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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Meteorological Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
Satellite Image Analysis of Low-Level Stratiform Cloud Related with the Heavy Snowfall Events in the Yeongdong Region
Kwon, Tae-Yong ; Park, Jun-Young ; Choi, Byoung-Cheol ; Han, Sang-Ok ;
Atmosphere, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 577~589
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2015.25.4.577
An unusual long-period and heavy snowfall occurred in the Yeongdong region from 6 to 14 February 2014. This event produced snowfall total of 194.8 cm and the recordbreaking 9-day snowfall duration in the 103-year local record at Gangneung. In this study, satellite-derived cloud-top brightness temperatures from the infrared channel in the atmospheric window (
) are examined to find out the characteristics of clouds related with this heavy snowfall event. The analysis results reveal that a majority of precipitation is related with the low-level stratiform clouds whose cloud-top brightness temperatures are distributed from -15 to
and their standard deviations over the analysis domain (
, 37 satellite pixels) are less than
. It is also found that in the above temperature range precipitation intensity tends to increase with colder temperature. When the temperatures are warmer than
, there is no precipitation or light precipitation. Furthermore this relation is confirmed from the examination of some other heavy snowfall events and light precipitation events which are related with the low-level stratiform clouds. This precipitation-brightness temperature relation may be explained by the combined effect of ice crystal growth processes: the maximum in dendritic ice-crystal growth occurs at about
and the activation of ice nuclei begins below temperatures from approximately -7 to
, depending on the composition of the ice nuclei.
Characteristics of Wind Direction Shear and Momentum Fluxes within Roughness Sublayer over Sloping Terrain
Lee, Young-Hee ;
Atmosphere, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 591~600
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2015.25.4.591
We have analyzed wind and eddy covariance data collected within roughness sublayer over sloping terrain. The study site is located on non-flat terrain with slopes in both south-north and east-west directions. The surface elevation change is smaller than the height of roughness element such as building and tree. This study examines the directional wind shear for data collected at three levels in the lowest 10 m in the roughness sublayer. The wind direction shear is caused by drag of roughness element and terrain-induced motions at this site. Small directional shear occurs when wind speed at 10 m is strong and wind direction at 10 m is southerly which is the same direction as upslope flow near surface at this site during daytime. Correlation between vertical shear of lateral momentum and lateral momentum flux is smaller over steeply sloped surface compared to mildly sloped surface and lateral momentum flux is not down-gradient over steeply sloped surface. Quadrant analysis shows that the relative contribution of four quadrants to momentum flux depends on both surface slope and wind direction shear.
Infrared Emissivity of Major Minerals Measured by FT-IR
Lee, Yu-Jeong ; Park, Joong-Hyun ; Lee, Kwang-Mog ;
Atmosphere, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 601~610
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2015.25.4.601
This study measured the emissivity spectra of 5 major rock-forming minerals using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer in the spectral region of
. The mineral samples are quartz, albite, bytownite, anorthite, and sandstone. We compared emissivity spectra measured in this study with spectra provided by Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Arizona State University (ASU). The spectral features of emissivity such as Reststrahlen Band (RB) and Christiansen Feature (CF) locations were compared. Results showed that both CF and RB locations of emissivity spectra measured in this study were similar to those from ASTER and ASU. In the case of quartz, the RB was occurred in the region of
. The spectral position of emissivity peak was in good agreement with the location of ASTER and ASU. For plagioclase (albite, bytownite, and anorthite), the spectral location of CF was shifted toward larger wavenumber and the emissivity value was increased in the region of
with Ca percentage. The CF of anorthite and bytownite was occurred at
, and that of albite was occurred at
. We also confirmed that emissivity feature of sandstone includes both emissivity features of quartz and calcite. However, there were some differences in the magnitude of emissivity and locations of RB and CF. These were due to the differences in measurement methods, and differences in particle size and temperature of samples.
