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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 45, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 45, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 45, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 45, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 45, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 45, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
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Preparation of Natural Seasoning using Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Byproducts of Alaska Pollock Theragra chalcogramma and Sea Tangle Laminaria japonica
Kim, Jeong Gyun ; Noh, Yuni ; Park, Kwon Hyun ; Lee, Ji Sun ; Kim, Hyeon Jeong ; Kim, Min Ji ; Yoon, Moo Ho ; Kim, Jin-Soo ; Heu, Min Soo ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 545~552
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0545
This study developed a natural seasoning (NS) and characterized its food components. Hydrolysate from Alaska Pollock Theragra chalcogramma heads and sea tangle Laminaria japonica byproduct were obtained by incubating them with Neutrase for 4 h. NS was prepared by mixing sorbitol 2%, salt 2%, ginger powder 0.04%, garlic powder 0.2%, onion powder 0.2% and inosine monophosphate (IMP) 0.1% based on concentrated hydrolysates from Alaska pollock head and sea tangle byproduct before vaccum filtering. The proximate composition of NS was 82.7% moisture, 9.0% crude protein, and 5.1% ash. It had a higher crude protein content than commercial anchovy sauce (CS), it was lower in moisture and ash. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting activity of NS were 90.1% and 88.9%, respectively, which were superior to those of CS. The free amino acid content and total taste value of NS were 1,626.0 mg/100 mL and 165.86, respectively, which were higher than those of CS. According to the results of taste value, the major free amino acids were glutamic acid and aspartic acid. In the sensory evaluation, the color and taste of NS were superior to those of CS. No difference in fish odor between NS and CS was found.
Mechanism of Inhibition of HepG2 Cell Proliferation by a Glycoprotein from Hizikia fusiformis
Ryu, Jina ; Hwang, Hye-Jung ; Kim, In-Hye ; Nam, Taek-Jeong ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 553~560
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0553
Hizikia fusiformis, a brown alga that is widely consumed in Korea, Japan, and China, possesses a number of potentially beneficial compounds, including antioxidants and anticoagulants. However, the molecular mechanisms of H. fusiformis in hepatoma cells have not been elucidated. This study investigated the antiproliferative effect and mechanism of action of a glycoprotein from H. fusiformis (HFGP) in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. In an MTS assay, 25
HFGP inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells by
. HFGP caused the dose-dependent growth inhibition of HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis and a sub-G1 phase arrest. The antiproliferative activity of HFGP was confirmed based on the expression of several apoptosis-related proteins, which was assessed by Western blot analysis. The expressions of Fas, Fas-associated death domain protein, Bax, and Bad was significantly up-regulated in HFGP-treated cells, and HFGP induced the translocation of Bax to mitochondria and the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Therefore, HFGP might be useful in the treatment of liver cancer.
Impact of Pollution Sources on the Bacteriological Water Quality in the Yongnam-Gwangdo Shellfish Growing Area of Western Jinhae Bay, Korea
Shim, Kil Bo ; Ha, Kwang Soo ; Yoo, Hyun Duk ; Lee, Tae Seek ; Kim, Ji Hoe ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 561~569
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0561
To evaluate the bacteriological water quality in Yongnam-Gwangdo, located in western Jinhae Bay, seawater samples were analyzed using sanitary indicator bacteria at 57 sampling stations. According to survey results from January 2007 to December 2009, the range of the geometric mean and the estimated 90th percentile for coliforms and fecal coliforms in the samples were <1.8-16.5 and 1.8-246.8 MPN/100 mL and <1.8-7.1 and 1.8-74.8 MPN/100 mL, respectively. The samples, including those taken from stations located in Wonmunman, Gwangdo, and Dangdong, showed high levels of microbial contamination caused by the climate and weather patterns in the marine environment. The bacteriological water quality in the area met Korean criteria for a designated shellfish growing area for export and National Shellfish Sanitation Program criteria for an approved shellfish growing area, except at station #49. A total of 24 direct pollution sources were discharged into the shellfish growing area. The radius of impact was calculated for each pollution source to assess the effect on the shellfish growing area. The calculated radius of impact for most of the pollution sources was below 300 m. However, the radius of impact for the combined pollution sources in Kyeonnaeryang was 93-1973 m. There were significant differences between the calculated closed sea area and actual monitoring results. The closed sea area values calculated from the fecal coliform load in drainage water tended to be higher than the actual monitoring results. Tidal currents and environmental factors such as salinity, water temperature, sunlight, and microbiological factors affect the survival of fecal indicator bacteria in seawater.
