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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 45, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 45, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 45, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 45, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 45, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 45, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
Physiological Activities and Amino Acid Compositions of Korean Dried Laver Porphyra Products
Lee, Hak-Jyung ; Choi, Jong-Il ; Choi, Sung-Je ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 409~413
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0409
The physiological activities and amino acid compositions of dried lavers of Porphyra from the Jangheung, Seochen and Haenam coasts were determined. The ethanol extract of the Haenam dried laver exhibited the greatest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (56.1%), ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) value(86.5 mM) and total polyphenol content (3.51 ppm) of these dried laver products. In addition, there was a strong positive correlation between the antioxidative activity and total polyphenol content of the laver products, suggesting that polyphenol compounds contribute to the antioxidant capacity in the ethanol extract of dried laver. However, there was no difference among the extracts in terms of cell proliferation activity. Fourteen combined amino acids were identified in oligopeptides from the dried laver products. Of the three extracts, that of the Haenam dried laver contained the highest levels of both free and total amino acids including alanine, glutamic acid, taurine, phosphoserine, and aspartic acid.
Evaluation of the Effects of the Inland Pollution Sources after Rainfall Events on the Bacteriological Water Quality in Narodo Area, Korea
Park, Kunbawui ; Jo, Mi Ra ; Kim, Yeon Kye ; Lee, Hee Jung ; Kwon, Ji Young ; Son, Kwang Tae ; Lee, Tae Seek ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 414~422
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0414
This study evaluated the effect of the inland pollution sources on the bacteriological water quality in Narodo area after rainfall events. Following 16 mm of rainfall, the water discharged from Dohwa Stream and contaminants from Balpo village had a very limited effect on bacteriological water quality in adjacent area and the affected area did not extend to the designated area. In comparion, after 33 mm of rainfall, the density of fecal coliforms at stations located in the mouth of Dohwa stream and the discharg point of contamination sources located in Balpo village were lower than after 16 mm of rainfall. These results were obtained during an extreme high tide near the coast the contaminants discharged from Dohwa stream and Balpo village. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a detailed survey to examine the dffects of tides on the diffusion characteristics of the contaminants discharged from Dohwa stream and Balpo village in order to manage of Narodo area efficiently.
Effect of Supplementing the Diet of Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus with Sea Mustard Undaria pinnatifida Glycoprotein on Growth and the Immune System
An, Cheul-Min ; Kim, Kang-Woong ; Kim, Kyoung-Duck ; Kim, Young-Min ; Kim, In-Hye ; Park, Su-Jin ; Choi, Youn Hee ; Nam, Taek Jeong ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 423~429
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0423
This study evaluated the effects of adding sea mustard Undaria pinnatifida glycoprotein to the diet of juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus on its growth, and levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), and interleukins. Three experimental diets (U0, U0.5, and U1.0) were formulated that contained different amounts of an extract of U. pinnatifida (0, 0.5, and 1.0%, respectively). Experimental groups were established in triplicate (30 fish/group) and fed for 12 weeks. The experimental group fed 1.0% added U. pinnatifida glycoprotein had the greatest rate of weight gain, which differed significantly from the other experimental groups. SDS-PAGE of the plasma IGF-I and muscle protein showed that the experimental groups taking U. pinnatifida glycoprotein had significantly more IGF-I and a ca. 200 kDa protein, as compared to the control group. In addition, the amount of IGFBP-3 at ca. 43 kDa increased in the group given the U. pinnatifida extract, as compared to the control group. The interluekin-2, -4, -6, and -12 levels paralleled the level of growth factor in the groups given the U. pinnatifida extract. In conclusion, supplementing the diet of olive flounder with U. pinnatifida glycroprotein improved its growth and immunity.