Classification of Atmospheric Vertical Environment Associated with Heavy Rainfall using Long-Term Radiosonde Observational Data, 1997~2013
Jung, Sueng-Pil ; In, So-Ra ; Kim, Hyun-Wook ; Sim, JaeKwan ; Han, Sang-Ok ; Choi, Byoung-Choel ;
Atmosphere, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 611~622
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2015.25.4.611
Heavy rainfall (
) over the Korean Peninsula is examined in order to understand thermo-dynamic characteristics of the atmosphere, using radiosonde observational data from seven upper-air observation stations during the last 17 years (1997~2013). A total of 82 heavy rainfall cases during the summer season (June-August) were selected for this study. The average values of thermo-dynamic indices of heavy rainfall events are Total Precipitable Water (TPW) = 60 mm, Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) =
, Convective Inhibition (CIN) =
, Storm Relative Helicity (SRH) =
, and 0~3 km bulk wind shear =
. About 34% of the cases were associated with a Changma front; this pattern is more significant than other synoptic pressure patterns such as troughs (22%), migratory cyclones (15%), edges of high-pressure (12%), typhoons (11%), and low-pressure originating from Changma fronts (6%). The spatial distribution of thermo-dynamic conditions (CAPE and SRH) is similar to the range of thunderstorms over the United States, but extreme conditions (supercell thunderstorms and tornadoes) did not appear in the Korean Peninsula. Synoptic conditions, vertical buoyancy (CAPE, CIN), and wind parameters (SRH, shear) are shown to discriminate among the environments of the three types. The first type occurred with high CAPE and low wind shear by the edge of the high pressure pattern, but Second type is related to Changma front and typhoon, exhibiting low CAPE and high wind shear. The last type exhibited characteristics intermediate between the first and second types, such as moderate CAPE and wind shear near the migratory cyclone and trough.
A Study on the Effect of Ground-based GPS Data Assimilation into Very-short-range Prediction Model
Kim, Eun-Hee ; Ahn, Kwang-Deuk ; Lee, Hee-Choon ; Ha, Jong-Chul ; Lim, Eunha ;
Atmosphere, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 623~637
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2015.25.4.623
The accurate analysis of water vapor in initial of numerical weather prediction (NWP) model is required as one of the necessary conditions for the improvement of heavy rainfall prediction and reduction of spin-up time on a very-short-range forecast. To study this effect, the impact of a ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS)-Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) on very-short-range forecast are examined. Data assimilation experiments of GPS-PWV data from 19 sites over the Korean Peninsula were conducted with Advanced Storm-scale Analysis and Prediction System (ASAPS) based on the Korea Meteorological Administration's Korea Local Analysis and Prediction System (KLAPS) included "Hot Start" as very-short-range forecast system. The GPS total water vapor was used as constraint for integrated water vapor in a variational humidity analysis in KLAPS. Two simulations of heavy rainfall events show that the precipitation forecast have improved in terms of ETS score compared to the simulation without GPS-PWV data. In the first case, the ETS for 0.5 mm of rainfall accumulated during 3 hrs over the Seoul-Gyeonggi area shows an improvement of 0.059 for initial forecast time. In other cases, the ETS improved 0.082 for late forecast time. According to a qualitative analysis, the assimilation of GPS-PWV improved on the intensity of precipitation in the strong rain band, and reduced overestimated small amounts of precipitation on the out of rain band. In the case of heavy rainfall during the rainy season in Gyeonggi province, 8 mm accompanied by the typhoon in the case was shown to increase to 15 mm of precipitation in the southern metropolitan area. The GPS-PWV assimilation was extremely beneficial to improving the initial moisture analysis and heavy rainfall forecast within 3 hrs. The GPS-PWV data on variational data assimilation have provided more useful information to improve the predictability of precipitation for very short range forecasts.