Nutritional Characteristics of Juvenile Black Rockfish Sebastes schlegeli Fed a Diet of Fig Leaf Extract
Hwang, Jae-Ho ; Lee, Si-Woo ; Rha, Sung-Ju ; Han, Kyeong-Ho ; Kim, Seon-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 570~578
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0570
The present study investigated the effect of diets supplemented with different levels (0, 1, 3, and 5 %) of fig leaf ethanol extract (FLEE) on the nutritional composition of black rockfish Sebastes schlegeli. Fish (
) were fed to apparent satiation twice daily for 8 weeks. Adding FLEE decreased crude lipid levels and increased crude protein and ash. Among the three organic acids in the whole body of black rockfish, lactic acid was predominant, followed by citric acid and oxalic acid. Five free sugars were found in all groups. Fucose and glucose were the dominant free sugars in the FLEE-added group. The abundant fatty acids in the FLEE-added group were C16:0, C18:1-cis (n9), and C22:6n-3. The major amino acids in the samples were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine, leucine, alanine, lysine, and arginine. The abundant free amino acids in the FLEE-added group were taurine, glutamic acid, alanine, leucine, and arginine.
Fatty Acid Composition of Antarctic Toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni
Lim, Chi-Won ; Jo, Hyun-Su ; Yeon, InJa ; Seok, KyuJin ; Choi, Seok-Gwan ; Yoon, Na-Young ; Shim, Kil-Bo ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 579~585
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0579
The proximate compositions and fatty acid profiles of Antarctic toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni that was caught in the southern Ross Sea (J, L) of the Antarctic Ocean were studied. The lipid contents of samples from J and L were 18.2 and 21.1%, respectively. The protein and ash contents were similar for samples J and L. The prominent fatty acids in the total lipids of the fish muscle were 18:1n-9, 16:1n-7, 16:0, 14:0, 18:1n-7, 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA), and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA). In addition, the total fatty acids of bycatch products in the toothfish stomachs (Pleuragramma antarcticum, Gerlachea australis, Pasiphaea sp., Trematomus eulepidotus, Chionodraco hamatus, Chionodraco myersi, and Neopagetopsis ionah) were determined. The prominent fatty acids in those species were 18:1n-9, 16:0, 14:0, DHA, EPA, and 18:1n-7.
Food Component Characteristics of Cultured and Wild Oysters Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea denselamellos in Korea
Lee, Yeong-Man ; Lee, So-Jeong ; Kim, Seon-Geun ; Hwang, Young-Sook ; Jeong, Bo-Young ; Oh, Kwang-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 586~593
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0586
To identify the food component characteristics of seven oysters(four cultured oysters and two wild oysters Crassostrea gigas and one dendely lamellated oyster Ostrea denselamellos Korean name beotgul) in Korea, the proximate, fatty/amino acid, mineral compositions, texture, color, chemical and taste compounds were investigated. The proximate compositions were not significantly different between cultured and wild oysters, whereas beotgul had lower levels of crude protein, ash and lipid content, and a higher carbohydrate content. The amino nitrogen contents of the three main types were 232.8-258.2, 160.5-213.9, and 218.5 mg/100 g, respectively, and the salinities were 1.5-1.7, 1.5-1.8, and 0.9%, respectively. Regarding the muscle texture, the shearing forces were 95-114, 105-132, and 170 g, respectively. Amounts of total amino acids of cultured, wild oysters and beotgul were 9,004-10,198, 8,165-8,942, and 7,767 mg/100 g, respectively. The major amino acids were aspartic acid (Asx), glutamic acid (Glx), proline, alanine, leucine, phenylalanine, lysine and arginine. Regarding inorganic ions, beotgul had much lower Fe and S contents than the cultured and wild oysters. The major fatty acids of cultured and wild oysters were 16:0, 18:0, 16:1n-9, 18:1n-9, 22:1n-9, 16:4n-3, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3, and there was little difference between the two. Beotgul had a higher polyenes ratio, i.e., 20:5n-3, and a lower monoenes ratio than the cultured and wild oysters. The free amino acid contents of cultured, wild oysters and beotgul extracts were 1,444-1,620, 1,017-1,277, and 1,144 mg/100 g, respectively, and the major free amino acids were taurine, glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, tryptophan, ornithine, and lysine. There was a little difference in the glycine, tryptophan, ornithine, and arginine contents.