Effects of Low Temperature and Starvation on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Muscle of the Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus
Shim, Kil Bo ; Lee, So Jeong ; Yoon, Ho Dong ; Lim, Chi Won ; Shin, Yun Kyung ; Jeong, Min Hwan ; Lee, Dong Gil ; Park, Tae Il ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 430~437
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0430
The effects of low temperature and starvation on the physiochemical characteristics of the muscle of the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, were examined. Fish were deprived of feed for 28 days at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and
in order to establish suitable conditions for live fish transportation. Throughout most of the 4 weeks of feed restriction, the physiochemical characteristics of the muscle of olive flounder were found to be dependent on the acclimation temperature. The breaking strength of muscle did not show a significant reduction during feed restriction at 2 and
. With increasing temperatures, however, the breaking strength of muscle differed significantly according to the individual and feed restriction period (P<0.05). The moisture content in muscle acclimated at 10, 12, and
increased steadily over the feed-restriction period, while the crude lipid content decreased during the same period (P<0.05). At water temperatures above
, no significant differences were shown during the same period. After it reached 6, 8, 10, 12, and
, the muscle had an accumulation of lactate, and a loss of ATP. There was no change in the lactate or ATP content during the feed restriction period at 2 and
, although there were differences among the water temperature groups. These results clearly show that temperature can have an important influence on the of muscle of physiochemical characteristics of muscle during live fish transportation.
Shelf-Life and Quality of Gamma Irradiated Squid Sundae (a Traditional Korean Sausage)
Jeong, Da-Hyun ; Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ; SunWoo, Chan ; Jung, Seul-A ; Kim, Hyun-Jee ; Jeong, Hee-Ye ; Kim, Jae-Hun ; Lee, Ju-Woon ; Do, Sang-Ryong ; Byun, Myoung-Woo ; Ahn, Dong-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 438~444
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0438
This study was investigated the effect of gamma irradiation (GI) on the shelf-life and quality improvement of squid sundae (a traditional Korean sausage) stored at room temperature after 0 (control), 10 and 20 kGy doses of irradiation. The total viable cells decreased with increasing irradiation dose, and no viable cells were detected with the doses of 20 kGy. There were no significant changes in pH compared to the control. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of GI (20 kGy) squid sundae were significantly lower than those of the control. In addition, the induction period for the GI (20 kGy) squid sundae measured by the Rancimat method was higher level than that of the control. In a sensory evaluation, there were no significant differences between the control and GI samples during storage.
Microbial Contamination of Seasoned and Dried Squid Dosidicus gigas during Processing
Choi, Kyoo-Duck ; Park, Uk-Yeon ; Shin, Il-Shik ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 445~453
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0445
This study examined microbial contamination during seasoned and dried squid Dosidicus gigas processing, including the apparatus, machines, and employee's gloves at each step in processing at two companies. The numbers of bacteria floating in air in each processing area were also examined. The numbers of Staphylococcus aureus (3.6-6.0 log CFU/g) and Escherichia coli (1.3-1.4 log MPN/100 g) in domestic and imported daruma (a semi-processed product of seasoned and dried squid) at companies A and B exceeded the regulatory limits of the Food Sanitary Law of Korea (S. aureus,
log CFU/g; E. coli, negative). S. aureus in both daruma was reduced to below the detection limit or 3.6 log CFU/g after the roasting step, but increased again to 3.3 and 5.5 log CFU/g after the mechanical tearing step at companies A and B, respectively. E. coli showed similar tendencies at both companies. The surfaces of the apparatus, machines, and employee's gloves that contacted daruma were also contaminated with S. aureus (1.0-5.5 log CFU/
) and E. coli (negative-to 3.5 log MPN/
). The numbers of bacteria floating in air were high (1.7-5.1 log CFU/
) at both companies. These results suggest that sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOP) must be developed to control of microbial cintamination in seasoned and dried squid.
Heavy Metals (Hg, Pb, Cd) Content and Risk Assessment of Commercial Dried Laver Porphyra sp.
Son, Kwang-Tae ; Kwon, Ji-Young ; Jo, Mi-Ra ; Choi, Woo-Seok ; Kang, Sung-Rim ; Ha, Na-Young ; Shin, Jin-Wall ; Park, Kunbawui ; Kim, Ji-Hoe ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 454~459
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0454
To investigate heavy metals (Hg, Pb and Cd) and their potential health risks in commercial dried laver (Porphyra sp.), we collected 45 samples from the major production areas on the western and southern coasts of Korea (Hwaseong, Seocheon, Gunsan, Muan, Shinan, Jindo, Haenam, Wando, Jangheung, Goheung and Busan). The Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS) or a mercury analyzer. The average Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations in the dried laver were
mg/kg, respectively. Based on the 2007 Korean Public Nutrition Report, these levels are 0.02, 0.11 and 2.47% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for Hg, Pb and Cd, respectively, established by the FAO/WHO. The hazard quotient (HQ) determined from the ratio of exposure and safe levels were less than 1.0. Therefore, the levels of overall exposure to Hg, Pb and Cd for dried laver were below the recommended JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives) levels, which indicate safe levels for public health.