Simulation of Air Quality Over South Korea Using the WRF-Chem Model: Impacts of Chemical Initial and Lateral Boundary Conditions
Lee, Jae-Hyeong ; Chang, Lim-Seok ; Lee, Sang-Hyun ;
Atmosphere, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 639~657
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2015.25.4.639
There is an increasing need to improve the air quality over South Korea to protect public health from local and remote anthropogenic pollutant emissions that are in an increasing trend. Here, we evaluate the performance of the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry) model in simulating near-surface air quality of major Korean cities, and investigate the impacts of time-varying chemical initial and lateral boundary conditions (IC/BCs) on the air quality simulation using a chemical downscaling technique. The model domain was configured over the East Asian region and anthropogenic MICS-Asia 2010 emissions and biogenic MEGAN-2 emissions were applied with RACM gaseous chemistry and MADE/SORGAM aerosol mechanism. Two simulations were conducted for a 30-days period on April 2010 with chemical IC/BCs from the WRF-Chem default chemical species profiles ('WRF experiment') and the MOZART-4 (Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers version 4) ('WRF_MOZART experiment'), respectively. The WRF_MOZART experiment has showed a better performance to predict near-surface CO,
mixing ratios at 7 major Korean cities than the WRF experiment, showing lower mean bias error (MBE) and higher index of agreement (IOA). The quantitative impacts of the chemical IC/BCs have depended on atmospheric residence time of the pollutants as well as the relative difference of chemical mixing ratios between the WRF and WRF_MOZART experiments at the lateral boundaries. Specifically, the WRF_MOZART experiment has reduced MBE in CO and O3 mixing ratios by 60~80 ppb and 5~10 ppb over South Korea than those in the WRF-Chem default simulation, while it has a marginal impact on
mixing ratios. Without using MOZART-4 chemical IC, the WRF simulation has required approximately 6-days chemical spin-up time for the East Asian model domain. Overall, the results indicate that realistic chemical IC/BCs are prerequisite in the WRF-Chem simulation to improve a forecast skill of local air quality over South Korea, even in case the model domain is sufficiently large to represent anthropogenic emissions from China, Japan, and South Korea.
A Study on Sensitivity of Pollutant Dispersion to Inflow Wind Speed and Turbulent Schmidt Number in a Street Canyon
Wang, Jang-Woon ; Kim, Jae-Jin ;
Atmosphere, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 659~667
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2015.25.4.659
In this study, sensitivity of inflow wind speed and turbulent Schmidt number to pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon is investigated, by comparing CFD-simulated results to wind-tunnel results. For this, we changed systematically inflow wind speed at the street-canyon height (
with the increment of
) and turbulent Schmidt number (0.2~1.3 with interval of 0.1). Also, we performed numerical experiments under the conditions that turbulent Schmidt numbers selected with the magnitude of mean kinetic energy at each grid point were assigned in the street canyon. With the increase of the inflow wind speed, the model underestimated (overestimated) pollutant concentration in the upwind (downwind) side of the street canyon because of the increase of pollutant advection. This implies that, for more realistic reproduction of pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons, large (small) turbulent Schmidt number should be assigned for week (strong) inflow condition. In the cases of selectively assigned turbulent Schmidt number, mean bias remarkably decreased (maximum 60%) compared to the cases of constant turbulent Schmidt number assigned. At week (strong) inflow wind speed, root mean square error decreases as the area where turbulent Schmidt number is selectively assigned becomes large (small).
