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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 41, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 41, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 41, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 41, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 41, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 41, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
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A Simple Purification Method and Chemical Properties of Potphyran from Porphyra yezoensis
Park, Jin-Hee ; Koo, Jae-Geun ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2008, Pages 409~413
DOI : 10.5657/kfas.2008.41.6.409
A simple method for the purification of porphyran from laver Porphyra yezoensis was developed to obtain information for the development of food materials with biological functionality. Crude porphyran (CP) was extracted from dried laver in boiling water for 3 h, and then fractionated using cetylpyridinium chloride into an acidic fraction (CP-F1) and a neutral fraction (CP-F2). CP-F1 was fractionated further by fractional ethanol precipitation. Fraction CP-F1-70, precipitated at an ethanol concentration of 61-70% was the major fraction containing 68.1% of the yield from the initial fraction CP-F1. The CP-F1-70 fraction displayed a single band on Sepharose CL-4B with a molecular mass of 550 kDa, indicating a homogeneous polysaccharide. The molar ratio of galactose, 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose, 6-0-methyl-D-galactose and ester sulfate of CP-F1-70 was 1:0.32:0.07:0.53. This method is very useful for rapid and large-scale preparation of purified porphyran because it is compatible with mass production.
Aroma-Active Compounds in Omandungi (Styela plicata)-Doenjang (Soybean Paste) Stew
Jeong, Eun-Jeong ; Cho, Woo-Jin ; Cha, Yong-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2008, Pages 414~418
DOI : 10.5657/kfas.2008.41.6.414
Volatile compounds in Omangdungi (Styela plicata)-Doenjang (soybean paste) stew were analyzed using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation/gas chromatography/mass-selective detection/olfactometry (SAFE/GC/MSD/O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). The GC/O analysis detected 37 volatile compounds, of which 32 were positively identified, and included 9 aldehydes, 5 alcohols, 4 aromatic hydrocarbons, 4 ketones, 3 esters, 3 N-containing compounds, 2 acids, 1 S-containing compound, and 1 furan. Nine aroma-active odorants (
) in the sample included six compounds derived from Doenjang (3-methyl(thio)propanal, tetramethylpyrazine, 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2-acetylpyrrole, butyric acid, and 2-methoxyphenol) and three compounds from Omangdungi (2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, 9-decanol, and 6-decenol). Three compounds derived from Omangdungi (9-decanol, 6-decenol, and 6-nonenol) were thought to enhance the seafood-like flavor of Omangdungi-Doenjang stew.
Physicochemical Characteristics of Gelatin from Abdominal Skin of Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares)
Yoo, Sung-Jae ; Cho, Seung-Mock ; Woo, Jin-Wook ; Kim, Sang-Ho ; Byun, Sang-Hun ; Kim, Tae-Wan ; Kim, Seon-Bong ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2008, Pages 419~426
DOI : 10.5657/kfas.2008.41.6.419
Physicochemical characteristics of gelatin extracted from abdominal skin of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), were investigated by comparing its proximate composition, pH, amino acid composition, viscoelastic properties, gel strength and SDS-PAGE patterns, with those of bovine and porcine gelatins. The effects of gelatin concentration, maturation time, heat and freeze treatments on the gel strength of yellowfin tuna abdominal skin gelatin were studied. Amounts of $\alpha$-chains, $\beta$- and $\gamma$-components of yellowfin tuna abdominal skin gelatin were higher than those of the two mammailan gelatins. Yellowfin tuna abdominal skin gelatin had the lowest imino acids (proline and hydroxyproline) content, which was consistent with that of other fishes. However, yellowfin tuna abdominal skin gelatin was highest in glycine, alanine, and lysine. The gel strengths of all gelatins were proportional to the concentration of gelatin, but yellowfin tuna abdominal skin gelatin exhibited the greatest gel strength at each concentration. Yellowfin tuna abdominal skin gelatin required a longer maturation time than the two mammalian gelatins to form a firm gel. Higher heating temperature decreased the gel strength of yellow fin tuna abdominal skin gelatin more than in the two mammalian gelatins. Freezing decreased the gel strength of bovine gelatin only slightly, but longer freezing times resulted in greater reductions in gel strength in the yellowfin tuna abdominal skin and porcine gelatins.