Changes in Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH) and Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH) Activity during the Processing of Salt-Dried Rockfish Sebastes schlegeli
Shim, Kil Bo ; Lee, Hyun Jin ; Lee, So Jeong ; Cho, Hyun Ah ; Yoon, Na Young ; Lim, Chi Won ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 594~599
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0594
The objective of this study was to determine the processing conditions for salt dried rockfish Sebastes schlegeli by sun drying and cold-air drying, as measured by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. We processed salt dried rockfish samples. The salinity of rockfish samples was within 1% following salting with 25% salt brine for 3 h. The moisture content of salt dried rockfish was found to reduce linearly from 70.12 to 39.5 g/100 g over the same time interval. The water activities of salt dried rockfish by sun and cold-air drying were 0.94 and 0.87, respectively, after three days of drying. Acid values (AV) were 10.71 and 5.96 mg KOH/g, respectively, after the three day drying period. The ADH activity in a water extract from salt dried rockfish following sun and cold-air drying for 24 h was 228.5% and 226.1% at 13.3 mg/mL, respectively, and was higher than that when drying lasted for 48 and 72 h. The ALDH activity was not affected but both ADH and ALDH activity tended to decrease as the drying time increased from 24 to 72 h. The conditions of processing for the best quality of salt dried rockfish were determined to be drying with a cold-air system for 24 h. These results indicated that water extracts from salt dried rockfish have valuable biological attributes owing to the metabolizing of alcohol and can provide useful information for the design of drying systems for salt dried rockfish.
Inhibition of Pathogenic Bacteria by Pediococcus pentosaceus Strain SH-10 Isolated from Hard Clam Meretrix meretrix Sikhae
Shin, Dong-Min ; Kim, Hee-Dai ; Koo, Jae-Geun ; Park, Kwon-Sam ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 600~605
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0600
In this study, we investigated the mechanism of inhibition of pathogenic bacteria by Pediococcus pentosaceus strain SH-10 isolated from hard Clam Meretrix meretrix sikhae. When P. pentosaceus SH-10 was co-cultured in MRS broth with pathogenic bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphyloccus aureus, no viable pathogenic cells were detected after 18 h of incubation. However, pediocin or a pediocin-like bacteriocin was not detected in cultures of P. pentosaceus SH-10 by the agar diffusion method. Organic acids were produced in MRS broth in proportion to the incubation time of P. pentosaceus SH-10. These results indicate that P. pentosaceus SH-10 inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria by lowering the pH of the growth medium through the production of organic acids, including sodium lactate, sodium acetate, and sodium citrate.
Effect of Dietary Glycoprotein Extracted from Porphyra yezoensis on Growth Performance and Resistance against Edwardsiella tarda in Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus Juveniles
Kim, Kang-Woong ; Choi, Jeong-Wook ; Kim, Kyoung-Duck ; Han, Hyon-Sob ; An, Cheul-Min ; Lee, Bong-Joo ; Choi, Youn Hee ; Nam, Taek Jeong ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 606~611
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0606
This study examined the effects of dietary glycoprotein extracted from Porphyra yezoensi on growth performance and resistance against the pathogenic bacteria Edwardsiella tarda in olive flounder. A porphyra-originated glycoprotein (P) was extracted using sequential processes of water and ethanol treatment. P extracts were added to a fish-meal-based diet at concentrations of 0.0, 0.5, and 1.0% (designated as Con,
, respectively). Fish were fed one of the three experimental diets for 10 weeks. All fish groups exhibited over 96.7% survival during the experimental period. Results indicated that the fish fed diets containing P showed an increase in growth performance, including enhanced weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed efficiency. An increase in insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) was observed in the fish fed the
diet, as compared to those fed Con. At the end of the 10-week feeding trial, all fish were infected with E. tarda, and accumulated mortality was monitored for 8 days. Fish fed the Con diet exhibited increasing mortality from day 3 to the end of the challenge test, whereas the mortality of P-fed fish ceased at day 5. We suggest that supplementation with P-originated glycoprotein in aquafeed may increase growth performance and resistance against pathogenic bacteria in olive flounder juveniles.