The Bacteriological Quality of Seawater in Kamak Bay, Korea
Kwon, Ji Young ; Park, Kunbawui ; Song, Ki Cheol ; Oh, Eun Gyoung ; Lee, Hee Jung ; Jo, Mi-Ra ; Kim, Ji Hoe ; Son, Kwang Tae ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 460~464
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0460
From 1998 to 2008, the bacteriological quality of seawater in Kamak Bay, Korea, was monitored. The total and fecal coliforms in seawater were monitored as bacterial indicators, and the level of fecal coliform contamination was used to evaluate seawater quality. In the southern shellfish growing area of Kamak Bay, the observed fecal coliform geometric mean (GM) and estimated 90th percentile did not exceed the quality standards for fecal coliforms in seawater in Korea and th USA (GM<14 MPN/100 mL, 90th percentile<43 MPN/100 mL). The GM and estimated 90th percentile of the fecal coliform levels in the adjacent northern area of Kamak Bay were higher than in the southern area. Stations near wastewater discharge sites and urban areas in the north had the lowest quality and did not meet the bacteriological seawater quality criteria. The high fecal coliform levels in the Seonso coastal region near wastewater discharges and northern urban areas declined significantly following dredging and operation of a sewage treatment plant.
Accumulation and Depuration of Paralytic Shellfish Poison in Marine Organisms
Mok, Jong-Soo ; Oh, Eun-Gyoung ; Son, Kwang-Tae ; Lee, Tae-Seek ; Lee, Ka-Jeong ; Song, Ki-Cheol ; Kim, Ji-Hoe ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 465~471
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0465
To compare the accumulation of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) in different marine organisms, the occurrence and variation of PSP were surveyed in blue mussel Mytilus edulis, oyster Crassostrea gigas, short neck clam Ruditapes philippinarum, bay scallop Argopecten irradians, and warty sea squirt Styela clava collected from Jinhae Bay, Korea, in 2005 and 2006 year. We also investigated the ability of the blue mussel to detoxify PSP by relaying and depuration (via the water flow or water circulation system). In the marine organisms examined, PSP levels were the highest in blue mussel, followed in order by bay scallop, oyster, short neck clam, and warty sea squirt. Comparing the maximum PSP levels in the bivalve species examined in 2005 and 2006, PSP in blue mussel was 1.6-2.0, 4.0-5.9, and 5.1-6.0 times higher than in bay scallop, oyster, and short neck clam, respectively. Therefore, blue mussel could be useful as a bioindicator for PSP monitoring. With the increasing PSP levels in blue mussel in 2006, the proportion of PSP in its digestive gland increased to 95.1% when the maximum level was detected from the whole tissues of blue mussel on May 29. Subsequently, the PSP proportion in the digestive gland decreased as the PSP level in whole tissue decreased. The detoxification of PSP in blue mussel was greatest with relaying, followed by the water flow, and water circulation systems. Relaying decreased the PSP level below the regulatory limit of
/100 g after 2 days in low toxic sample with
/100 g, and after 7 days in high toxic sample with
/100 g. During depuration in the blue mussel with
/100 g via the water flow system, the PSP amounts in the digestive gland decreased by about 50% after 1 day, and about 77% after 7 days. In contrast, the PSP amounts in the soft body, gill, and mantle did not change significantly with depuration.