Processing and Physicochemical Properties of Collagen from Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares) Abdominal Skin
Yoo, Sung-Jae ; Cho, Sueng-Mock ; Woo, Jin-Wook ; Kim, Sang-Ho ; Han, Yoo-Na ; Ahn, Ju-Ryun ; Kim, Su-Yeon ; Kim, Tae-Wan ; Kim, Seon-Bong ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2008, Pages 427~434
DOI : 10.5657/kfas.2008.41.6.427
Processing of collagen from yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) abdominal skins was optimized by response surface methodology and central composite design. The values of independent variables at optimal conditions were NaOH concentration: 0.5 N, NaOH treatment time: 36.2 hr, pepsin concentration: 1:4.9 ratio (0.245%, w/v), and digestion time: 48.1 hr, respectively. The collagen content estimated under optimal conditions was 33.1%, and the actual experimental collagen content was 32.3%. Physicochemical properties of collagen from yellowfin tuna abdominal skin were investigated by amino acids analysis, SDS-PAGE, FT-IR, viscosity and denaturation temperature. Amino acids content of the collagen was 21.0%. SDS-PAGE pattern of the collagen showed two different
-component. The spectrum of FT-IR of the collagen showed wavenumber at 3,434, 1,650, 1,542 and
representing the regions of amide A, I, II and III, respectively. Relative viscosity of the collagen decreased continuously on heating up to
, and the rate of decrease was retarded in the temperature range of
. Denaturation temperature (Td) of the collagen solution (0.06%, w/v) was
and was lower than calf skin collagen (
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium from Fish Farms in the Southern Coast of Korea
Oh, Eun-Gyoung ; Son, Kwang-Tae ; Yu, Hong-Sik ; Kim, Ji-Hoe ; Lee, Tae-Seek ; Lee, Hee-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2008, Pages 435~439
DOI : 10.5657/kfas.2008.41.6.435
The antimicrobial resistance of 160 strains of Enterococcus faecalis and 173 strains of E. faecium to 12 antimicrobial agents was investigated. The test strains were isolated from 126 wild seawater and farmed fish, including olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), black rock fish (Sebastes schlegeli), red sea bream (Pagrus major), and sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus), in 2005 and 2006. Overall, 91.9% of the E. faecalis isolates and 88.4% of the E. faecium isolates showed antimicrobial resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent. The pattern of antimicrobial resistance of the isolates differed little according to the species of fish. The percentage of E. faecalis and E. faecium with specific antimicrobial resistance differed according to the sample source. For the isolates from farmed fish samples, 66.7% of E. faecalis were tetracycline resistant and 54.5% of E. faecium were erythromycin resistant. By contrast, in the wild fish seawater samples, 92.0% of E. faecalis were rifampin resistant and 88.5% of E. faecium were tetracycline resistant.
Withdrawal Times of Ciprofloxacin in Oliver Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) after Oral Administration
Kim, Poong-Ho ; Lee, Hee-Jung ; Jo, Mi-Ra ; Kim, Ji-Hoe ; Son, Kwang-Tae ; Lee, Tae-Seek ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2008, Pages 440~445
DOI : 10.5657/kfas.2008.41.6.440
Ciprofloxacin is the most commonly used fluoroquinolones for treating bacterial disease in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) farming, but its withdrawal time for industrial-scale farming has not been established. The depletion of ciprofloxacin was investigated in the olive flounder under field conditions. Fish were kept in an inland fish farm and fed a commercial diet containing 5 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin for 13 days. Seven fishes per sampling time were examined during and after the treatment. Ciprofloxacin and its major metabolite, enrofloxacin, were analyzed using HPLC with a fluorescence detector. The concentrations of ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin in muscle increased during the medication period, and then decreased rapidly. The ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin concentration in the olive flounder peaked on days 11 and 13, respectively, with maximum concentrations in muscle of 0.58 and 0.73 mg/kg. Residual ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin were eliminated rapidly; 6 days after treatment, the respective levels in muscle were 0.04 and 0.10 mg/kg and neither was detected 15 days post treatment. The level of ciprofloxacin accumulation at the beginning of oral administration was variable according to the farming conditions, but the overall exhaustion time was similar. In conclusion, an adequate withdrawal period for enrofloxacin is 15 days in the case of oral ciprofloxacin administration.
Effect of Culture Conditions on Production of Polysaccharides and Growth Rate of Porphyridium cruentum
Joo, Dong-Sik ; Choi, Soon-Yeong ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2008, Pages 446~451
DOI : 10.5657/kfas.2008.41.6.446
The growth of Porphyridium cruentum and its porphyran polysaccharide production were measured as functions of light intensity, temperature, light quality (fluorescent, blue, red, and green) and nitrate concentration. The optimum light intensity, temperature, and nitrate concentration for the growth of Porphyridium cruentum and for its polysaccharide production were 1,400 lx,
, and 0.03%, respectively. The maximum cell concentration and polysaccharide content under the optimum conditions were 1.95 and 0.23 mg/mL, respectively. Light quality did not influence growth or polysaccharide production. The best results for growth and polysaccharide production were obtained using fluorescent light.