Inter-comparison of Prediction Skills of Multiple Linear Regression Methods Using Monthly Temperature Simulated by Multi-Regional Climate Models
Seong, Min-Gyu ; Kim, Chansoo ; Suh, Myoung-Seok ;
Atmosphere, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 669~683
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2015.25.4.669
In this study, we investigated the prediction skills of four multiple linear regression methods for monthly air temperature over South Korea. We used simulation results from four regional climate models (RegCM4, SNURCM, WRF, and YSURSM) driven by two boundary conditions (NCEP/DOE Reanalysis 2 and ERA-Interim). We selected 15 years (1989~2003) as the training period and the last 5 years (2004~2008) as validation period. The four regression methods used in this study are as follows: 1) Homogeneous Multiple linear Regression (HMR), 2) Homogeneous Multiple linear Regression constraining the regression coefficients to be nonnegative (HMR+), 3) non-homogeneous multiple linear regression (EMOS; Ensemble Model Output Statistics), 4) EMOS with positive coefficients (EMOS+). It is same method as the third method except for constraining the coefficients to be nonnegative. The four regression methods showed similar prediction skills for the monthly air temperature over South Korea. However, the prediction skills of regression methods which don't constrain regression coefficients to be nonnegative are clearly impacted by the existence of outliers. Among the four multiple linear regression methods, HMR+ and EMOS+ methods showed the best skill during the validation period. HMR+ and EMOS+ methods showed a very similar performance in terms of the MAE and RMSE. Therefore, we recommend the HMR+ as the best method because of ease of development and applications.
Effects of Trees on Flow and Scalar Dispersion in an Urban Street Canyon
Kang, Geon ; Kim, Jae-Jin ;
Atmosphere, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 685~692
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2015.25.4.685
In this study, the effects of trees on flow and scalar dispersion in an urban street canyon were investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. For this, we implemented the drag terms of trees to the CFD model, and compared the CFD-simulated results to the wind-tunnel results. For comparison, we considered the same building configuration as the wind-tunnel experiment. The trees were located at the center of street canyon with the aspect ratio (defined as the ratio of the street width to the building height) of 1. First, the flow characteristics were analyzed in the tree-free and high-density tree cases and the results showed that the CFD model reproduced well the flow pattern of the wind-tunnel experiment and reflected the drag effect of trees in the street canyon. Then, the dispersion characteristics of scalar pollutants were investigated for the tree-free, low-density tree and medium-density tree cases. In the tree-free case, the nondimensionalized concentration distribution simulated by the CFD model was quite similar to that in the wind-tunnel experiment in magnitude and pattern. The correlation coefficients between the measured and simulated concentrations are more than 0.9 in all the cases. As the tree density increased, nondimensionalized concentration increased (decreased) near the wall of the upwind (downwind) building, which resulted from the decrease in wind speed case by the drag effect of trees. However, the CFD model underestimated (overestimated) the concentration near the wall of upwind (downwind) building.
Projection on First Flowering Date of Cherry, Peach and Pear in 21st Century Simulated by WRFv3.4 Based on RCP 4.5 and 8.5 Scenarios
Hur, Jina ; Ahn, Joong-Bae ; Shim, Kyo-Moon ;
Atmosphere, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 693~706
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2015.25.4.693
A shift of first fowering date (FFD) of spring blossoms (cherry, peach and pear) over the northest Asia under global warming is investiaged using dynamically downscaled daily temperature data with 12.5 km resolution. For the study, we obatained gridded daily data with Historical (1981~2010), and Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) (2021~2100) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios which were produced by WRFv3.4 in conjunction with HadGEM2-AO. A change on FFDs in 21st century is estimated by applying daily outputs of WRFv3.4 to DTS phonological model. Prior to projection on future climate, the performances of both WRFv3.4 and DTS models are evaluated using spatial distribution of climatology and SCR diagram (Normalized standard deviation-Pattern correlation coefficient-Root mean square difference). According to the result, WRFv3.4 and DTS models well simulated a feature of the terrain following characteristics and a general pattern of observation with a marigin of
and 5~6 days. The analysis reveals a projected advance in FFDs of cherry, peach and pear over the northeast Asia by 2100 of 15.4 days (9.4 days). 16.9 days (10.4 days) and 15.2 days (9.5 days), respectively, compared to the Historical simulation due to a increasing early spring (Februrary to April) temperature of about
) under the RCP 8.5 (RCP 4.5) scenarios. This indicates that the current flowering of the cherry, peach and pear over analysis area in middle or end of April is expected to start blooming in early or middle of April, at the end of this century. The present study shows the dynamically downscaled daily data with high-resolution is helpeful in offering various useful information to end-users as well as in understanding regional climate change.
