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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Meteorological Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
Analysis on Winter Atmosphereic Variability Related to Arctic Warming
Kim, Baek-Min ; Jung, Euihyun ; Lim, Gyu-Ho ; Kim, Hyun-Kyung ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 2, 2014, Pages 131~140
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.2.131
The "Barents Oscillation (BO)", first designated by Paul Skeie (2000), is an anomalous recurring atmospheric circulation pattern of high relevance for the climate of the Nordic Seas and Siberia, which is defined as the second Emperical Orthogonal Function (EOF) of monthly winter sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies, where the leading EOF is the Arctic Oscillation (AO). BO, however, did not attracted much interest. In recent two decades, variability of BO tends to increase. In this study, we analyzed the spatio-temporal structures of Atmospheric internal modes such as Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Barents Oscillation (BO) and examined how these are related with Arctic warming in recent decade. We identified various aspects of BO, not dealt in Skeie (2000), such as upper-level circulation and surface characteristics for extended period including recent decade and examined link with other surface variables such as sea-ice and sea surface temperature. From the results, it was shown that the BO showed more regionally confined spatial pattern compared to AO and has intensified during recent decade. The regional dipolelar structure centered at Barents sea and Siberia was revealed in both sea-level pressure and 500 hPa geopotential height. Also, BO showed a stronger link (correlation) with sea-ice and sea surface temperature especially over Barents-Kara seas suggesting it is playing an important role for recent Arctic amplification. BO also showed high correlation with Ural Blocking Index (UBI), which measures seasonal activity of Ural blocking. Since Ural blocking is known as a major component of Eurasian winter monsoon and can be linked to extreme weathers, we suggest deeper understanding of BO can provide a missing link between recent Arctic amplification and increase in extreme weathers in midlatitude in recent decades.
Characteristics of the Gross Moist Stability in the Tropics and Its Future Change
Kim, Hye-Won ; Seo, Kyong-Hwan ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 2, 2014, Pages 141~150
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.2.141
This study investigates the characteristics of the Gross Moist Stability (GMS) over the tropics. The GMS summarizes the relationship between large-scale entropy forcing due to radiation and surface fluxes and the response of smaller-scale convection. The GMS is able to explain both to where moist entropy is advected by the atmospheric circulation and how deep the moisture flux convergence is in the tropical region. In the deep convective region, positive GMS appears over the warm pool region due to the strong column-integrated moisture convergence and the ensuing export of moist entropy to the environment. The vertical advection of moist entropy dominates over the horizontal advection in this region. Meanwhile, over the eastern tropical ITCZ region, which is characterized by shallow convective area, import of moist entropy by horizontal winds is dominant compared to the vertical moist entropy advection. Future changes in the GMS are also examined using the 22 CMIP5 model simulations. A decrease in the GMS appears widely across the tropics, but its increase occurs over the western-central equatorial Pacific. It is evident that the increased GMS region corresponds to an increased region of precipitation, implying that strengthened convection in the future due to increased entropy forcing exports the enhanced moist energy to stabilize the environment.
A Method for the Discrimination of Precipitation Type Using Thickness and Improved Matsuo`s Scheme over South Korea
Lee, Sang-Min ; Han, Sang-Un ; Won, Hye Young ; Ha, Jong-Chul ; Lee, Yong Hee ; Lee, Jung-Hwan ; Park, Jong-Chun ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 2, 2014, Pages 151~158
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.2.151
This study investigated a method for the discrimination of precipitation type using thickness of geopotential height at 1000~850 hPa and improved Matsuo`s scheme over South Korea using 7 upper-level observations data during winter time from 2003 to 2008. With this research, it was suggested that thickness between snow and rain should range from 1281 to 1297 gpm at 1000~850 hPa. This threshold was suitable for determining precipitation type such as snow, sleet and rain and it was verified by investigation at 7 upper-level observation and 10 surface observation data for 3 years (2009~2011). In addition, precipitation types were separated properly by Matsuo`s scheme and its improved one, which is a fuction of surface air temperature and relative humidity, when they lie in mixed sectors. Precipitation types in the mixed sector were subdivided into 5 sectors (rain, rain and snow, snow and rain, snow, and snow cover). We also present the decision table for monitoring and predicting precipitation types using model output of Korea Local Analysis and Prediction System (KLAPS) and observation data.