Studies on the Food Components of Triploid Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai
Jee, Young-Ju ; Chang, Young-Jin ; Yoon, Ho-Dong ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2008, Pages 452~457
DOI : 10.5657/kfas.2008.41.6.452
This study analyzed the proximate compositions, total amino acids, and fatty acid compositions in muscle and viscera of 51-month-old triploid and diploid Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. Proximate composition analysis showed that the muscle of diploid abalones had a higher protein and ash ratio than that of triploid abalones, while there was no significant difference in the ratios of moisture and fat (P>0.05). The triploid abalones had a significantly higher ratio of carbohydrate in muscle than the diploid abalones (P<0.05), which suggests that the transference of carbohydrates from muscle to gonad is decreased in sterile triploid organisms. Amino-acid analysis indicated that the total content was 133.42 mg/g in diploid muscle and 151.46 mg/g in triploid muscle. Taurine, arginine, glutamine, glycine, glutamic acid, alanine, and leucine, which are the major amino acids in abalone, were measured as 84.64 mg/g in triploid muscle and as 73.92 mg/g in diploid muscle. The essential amino acid content of triploid muscle (38.83 mg/g) was significantly higher than that of diploid muscle (31.94 mg/g) (P<0.05). Saturated fatty acids and monoene fatty acids were abundant in triploid muscle and polyene fatty acids were abundant in diploid muscle. Therefore, triploid Pacific abalone appears to be a good nutritional food source.
Preparation of Rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) Feed Fortification with Mideodeok (Styela clava) Extracts
Palmos, Grace N. ; Yoon, Bo-Young ; Kang, Seok-Joong ; Choi, Yeung-Jun ; Choi, Byeong-Dae ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2008, Pages 458~465
DOI : 10.5657/kfas.2008.41.6.458
The nutritional contribution of mideodeok extracts (ME) on rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) feed and fish muscle was investigated. Different concentrations of the ME mixed with commercial diet were fed to mature rockfish for 8 weeks. The lipid and ash contents of the formulated diets were relatively similar to the control diet, while increasing the extract concentration increased the moisture content and decreased the protein contents. Major fatty acid components (C18:1n-9, 16:0, C20:5n-3, C22:6n-3) were of comparable quantity. High presence of C18:2n-6 was attributed to soybean oil incorporated in the diets, while the essential fatty acids were within limits (0.9-1.0%). The diet fortified with 6% ME produced the highest feed efficiency, with increased protein content in the muscle as well as lipid content for both muscle and liver. Hepato- and visceral-somatic index values were elevated with increasing ME concentration Muscle fatty acid contents were mostly C18:1n-9 and C16:0, with low absorption of C18:2n-6 in both the muscle and liver. Total highly unsaturated fatty acid content was significantly reduced in the fish muscle, but the values were higher for fish fed with a ME-fortified diet. An increasing trend for eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid was also observed with increased ME fortification, with liver levels of these compounds remaining within range throughout the duration of the experiment.
Genetic Variability and Population Structure of Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai Sampled from Stocked Areas Using Microsatellite DNA Markers
Jeong, Dal-Sang ; Park, Chul-Ji ; Jeon, Chang-Young ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2008, Pages 466~470
DOI : 10.5657/kfas.2008.41.6.466
Microsatellite DNA markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai collected from six locations (Uljin, Ulsan, Daechon, Taean, Wando, and Yosu) where hatchery-produced abalone have been released intensively. There was no distinguishable difference in the observed and expected heterozygosities between the six populations and a cultured population. However, there was a difference in the number of alleles per locus: 12.8 for the cultured population and 13.8 to 15.8 for the six populations. The proportion of stocked abalone ranged from 41.1 to 92.7% for wild-caught populations with a decreasing tendency of alleles per locus for an increasing proportion of stocked abalone. A departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) assessed using the Markov chain procedure (P<0.05) was observed in the six populations and cultured population at loci Hdh145 and Hdh5l2. The pairwise Fst test (P<0.05) showed a significant difference between the Uljin and Ulsan populations and four remaining populations (Wando, Daechon, Yosu, and the cultured population), among which the Wando population differed less than the other three populations (Daechon, Yosu, and the cultured population).