Proximate and Fatty Acid Compositions of Three Species of Imported and Domestic Freshwater Fishes
Moon, Soo-Kyung ; Lee, Doo-Seog ; Yoon, Ho-Dong ; Kim, Yeon-Kye ; Yoon, Na Young ; Kim, In-Soo ; Jeong, Bo-Young ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 612~618
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0612
The proximate and fatty acid compositions of the edible portion of three species of cultured freshwater fish (common eel Anguilla japonica, rainbow trout Onchorhynchus mykiss, and Israeli carp Cyprinus carpio) were compared between imports from China and domestically produced specimens. The lipid contents of cultured common eel and rainbow trout were rich in imported fishes (20.4 and 12.2%, respectively) compared with those in domestic ones (16.0 and 8.01%, respectively), while those of Israeli carp were rich only in the domestically produced specimens (8.06 and 3.07%, respectively). There was a negative correlation between the lipid and moisture contents in all fish samples (r =-0.86). The protein contents ranged from 16.6 to 21.3% in domestic fishes and 15.3 to 19.1% in imported ones. The most prominent fatty acids in the fishes were: saturated fatty acids, 16:0, 18:0 and 14:0; monounsaturated fatty acids, 18:1n-9, 16:1n-7 and 18:1n-7; and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), 18:2n-6, 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), and 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA). The percentage of n-3 PUFA (e.g., DHA, 22:5n-3, EPA, and 18:3n-3) was higher in domestic common eel and Israeli carp than in imported ones, but similar in domestic and imported rainbow trout, and higher in domestic wild rainbow trout than in cultured ones. On the other hand, all of the cultured freshwater fishes contained a relatively large amount of 18:2n-6, which is a characteristic fatty acid in cultured fish lipids.
Sensory Characterization of Domestic Mottled Skate Raja pulchra as Affected by Area Caught, Sex and Fish Weight
Jo, Hyun-Su ; Kim, Ki Hyun ; Kim, Min Ji ; Kim, Hyeon Jeong ; Im, Yang-Jae ; Kwon, Dae-Hyeon ; Heu, Min Soo ; Kim, Jin-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 619~626
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0619
This study investigated the food quality characteristics of mottled skate Raja pulchra including the proximate composition, taste, color, flavor and texture as affected by area caught (Heuksando and Daecheongdo), sex and fish weight (heavy, intermediate and light grades). Based on viable cell counts, all of the mottled skates studied remained fresh. The moisture and protein contents of the mottled skate did not differ by the area caught and fish weight, but differed by fish sex. The taste of mottled skate was affected only by fish weight. The texture of the mottled skate differed according to fish sex and fish weight. The odor intensity did not differ for the three parameters.
Optimal Processing Conditions of Fermentation Temperature and Sea Salt Concentration for Preparing Squid Todarodes paxificus Sikhae
Han, Dae-Won ; Kim, So-Ra ; Im, Mi-Jin ; Cho, Soon-Yeong ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 627~634
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0627
Squid Sikhae is traditional salt-fermented food in Korea. We evaluated the standardization of optimal processing conditions for desirable quality-controlled squid Sikhae using analyses of physiochemical properties, microbiological species, and organoleptic tests. Among several squid Sikhae preparation processes, the optimal fermentation temperature sun-dried sea salt concentration, and fermentation period for squid Sikhae of acceptable quality were
, 4%, and 6 days, respectively. Amino-N and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) contents of the acceptable quality squid Sikhae were 162.51 mg/100 g and 15.25 mg/100 g, respectively.
Comparison of the Quality of Frozen Skipjack Tuna Katsuwonus pelamis Thawed by Vacuum and Water Immersion
Lee, Tae-Hun ; Koo, Jae-Geun ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 635~639
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0635
Thawing is very important in tuna canning because it affects the yield and quality of the canned tuna, and productivity. The effects of vacuum thawing on the quality, yield, and thawing times of frozen skipjack were compared with conventional water immersion thawing. The time required to thaw frozen skipjack tuna (weight 2.5-3.0 kg) from
was 75, 60, and 37 min at a pressure of 17, 23, and 31 mmHg, respectively, corresponding to temperatures of 20, 25, and
. The thawing time decreased with increasing pressure. Vacuum thawing shorten the thawing time by 58-80% compared with water immersion thawing at
, and there was less difference between the core and skin temperatures than with water immersion thawing. No significant change in pH or histamine was observed according to thawing method, while the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), trimethylamine (TMA), and K value were lower with vacuum thawing than water immersion thawing. Based on these results, we believe that vacuum thawing minimizes the biochemical and microbial changes that occur while thawing frozen skipjack tuna.