Study on Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Summertime Precipitation over Korean Peninsula
In, So-Ra ; Han, Sang-Ok ; Im, Eun-Soon ; Kim, Ki-Hoon ; Shim, JaeKwan ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 2, 2014, Pages 159~171
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.2.159
This study investigated the temporal and spatial characteristics of summertime (June-August) precipitation over Korean peninsula, using Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA)is Automated Synoptic Observing System (ASOS) data for the period of 1973-2010 and Automatic Weather System (AWS) data for the period of 1998-2010.The authors looked through climatological features of the summertime precipitation, then examined the degree of locality of the precipitation, and probable precipitation amount and its return period of 100 years (i.e., an extreme precipitation event). The amount of monthly total precipitation showed increasing trends for all the summer months during the investigated 38-year period. In particular, the increasing trends were more significant for the months of July and August. The increasing trend of July was seen to be more attributable to the increase of precipitation intensity than that of frequency, while the increasing trend of August was seen to be played more importantly by the increase of the precipitation frequency. The e-folding distance, which is calculated using the correlation of the precipitation at the reference station with those at all other stations, revealed that it is August that has the highest locality of hourly precipitation, indicating higher potential of localized heavy rainfall in August compared to other summer months. More localized precipitation was observed over the western parts of the Korean peninsula where terrain is relatively smooth. Using the 38-years long series of maximum daily and hourly precipitation as input for FARD2006 (Frequency Analysis of Rainfall Data Program 2006), it was revealed that precipitation events with either 360 mm
or 80 mm
can occur with the return period of 100 years over the Korean Peninsula.
Study on the Application of 2D Video Disdrometer to Develope the Polarimetric Radar Data Simulator
Kim, Hae-Lim ; Park, Hye-Sook ; Park, Hyang Suk ; Park, Jong-Seo ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 2, 2014, Pages 173~188
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.2.173
The KMA has cooperated with the Oklahoma University in USA to develop a Polarimetric Radar Data (PRD) simulator to improve the microphysical processes in Korea Local Analysis and Prediction System (KLAPS), which is critical for the utilization of PRD into Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) field. The simulator is like a tool to convert NWP data into PRD, so it enables us to compare NWP data with PRD directly. The simulator can simulate polarimetric radar variables such as reflectivity (Z), differential reflectivity (
), specific differential phase (
), and cross-correlation coefficient (
) with input of the Drop Size Distribution (DSD) and scattering calculation of the hydrometeors. However, the simulator is being developed based on the foreign observation data, therefore the PRD simulator development reflecting rainfall characteristics of Korea is needed. This study analyzed a potential application of the 2-Dimension Video Disdrometer (2DVD) data by calculating the raindrop axis ratio according to the rain-types to reflect Korea`s rainfall characteristics into scattering module in the simulator. The 2DVD instrument measures the precipitation DSD including the fall velocity and the shape of individual raindrops. We calculated raindrop axis ratio for stratiform, convective and mixed rainfall cases after checking the accuracy of 2DVD data, which usually represent the scattering characteristics of precipitation. The raindrop axis ratio obtained from 2DVD data are compared with those from foreign database in the simulator. The calculated the dual-polarimetric radar variables from the simulator using the obtained raindrop axis ratio are also compared with in situ dual-polarimetric observation data at Bislsan (BSL). 2DVD observation data show high accuracies in the range of 0.7~4.8% compared with in situ rain gauge data which represents 2DVD data are sufficient for the use to simulator. There are small differences of axis ratio in the diameter below 1~2 mm and above 4~5 mm, which are more obvious for bigger raindrops especially for a strong convective rainfall case. These differences of raindrop axis ratio between domestic and foreign rainfall data base suggest that the potential use of disdrometer observation can develop of a PRD simulated suitable to the Korea precipitation system.
Analysis for Onset of Changma Using Ieodo Ocean Research Station Data
Oh, Hyoeun ; Ha, Kyung-Ja ; Shim, Jae-Seol ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 2, 2014, Pages 189~196
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.2.189
The definition of onset date of Changma is revisited in this study using a quality controlled Ieodo ocean research station data. The Ieodo station has great importance in terms of its southwest location from Korean Peninsula and, hence, makes it possible to predict Changma period in advance with less impact of continents. The onset date of Changma using the Ieodo station data is defined by the time that meridional wind direction changes and maintains from northerly to southerly, and then the zonal wind changes from easterly to westerly after first June. This definition comes from a recognition that the establishment and movement of the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) cause Changma through southwesterly flow. The onset data of Changma has been determined by large-scale dynamic-thermodynamic characteristics or various meteorological station data. However, even the definition based on circulation data at the Ieodo station has a potential for the improved prediction skill of the onset date of Changma. The differences between before and after Changma, defined as Ieodo station data, are also found in synoptic chart. The convective instability and conspicuous circulations, corresponding low-level southwesterly flow related to WNPSH and strong upper-level zonal wind, are represented during Changma.