Effects of Yellow Clay on the Production of Volatile Fatty Acids during the Anaerobic Decomposition of the Red Tide Dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides in Marine Sediments
Park, Young-Tae ; Lee, Chang-Kyu ; Park, Tae-Gyu ; Lee, Yoon ; Bae, Heon-Meen ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 472~479
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0472
The formation of volatile fatty acids(VFAs) and changes in pH, oxidation and reduction potential(Eh) and acid volatile sulfide(AVS) with the addition of yellow clay were investigated using microcosm systems to examine the effects of yellow clay dispersion on the anaerobic decomposition of Cochlodinium polykrikoides in marine sediments. The acetate concentration reached a maximum by day 4 and was 1.2-1.8 fold less in the sample treated with yellow clay compared to the untreated sample (224-270 vs. 333 uM). The formate concentration reached a maximum by day 1 and was 1.3-2.8 fold less in the sample treated with yellow clay compared to the untreated sample (202-439 vs. 563 uM). The propionate concentration reached a maximum by day 2 and was 1.5-1.8 fold less in the sample treated with yellow clay compared to the untreated sample (32.6 vs. 57.2 uM). After the amounts of acetate, formate and propionate peaked the levels dropped dramatically due to the utilization by sulfate reducing bacteria. The Eh of the samples treated with yellow clay was similar to the untreated sample on day 0 but was higher in the sample treated with yellow clay(140-206 mV) from days 4 to 17. AVS started to form on day 3 and this was sustained until day 6, and 1.2-2.2 fold less was produced in the sample treated with yellow clay compared to the untreated sample (40.2-69.3 vs. 83.2-93.8 mg/L). Accordingly, during the anaerobic decomposition of C. polykrikoides in marine sediments, yellow clay dispersal seems to suppress the reduction state of Eh and the formation of volatile fatty acids(acetate, formate and propionate) used as an energy source by sulfate reducing bacteria, indicating that this process controls the production of hydrogen sulfide that negatively affects marine organisms and the marine sediment environment.
Classification and Ultrastructure of Hemocytes in the Tunicate Halocynthia roretzi (Ascidiacea: Pyuridae)
Shin, Yun Kyung ; Jun, Je Cheon ; Son, Maeng Hyun ; Kim, Hyejin ; Lee, Jung Sick ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 480~485
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0480
The hemocytes of the tunicate Halocynthia roretzi are classified into six types based on their size, cellular form, and fine structure of the cytoplasmic granules: hyalinocytes, granulocytes, phagocytes, nephrocytes, morula cells, and multi-vacuole cells. Based on cell size, they are ordered multi-vacuole cells (
)>morula cells (
). The proportion of hemocytes is ranked in the order multi-vacuole cells (54.8%)>nephrocytes (16.9%)>granulocytes (9.9%)>morula cells (8.8%)>phagocytes (6.1%)>hyalinocytes (3.5%).
Distribution of Whales and Dolphins in Korean Waters Based on a Sighting Survey from 2000 to 2010
Sohn, Hawsun ; Park, Kyum Joon ; An, Yong Rock ; Choi, Seok Gwan ; Kim, Zang Geun ; Kim, Hyun Woo ; An, Du Hae ; Lee, Young Ran ; Park, Tae-Geon ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 486~492
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0486
In the late 1970s, the National Fisheries Research & Development Institute (NFRDI) started cetacean research to submit the Korean whale catch record to the International Whaling Commission. This continued until the moratorium on commercial whaling in 1986. The NFRDI resumed cetacean research with a pilot whale sighting survey in 1999. Subsequently, the NFRDI has conducted 53 cetacean sighting surveys within the Korean exclusive economic zone between 2000 and 2010. The surveys took a total of 760 days and cruising for 23,866 nautical miles. The finless porpoise Neophocaena asiaeorientalis was sighted most frequently (735 times), followed by the minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata (396 times), the long-beaked common dolphin Delphinus capensis (102 times), and the Pacific white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (27 times). Minke whales were distributed in the Yellow Sea and coastal area of the East Sea from spring to fall. Pacific white-sided dolphin sightings were restricted to the middle and upper coastal areas of the East Sea in summer. Common dolphins were sighted from east of the southern coast to the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula from spring to fall. Finless porpoise occurred in all Korean coastal areas, except the middle and upper eastern coast.
Simulation-based Yield-per-recruit Analysis of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus in Southeastern Korean Coastal Waters
Cha, Hyung Kee ; Jung, Sukgeun ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 493~498
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0493
We derived biological reference points for Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus in southeastern Korean waters by applying a yield-per-recruit analysis based on a daily simulation that adopted size-dependent fecundity, growth, and natural mortality functions. This showed that the yield per recruit of Pacific cod can be maximized at an instantaneous rate of fishing mortality (F)=0.37
under the current regulations, where the minimum catch size (
)=30 cm in total length (TL). The maximum economic yield was estimated to be attained at
=35-45 cm TL, if F>1
=35-40 cm TL, if F<1
. Despite great uncertainty in the stock assessment, to develop fisheries management plans for the sustainable exploitation of Pacific cod in southeastern Korean waters, it is necessary to estimate F using capture-recapture or other expedient methods.