Optimal Processing Conditions and Concentrations for Red Pepper Powder and Crushed Garlic in the Manufacture of Squid Todarodes paxificus Sikhae
Kim, So-Ra ; Han, Dae-Won ; Im, Mi-Jin ; Cho, Soon-Yeong ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 640~647
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0640
Squid Sikhae is a traditional salt-fermented food in Korea. We evaluated the standardization of optimal processing conditions for desirable quality-controlled squid Sikhae using analyses of physiochemical properties, microbiological species, and organoleptic tests. The optimal fermentation temperature, sun-dried sea salt concentration, and fermentation period for manufacturing squid Sikhae products of the aceeptable quality were
, 4%, and 6 days. In addition, optimal concentrations of the additional ingredients of red pepper powder and crushed garlic for acceptable quality squid Sikhae were both 6%.
Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Nucleotide on Growth Performance, Feed Utilization, and Non-Specific Immune Responses of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus
Song, Jin-Woo ; Lim, Se-Jin ; Oh, Dae-Han ; Cha, Ji-Hoon ; Lee, Kyeong-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 648~653
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0648
The present study examined the effects of dietary supplementation with nucleotide (inosine monophosphate product, IMP) on the growth performance, feed utilization, and non-specific immune responses of juvenile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Triplicate groups of tilapia (initial body weight,
g) were fed experimental diets containing 0%, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2% IMP. Fish were fed six times a day until apparent satiation for 13 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, final body weight and food utilization of fish fed 0.1% IMP were significantly higher than those of fish fed the control diet. Results of hematological parameters were not affected by dietary IMP. However, blood protein level was significantly higher in the 0.05% treatment, as compared to that of the control and 0.2% IMP diets. Myeloperoxidase activity was higher in fish fed 0.1% IMP than in fish fed the control and 0.2% IMP diets. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with IMP can enhance the growth performance, feed utilization, and innate immune response of juvenile tilapia. The optimal IMP supplementation level appears to be 0.1% in practical feed formulations for tilapia.
Biological Characterization of a Vibrio alginolyticus-Specific Bacteriophage
Heo, Yong Ju ; Lee, Chan Heun ; Baek, Min Suk ; Ahn, Hyun Mi ; Hwang, Yo Sep ; Park, Kwon-Sam ; Choi, Sanghoon ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 654~658
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0654
Vibrio alginolyticus, a marine fish and shellfish pathogen, has been found at a high frequency around the coastal areas of Korea. Vibrio alginolyticus was purified from various diseased fish, and a V. alginolyticus-specific bacteriophage was isolated from seawater obtained from fish farms located on the west coast of Korea. In a bacterial lysis experiment using the phage and antibiotics, tetracycline,
cfu/ml of V. alginolyticus were completely lysed by both the phage and the antibiotic, suggesting that the purified phage in the study could be utilized as an alternative to antibiotics in the control of fish and shellfish diseases caused by V. alginolyticus.
Changes in the Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Fed diets Containing Fish Meal and Soybean Meal as Protein Sources
Kim, Eun Ji ; Park, Myoung Ae ; Seo, Hyung-Chel ; Jang, In-Kwon ; Kim, Su-Kyoung ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 659~665
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0659
A 4-week feeding experiment was conducted with juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to compare the growth of shrimp fed different protein sources: fish meal (FM) and soybean meal (SM). By the end of the experiment, the shrimp grew to
g (FM) and
g (SM). The food and protein conversion rates were significant (P<0.05), while other factors did not differ significantly. The survival rate of shrimp fed FM and SM was
, respectively. The proximate compositions of the entire body and edible part of the shrimp were similar between FM and SM, except for crude protein. The total amino acid levels were slightly lower in SM than FM, but the difference was not significant. During the experiment, the total ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite concentrations increased continuously in both groups and were slightly higher in SM than FM. In conclusion, soybean meal as a substitute for fish meal results in satisfactory growth and survival of white shrimp.