Development of the Eggs, Larvae and Juveniles by Artificially-Matured Pacific Mackerel, Scomber japonicus in the Korean Waters
Kim, Dae-Hyun ; Kim, Dae-Jung ; Yoon, Seong-Jong ; Hwang, Hyung-Gue ; Kim, Eung-Oh ; Son, Sang-Gyu ; Kim, Jin-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2008, Pages 471~477
DOI : 10.5657/kfas.2008.41.6.471
Development of egg, larvae and juveniles for the Pacific mackerel, Scomber japonicus are described following natural fertilization in the indoor tank of
water temperature. Following a routine hormone treatment technique for the brood stock, male and female mackerels were artificially matured by intramuscular injections of LHRHa at a dosage of
body weight (BW)+Domperidone at a dosage of
body weight (BW) to induce maturation in a separate aquarium and induced natural spawning. Fertilized eggs were ca. 1.0 mm in diameter; spherical in shape with a single oil globule; pelagic and non-adhesive. Hatching occurs 41 hours after fertilization at
. The newly hatched larvae was 3.03 mm in average total length (ATL), the mouth and anus were not open, oil globule located in posterior end of yolk sac, and preanal length was 42.8% of TL. The larvae measuring 2.89 mm ATL, almost absorbed yolk sac and oil globule material in 2 days after hatching, in which the mouth and anus were open. Melanophores, branch or star in shape were observed on the top of head, peritoneal region and along the ventral contour. In 13 days after hatching, the larvae was 6.88 mm ATL, its posterior end of notochord began to flex upward, finfold of caudal fin appeared, jaw teeth were already formed. In 19 days after hatching, the larvae was 7.71 mm ATL completed only caudal fin rays (9+8), and preanal length was 49.4% of TL. In 37 days after hatching, the larvae was 27.4 mm ATL already completed all the fins, and preanal length was 59.9% of TL.
Spawning behavior and Early Life Histoty of the Liobagrus mediadiposalis in the Korean Endemic Species
Choi, Nak-Hyun ; Seo, Won-Il ; Kim, Chun-Chel ; Park, Chung-Kug ; Heo, Seung-Joon ; Yoon, Seung-Min ; Han, Kyeong-Ho ; Lee, Won-Kyo ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2008, Pages 478~484
DOI : 10.5657/kfas.2008.41.6.478
To elucidate the spawning behavior and early life history of Liobagrus mediadiposalis, mature male and female fish were collected from a branch of the Seomjin River. Spawning was induced by injecting hormones, and then the spawning process and development of fertilized eggs, larvae, and juveniles were observed. Observations of spawning behavior showed that the female established a territory and built a spawning nest, and frequently pressed on the upper ventral part of the male to release her eggs. When spawning was finished, the fish supplied fresh water to the egg mass using their pectoral and caudal fins. Hatching began 189 h 20 min after fertilization at
). The mean total length (TL) of newly hatched larvae was 7.18-7.39 mm (mean 7.31 mm). Their mouth and anus were already open and they had 14+24=38 myotomes. Eighteen days after hatching, the larvae were 12.71-13.79 mm (mean 13.27 mm) in TL and the yolk sac was absorbed completely. At 35 days after hatching, when all the fin-rays had formed, the juveniles were 15.84-17.92 mm (mean 16.33 mm) in TL.
Scale Efficiency and Fishing Capacity Analysis for Large Pair-Trawl Vessels in Korean Waters
Lee, Dong-Woo ; Lee, Jae-Bong ; Jung, Suk-Geun ; Kim, Yeong-Hye ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2008, Pages 485~492
DOI : 10.5657/kfas.2008.41.6.485
To propose proper vessel characteristics for sustainable fisheries in Korean waters, we analyzed the fishing capacity, scale efficiency and utilization of large pair-trawl vessels based on the database of catch, effort and vessel characteristics (gross tonnage and engine power) in 1990 by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA). The input factors were gross tonnage, horse power and days operated; whereas the output factor was expected catch by vessel characteristics. The optimal vessel types, selected based on the input-oriented technical efficiency and gross tonnages, was 100 GT with engine power <600 HP. The output-oriented unbiased estimate of capacity utilization (CD) decreased with increasing vessel tonnage. For the same tonnage vessels, the CD decreased with increasing engine power.