Estimating the Abundance and Fishing Mortality of Pacific Cod Gadus macrocephalus during the Spawning Season in Jinhae Bay, Korea, Using a Mark-Recapture Method
Hwang, Kang Seok ; Choi, Ilsu ; Jung, Sukgeun ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 499~506
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0499
We estimated the population size and fishing mortality of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus during the spawning season in waters off Woipo, Geoje Island, Korea, using a mark-recapture method. We marked and released 51 cod>50 cm in total length; six were recaptured by local fishermen during the period from December 15 to 31, 2009. The estimated population size was ca. 180,000 and the fishing mortality of the exploitable cod was 26%. Although we could assume a closed population due to the short survey period, we evaluated the uncertainty in the estimates by applying bootstrap resampling because the sample size was small. The estimated 95% confidence interval was 94,000-568,000 for the population size and 8-49% for fishing mortality. Our study demonstrated that the application of mark-recapture methods and bootstrap resampling can be useful in stock assessment for fisheries management in Korea, but requires a larger sample size, spatially extensive coverage, and sophisticated mark-recapture models based on a refined sampling design for reliable stock assessment and biological reference points in sustainable cod management.
Molecular and Morphological Identification of a Muraenichthys gymnopterus (Ophichthidae: Anguilliformes) Leptocephalus Collected on Jeju island, Korea
Ji, Hwan-Sung ; Kim, Jin-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 507~512
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0507
One leptocephalus (TL 59.9 mm) from the family Ophichthidae collected from Jeju Island, Korea, was identified using morphological and molecular methods. Our ophichthid leptocephalus was identified as belonging to the genus Muraenichthys based on morphological characters: 157 myomeres; the origin of the dorsal fin located a little in front of the anus; a distinct melanophore present on the opercle; and six gut swellings present. An analysis of 886 base pairs of the 12S rRNA mtDNA sequences showed that our leptocephalus must be Muraenichthys gymnopterus, because its sequences were concordant with those of an adult M. gymnopterus (d=0.001) and next to those of Muraenichthys sp. leptocephalus (d=0.034). Here, we are the first to describe the morphological characteristics of the M. gymnopterus leptocephalus.
Review of the Korean Vernacular Names of Cetaceans
Sohn, Hawsun ; An, Du Hae ; Kim, Doo Nam ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 513~522
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0513
This paper reviews the Korean vernacular names of 35 cetacean species found in Korean waters and mentioned in 19 references, including laws, high school textbooks, and books on whales. The vernacular names of 16 species were identical in all sources examined. Some names have their origins in old Korean books, while others have recently entered public awareness through movies, TV programs, and the mass media; some species are frequently studied by researchers. Given the nature of vernacular names, that is, names used by people who live in sympatry with the animals, priority was not given high consideration in this paper. Instead, we carefully investigated the origin, publicity, and rationale of the Korean common names for the 35 species. All of these Korean names are also listed in "The World Cetacea Database (http://www.marinespecies.org/cetacea/)," which contains the most accurate cetacean systematic information on the Web.
Effects of Different Numbers of Feeding Days and Feeding Rate on Growth of Growing-out Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus
Kim, Kyoung-Duck ; Kim, Kang-Woong ; Bae, Ki-Min ; Son, Maeng Hyun ; An, Cheul Min ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 5, 2012, Pages 523~526
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0523
This study evaluated the effects of the number of feeding days and feeding rate on the growth of growing-out flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Three replicated groups of fish (
) were hand-fed a commercial feed under different feeding regimes for 9 weeks. Fish in group 6F-1S were fed to satiation twice daily for 6 consecutive days and starved for 1 day. Fish in groups 4F-1S and 3F-1S were fed to satiation twice daily for 4 and 3 days, respectively, and starved for 1 day. Fish in group 6F-90% were fed a diet of 90% of 6F-1S twice daily for 6 consecutive days and starved for 1 day. The weight gain, feed efficiency and daily feed intake of the fish groups in 4F-1S and 3F-1S were not significantly different from those of group 6F-1S. The weight gain and feed efficiency of fish in group 6F-90% were not significantly different from those of group 6F-1S. The results of this study suggest that the growth of growing-out flounder fed to satiation twice daily for 4 or 3 days after starving 1 day was similar to that of fish fed to satiation for 6 days, and that the proper feeding rate for growth could be lowered to 90% of satiation without growth suppression.