Effects of Different Averaging Operators on the Urban Turbulent Fluxes
Kwon, Tae Heon ; Park, Moon-Soo ; Yi, Chaeyeon ; Choi, Young Jean ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 2, 2014, Pages 197~206
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.2.197
The effects of different averaging operators and atmospheric stability on the turbulent fluxes are investigated using the vertical velocity, air temperature, carbon dioxide concentration, and absolute humidity data measured at 10 Hz by a 3-dimensional sonic anemometer and an open-path
infrared gas analyzer installed at a height of 18.5 m on the rooftop of the Jungnang KT building located at a typical residential area in Seoul, Korea. For this purpose, 7 different averaging operators including block average, linear regression, and moving averages during 100 s, 300 s, 600 s, 900 s, and 1800 s are considered and the data quality control procedure such as physical limit check and spike removal is also applied. It is found that as the averaging interval becomes shorter, turbulent fluxes computed by the moving average become smaller and the ratios of turbulent fluxes computed by the 100 s moving average to the fluxes by the 1800 s moving average under unstable stability are smaller than those under neutral stability. The turbulent fluxes computed by the linear regression are 85~92% of those computed by the 1800 s moving average and nearly the same as those computed by 900 s moving average, implying that the adequate selection of an averaging operator and its interval will be very important to estimate more accurate turbulent fluxes at urban area.
Tropical Cyclone Track and Intensity Forecast Using Asymmetric 3-Dimensional Bogus Vortex
Lee, Jae-Deok ; Cheong, Hyeong-Bin ; Kang, Hyun-Gyu ; Kwon, In-Hyuk ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 2, 2014, Pages 207~223
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.2.207
The bogussing method was further developed by incorporating the asymmetric component into the symmetric bogus tropical cyclone of the Structure Adjustable Balanced Vortex (SABV). The asymmetric component is separated from the disturbance field associated with the tropical cyclone by establishing local polar coordinates whose center is the location of the tropical cyclone. The relative importance of wave components in azimuthal direction was evaluated, and only two or three wave components with large amplitude are added to the symmetric components. Using the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF), initialized with the asymmetric bogus vortex, the track and central pressure of tropical cyclones were predicted. Nine tropical cyclones, which passed over Korean peninsula during 2010~2012 were selected to assess the effect of asymmetric components. Compared to the symmetric bogus tropical cyclone, the track forecast error was reduced by about 18.9% and 17.4% for 48 hours and 72 hours forecast, while the central pressure error was not improved significantly. The results suggest that the inclusion of asymmetric component is necessary to improve the track forecast of tropical cyclones.
Characteristics of Heat wave Mortality in Korea
Kim, Do-Woo ; Chung, Jea-Hak ; Lee, Jong-Seol ; Lee, Ji-Sun ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 2, 2014, Pages 225~234
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.2.225
Analysis of the cause of death (Statistics Korea) showed that heat wave caused 442 deaths (21 per a year) from 1991 to 2011 in Korea. The number of summer heat-related deaths (heat disorders) increased exponentially as heat wave prolonged. In 1994 when the extreme heat wave prevailed, there were 92 heat-related deaths. Seasonally, heat-related deaths occurred most frequently in early August when air temperature is highest for a year, but it is frequent as well in late July when air temperature increases rapidly after withdrawal of Changma. The frequency of deaths by age has begun to increase from 40s and more than half of total deaths were occurred in the elderly (
). Except retired elderly, the most vulnerable group (job and age) was the elderly agricultural workers and the next was the jobless people in 40 s~50 s, assumed as homeless people. The most vulnerable regions were Hapcheon-gun, Uiryong-gun, and Sanchen-gun, which are inland rural area in Gyeongsang-do where the heat wave occurs most frequently in Korea. The heat-related death rate increased rapidly when air temperature exceeded
in both of the urban and rural area. Interestingly, the heat-related death were observed in the relatively lower temperature in the cities (
), as compare to the rural area (
Development of the Seasonal Korean Aviation Turbulence Guidance (KTG) System Using the Regional Unified Model of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA)
Lee, Dan-Bi ; Chun, Hye-Yeong ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 2, 2014, Pages 235~243
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.2.235
Sources of aviation turbulence vary through the seasons, especially in the East Asia including Korean peninsula, associated primarily with the changes in the jet/front system and convective activities. For this reason, a seasonal Korean aviation Turbulence Guidance (KTG) system (seasonal-KTG) is developed in the present study by using pilot reports (PIREPs) and analysis data of the operational Unified Model (UM) of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) for two years between June 2011 and May 2013. Twenty best diagnostics of aviation turbulence in each season are selected by the method of probability of detection (POD) using the PIREPs and UM data. After calculating a weighting value of each selected diagnostics using their area under curve (AUC), the 20 best diagnostics are combined with the weighting scores into a single ensemble-averaged index by season. Compared with the current operational-KTG system that is based on the diagnostics applying all seasons, the performances of the seasonal-KTG system are better in all seasons, except in fall.