Seasonal Variation in Zooplankton Related to North Pacific Regime Shift in Korea Sea
Kang, Young-Shil ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2008, Pages 493~504
DOI : 10.5657/kfas.2008.41.6.493
In the seas around the Korean Peninsula, the seasonal cycle of zooplankton related to North Pacific regime shifts was investigated to understand the reaction of the ecosystem to climate change using long-term data on zooplankton biomass (1965-2000) and the abundance of four major zooplankton groups: copepods, amphipods, chaetognaths, and euphausiids (1978-2000). In general, the zooplankton biomass showed a large peak in spring and a small peak in autumnin Korean waters, but there was a slight difference in the peak time depending on the location and the period before and after the North Pacific regime shift. The zooplankton biomass showed conspicuous seasonal peaks in R-III (1990-2000) compared to R-I (1965-1976) and R-II (1977-1988), and the seasonal peak shifted from the autumn in R-II to the spring in R-III. The peak of copepods and euphausiids in abundance was from April to June, while chaetognaths peaked from August to October. We postulate that the time lag between the peaks for copepods and chaetognaths results from the predator-prey relationship. The regime shift in 1989 did not alter the seasonal cycle of the four major zooplankton groups, although it enhanced their production. The seasonal peaks of the four major zooplankton groups did not shift, while the seasonal peaks of the zooplankton biomass did shift. This was not only becausethe zooplankton biomass included other mesozooplankton groups but also because the abundance of the four major zooplankton groups increased significantly in spring.
Physical Oceanographic Characteristics in Hupo Coastal area during Summer and Autumn, 2007
Hwang, Jae-Dong ; Lee, Yong-Hwa ; Shim, Jeong-Min ; Young, Seok-Hyun ; Jin, Hyun-Gook ; Kim, Young-Suk ; Kwon, Kee-Young ; Yoon, Sang-Chol ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2008, Pages 505~510
DOI : 10.5657/kfas.2008.41.6.505
To understand the oceanographic characteristics of Hupo coastal waters as regards the East Korean Warm Current and the North Korean Cold Current, current direction and velocity were investigated by deploying a current meter in Hupo coastal waters during the summer and fall of 2007. Wind data were obtained from the homepage of the Korea Meteorological Administration. Water temperature was measured using a temperature meter attached to the current meter and a mini log. During summer, a south wind prevailed, while during the fall the wind blew from the north. Cold surface waters occurred on a large scale in summer, while in the fall, warm bottom water occurred frequently. After mid-November, when the surface water was cooler than
, there was no difference in water temperature between the surface and bottom layers.
Comparison of Radiation Characteristics and Radiant Quantities per unit Electrical Power between High Luminance Light Emitting Diode and Fishing Lamp light Source
Choi, Sok-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2008, Pages 511~517
DOI : 10.5657/kfas.2008.41.6.511
The radiation characteristics and economic efficiency of high - luminance light - emitting diodes (LEDs), a metal halide lamp, and a halogen lamp were studied to evaluate their potential as an energy-saving light source for fishing lamps. The wavelengths at which irradiance was maximum were 709, 613, 473, 501, 525, 465, 578, and 973 nm for red, orange, blue, peacock blue, green, and white LEDs, the metal halide lamp, and the halogen lamp, respectively. If the irradiance characteristics at 300-1,100 nm wavelengths are set as 100%, the irradiance rates at 381-780 nm were 99-78%, 82%, and 24% for the LEDs, metal halide lamp, and halogen lamp, respectively. The economic efficiency was superior in the order metal halide lamp, halogen lamp, peacock blue LED, and blue LED at 381-780 nm and metal halide lamp, peacock blue LED, blue LED, and halogen lamp at 480-520 nm. Based on the radiation characteristics and economic efficiency evaluated at 480-520 nm, the blue and peacock blue LED light sources can be used as energy-saving light sources for fishing lamps.
A Numerical Study of Sea Surface Cooling with the Passage of Typhoon Abby in the Northwestem Pacific
Hong, Chul-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 41, issue 6, 2008, Pages 518~524
DOI : 10.5657/kfas.2008.41.6.518
A three-dimensional primitive equation model (POM) and the buoy data (2900 N, 13500 E) from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) for 27 typhoons between 1982 and 2000 are used to investigate the sea surface cooling (SSC) that accompanies typhoons in the northwestern Pacific. Observed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) rapidly drop 0.6 to 4.3 C, and SSC continues for several weeks after the passage of a typhoon. The model, which covers most of the northwestern Pacific (
), simulated Typhoon Abby over the tropical Pacific, and successfully reproduces many observed features, including the pattern of SST decrease, inertial oscillations, etc. The model accurately simulated the SSC process, suggesting that the cyclonic eddy with a radius of a few hundred kilometers that trailed Typhoon Abby plays an important role in SSC.