Observation and Analysis of Turbulent Fluxes Observed at Ieodo Ocean Research Station in Autumn 2014
Yun, Junghee ; Oh, Hyoeun ; Ha, Kyung-Ja ;
Atmosphere, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 707~718
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2015.25.4.707
This study investigates the characteristics of turbulent fluxes observed at Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS) in autumn 2014. The 10 Hz IORS data is quality controlled and calculated to be the 30 minutes turbulent fluxes. The quality control consists of five steps: a weather check, Vickers and Mahrt (VM) sequential check, VM parallel check, flag check, and direction check. Since the IORS is an open-sea station with no orographic influence, there are no significant diurnal variations for the turbulent fluxes and 10 m wind speed. According to stabilities, the unstable and semi-unstable states appear more than 28% and 70% in autumn, respectively and they have strong winds of over
. In addition, the turbulent fluxes increase with increasing wind speed. In particular, the latent heat flux and its deviations are clearly shown because the latent heat flux is influenced by the change of both the sea surface roughness and wave height induced by the wind. To demonstrate the changes of the turbulent fluxes before and after typhoon, Vongpong (1419), which is the most intense typhoon affecting the Korean Peninsula in 2014, is considered. The turbulent flux fluctuates in accordance with the location of Vongpong. The turbulent fluxes have a large (small) variation when Vongpong approaches (retreats) at the IORS. The overall results represent that the IORS data helps us understand physical processes related to air-sea interaction by providing the valuable and reliable observed data.
A Historical Review on the Introduction of Chugugi and the Rainfall Observation Network during the Joseon Dynasty
Cho, Ha-man ; Kim, Sang-Won ; Chun, Young-sin ; Park, Hye-Yeong ; Kang, Woo-Jeong ;
Atmosphere, volume 25, issue 4, 2015, Pages 719~734
DOI : 10.14191/Atmos.2015.25.4.719
Korea is one of the country with the world's oldest meteorological observation records. Starting with first meteorological record of fog in Goguryeo in the year of 34 BC, Korea had left a great deal of quantitative observation records, from the Three Kingdoms Period to Goryeo to Joseon. During the Joseon Dynasty, with a great attention by kings, efforts were particularly made to measure rainfall in a systematic and scientific manner. In the 23rd year of King Sejong (1441), the world's first rain gauge called "Chugugi" was invented; in the following year (1442), a nationwide rainfall observation network was established. The King Sejong distributed Chugugi to 350 observation stations throughout the state, even to small towns and villages, for measuring and recording rainfall. The rainfall observation using Chugugi, initiated by King Sejong, had been in place for about 150 years, but halted during national disturbances such as Japanese invasion of Korea in 1592. Since then, the observation had been forgotten for a long time until the rainfall observation by Chugugi was resumed in the 48th year of King Yeongjo (1770). King Yeongjo adopted most of the existing observation system established by King Sejong, including the size of Chugugi and observation rules. He, however, significantly reduced the number of Chugugi observation stations to 14, and commanded the 352 local authorities such as Bu, Gun, Hyeon to conduct "Wootaek", a method of measuring how far the moisture had absorbed into the soil when it rains. Later on, six more Chugugi stations were established. If the number of stations of Chugugi and Wootaek are combined together, the total number of rainfall observation station in the late period of Joseon Dynasty was 372. The rainfall observation with Chugugi during the Joseon Dynasty is of significance and excellence in three aspects: 1) the standard size of Chugugi was so scientifically designed that it is as great as today's modern rain gauge; 2) rainfall was precisely measured, even with unit of Bun (2 mm); and 3) the observation network was distributed on a nationwide basis.