we investigated a sensitivity of the impacts on climate variability over the Korean Peninsula corresponding to the definition of two-types of El Ni
o. After checking pre-existing definitions and other possible definition, it is suggested here that two different definitions exhibit relatively strong relationship between El Ni
o events and the Korean climate variables when two types of El Ni
o are separated. In addition to the Korean climate, the two types of El Ni
o show quite distinct global teleconnection patterns when the definitions are used.
Estimation of Fine-Scale Daily Temperature with 30 m-Resolution Using PRISM
Ahn, Joong-Bae ; Hur, Jina ; Lim, A-Young ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 1, 2014, Pages 101~110
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.1.101
This study estimates and evaluates the daily January temperature from 2003 to 2012 with 30 m-resolution over South Korea, using a modified Parameter-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (K-PRISM). Several factors in K-PRISM are also adjusted to 30 m grid spacing and daily time scales. The performance of K-PRISM is validated in terms of bias, root mean square error (RMSE), and correlation coefficient (Corr), and is then compared with that of inverse distance weighting (IDW) and hypsometric methods (HYPS). In estimating the temperature over Jeju island, K-PRISM has the lowest bias (-0.85) and RMSE (1.22), and the highest Corr (0.79) among the three methods. It captures the daily variation of observation, but tends to underestimate due to a high-discrepancy in mean altitudes between the observation stations and grid points of the 30 m topography. The temperature over South Korea derived from K-PRISM represents a detailed spatial pattern of the observed temperature, but generally tends to underestimate with a mean bias of -0.45. In bias terms, the estimation ability of K-PRISM differs between grid points, implying that care should be taken when dealing with poor skill area. The study results demonstrate that K-PRISM can reasonably estimate 30 m-resolution temperature over South Korea, and reflect topographically diverse signals with detailed structure features.
Improvement of Cloud Physics Parameterization in the KMA Earth System Model
Lee, Hannah ; Yum, Seong Soo ; Shim, Sungbo ; Boo, Kyung-On ; Cho, ChunHo ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 1, 2014, Pages 111~122
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.1.111
In the Korea Meteorological Administration earth system model (HadGEM2-AO), cloud drop number concentration is determined from aerosol number concentration according to the observed relationship between aerosol and cloud drop number concentrations. However, the observational dataset used for establishing the relationship was obtained from limited regions of the earth and therefore may not be representative of the entire earth. Here we reestablished the relationship between aerosol and cloud drop number concentrations based on a composite of observational dataset obtained from many different regions around the world that includes the original dataset. The new relationship tends to provide lower cloud drop number concentration for aerosol number concentration < 600
and the opposite for > 600
. This new empirical relationship was applied to the KMA earth system model and the historical run (1861~2005) is made again. Here only the 30 year (1861~1890) averages from the runs with the new and the original relationships between aerosol and cloud drop number concentrations (newHIST and HIST, respectively) were compared. For this early period aerosol number concentrations were generally lower than 600
and therefore cloud drop number concentrations were generally lower but cloud drop effective radii were larger for newHIST than for HIST. The results from the complete historical run with the new relationship are expected to show more significant differences from the original historical run.
Development of the Atomated Prediction System for Seasonal Tropical Cyclone Activity over the Western North Pacific and its Evaluation for Early Predictability
Jin, Chun-Sil ; Ho, Chang-Hoi ; Park, Doo-Sun R. ; Choi, Woosuk ; Kim, Dasol ; Lee, Jong-Ho ; Chang, Ki-Ho ; Kang, Ki-Ryong ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 1, 2014, Pages 123~130
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.1.123
The automated prediction system for seasonal tropical cyclone (TC) activity is established at the National Typhoon Center of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) to provide effective operation and control of the system for user who lacks knowledge of the system. For automation of the system, two procedures which include subjective decisions by user are performed in advance, and their output data are provided as input data. To provide the capability to understand the operational processes for operational user, the input and output data are summarized with each process, and the directory structure is reconstructed following KMA's standard. We introduce a user interface using namelist input parameters to effectively control operational conditions which is fixed or should be manually set in the previous version of the prediction system. To operationally use early prediction which become available through the automation, its performances are evaluated according to initial condition dates. As a result, high correlations between the observed and predicted TC counts are kept for all track clusters even though advancing the initial condition date from May to January.