Statistical Back Trajectory Analysis for Estimation of CO
Emission Source Regions
Li, Shanlan ; Park, Sunyoung ; Park, Mi-Kyung ; Jo, Chun Ok ; Kim, Jae-Yeon ; Kim, Ji-Yoon ; Kim, Kyung-Ryul ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 2, 2014, Pages 245~251
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.2.245
Statistical trajectory analysis has been widely used to identify potential source regions for chemically and radiatively important chemical species in the atmosphere. The most widely used method is a statistical source-receptor model developed by Stohl (1996), of which the underlying principle is that elevated concentrations at an observation site are proportionally related to both the average concentrations on a specific grid cell where the observed air mass has been passing over and the residence time staying over that grid cell. Thus, the method can compute a residence-time-weighted mean concentration for each grid cell by superimposing the back trajectory domain on the grid matrix. The concentration on a grid cell could be used as a proxy for potential source strength of corresponding species. This technical note describes the statistical trajectory approach and introduces its application to estimate potential source regions of
enhancements observed at Korean Global Atmosphere Watch Observatory in Anmyeon-do. Back trajectories are calculated using HYSPLIT 4 model based on wind fields provided by NCEP GDAS. The identified
potential source regions responsible for the pollution events observed at Anmyeon-do in 2010 were mainly Beijing area and the Northern China where Haerbin, Shenyang and Changchun mega cities are located. This is consistent with bottom-up emission information. In spite of inherent uncertainties of this method in estimating sharp spatial gradients within the vicinity of the emission hot spots, this study suggests that the statistical trajectory analysis can be a useful tool for identifying anthropogenic potential source regions for major GHGs.
A Case Study of the Meteorological Industry for the Media in the USA for Promotion of Private Sector Meteorological Industry in the Republic of Korea : Based on The Weather Channel Case
Song, Byunghyun ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 2, 2014, Pages 253~263
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.2.253
The Korea Meteorological Administration has recently focused on the promotion of the meteorological industry in the private sector. Broadcast meteorology has provided the main source of income to the Meteorological industry in the United States with The Weather Channel (TWC) being the most prominent enterprise. TWC has 31 years of history and has become an icon of innovation in the U.S. meteorological industry. TWC`s success story was reviewed for the possible adaptation of Korea`s meteorological media industry. Expected roles for public, academic, and private sectors were suggested for boosting industrial meteorology for the media at present and in the future.
Competing for the Responsibility of the Operational Meteorological Satellite Program: After the Launch of TIROS in 1960
Ahn, Myoung-Hwan ;
Atmosphere, volume 24, issue 2, 2014, Pages 265~281
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2014.24.2.265
Currently, Korea is developing a Cheollian follow-on satellite program, named as Geostationary Korea Multipurpose Satellite 2 (GK-2), which consists of two satellites. One satellite (GK-2A) is dedicated to the meterological mission, while the second one (GK-2B) hosts two main payloads for the ocean and environmental application. As GK-2A is dedicated to the meteorological mission unlike Cheollian, there have been discussions on the possibility of transferring the responsibilities of the GK-2A program to the Korea Meteorological Administration. To help resolve any consumptive disputes or to find an efficient way for the GK-2A program, the events happened after the successful launch of the first meteorological satellite TIROS-1 in the U.S. in April 1960 are investigated. With the successful demonstration of usefulness of TIROS-1 for the meteorological applications, organizations such as the Weather Bureau and the Department of Defense, responsible for the real time application of the TIROS 1 data, strongly requested for an operational meteorological satellite program which resulted in the plan for the National Operational Meteorological Satellite System (NOMSS). The plan was strongly supported by Kennedy Adminstration and was put forwarded for the new program under the responsibility of Weather Bureau to the Congress. However, the responsible Committee on Science and Aeronautics sided with NASA and requested major revision of the responsibility. Due to many unfavorable conditions, Weather Bureau accepted the requests and signed with NASA on the agreement for the operational meteorological satellite. However, with the delay of Nimbus satellite which is planned to be used for the prototype of the operational satellite and changes of the unfavorable situations, the Weather Bureau could draw a second agreement with NASA. The new agreement reflected most propositions requested by the Weather Bureau for the NOMSS plan. Until now the second agreement is regarded as the basic principles for the operational meteorological satellite program in the U.S. This study investigates the backgrounds and processes of the second agreement and its implications for the GK-2 program.