Diagnosis Case of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) in Adult Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus
Kim, In-Woo ; Cho, Mi Young ; Lee, Han-Na ; Han, Hyun Ja ; Oh, Yun Kyeong ; Lee, Soon Jeong ; Jee, Bo Young ; Myeong, Jeong-In ; Won, Kyoung-Mi ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 666~674
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0666
We examined the cause of a disease outbreak in adult olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, which occurred at a Korean aquaculture farm in Korea in 2011. The principal signs included an expanded abdomen and congested liver, with persistent mortality (a little over two months). At the beginning of the outbreak, farm administrators misjudged the disease as bacterial in origin, because of the aforementioned signs, persistent mortality, and the detection of bacterial species, including Vibrio spp. and Streptococcus spp. Moreover, the detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) by reverse trasnscription-PCR analysis was complicated by use of the VHS-VN primer set, which has been in general use recently, because it produced weak bands in some samples. Therefore, we recommend the use of at least two different primer sets in the diagnosis of VHSV. Our histopathological findings indicate that necrotizing myocarditis could be considered a pathogenic sign of VHSV infection.
Effect of Levamisole on Enhancing Natural Cytotoxic Cell Activity in Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus
Park, Kwan-Ha ; Yoon, Jong-Man ; Choi, Sanghoon ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 675~678
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0675
The study examined the effect of levamisole on the natural cytotoxic cell (NCC) activity of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) head kidney (HK) leukocytes. In vitro, HK leukocytes were incubated with
ng of levamisole/ml for 5, 20 or 40 h and then their NCC activity against target cells was assayed. The NCC activity appeared to increase after a 20 h of incubation. In vivo, tilapia were fed commercial diet containing 0, 50, 100 or 300 mg of levamisole/kg for 12 consecutive days. Then, the fish were fed a commercial normal diet and samples harvested weekly 0 to 8 weeks after levamisole administration. The NCC activity was augmented uniformly at all times examined until the end of the experiment. In conclusion, levamisole effectively enhanced and maintained tilapia NCC activity.
Growth Performance and Digestive Characteristics of Starry Flounder Platichthys stellatus on the Moist and Extruded Pellets
Kim, Pyong Kih ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 679~685
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0679
A study was carried out to observe the effects of feed types on the growth, feed preference, and enteric feed transition rate of juvenile starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus for 45 days. Fifty fish (avg. 135 g) were stocked each in replication, and fed a commercial extruded pellet diet (EP, 45% protein) and a moist pellet diet (MP, 65% raw mackerel+35% feed powder in wet basis), respectively. The MP presented the higher performance than that of the EP on the feed efficiency (
for EP and
for MP) and the specific growth rate (
for the EP and
for the MP). In contrast, the EP showed the higher feed preference in terms of the daily feed intake (
for the EP and
for the MP) and the ad libitum feeding rate after a fast of 72 hours (1.73% for the EP and 1.35% for the MP). The feed transition rate through intestinal canals decreased exponentially in both the EP and the MP, showing the faster transition rate with the EP. In the result, starry flounder appeared to have the better feed preference to the EP, but have the higher feed efficiency and growth performance to the MP.
Stomach Contents of the Sea Urchins, Anthocidaris crassispina and Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and Characterization of the Marine Algal Community along the Tongyeong Coast of Korea
Kim, Nam-Gil ; Jang, Jae-Gil ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 686~693
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0686
The seaweed community and stomach contents of the dominant herbivorous sea urchins Anthocidaris crassispina and Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus were examined from November 2008 to October 2009, in coastal areas of Tongyeong, Korea. Thirty-five seaweeds including two green, nine brown, and 24 red algae, were found over the study period. Seventeen seaweeds (two green, two brown, and 13 red) and two invertebrates were found in the stomachs of A. crassispina. In H. pulcherrimus, stomach contents were two green, one brown, 11 red seaweeds, and two invertebrates. The shell diameter of A. crassispina and H. pulcherrimus ranged from 22.3 to 62.3 mm and 15.3 to 40.1 mm, respectively. Total body weights ranged from 48.5 to 86.7 g for A. crassispina and from 7.7 to 25.9 g for H. pulcherrimus. The total weight of stomach contents were 5.1 to 25.8 g in A. crassispina and 1.7 to 11.8 g in H. pulcherrimus. The range of gonad weight was 3.6 to 17.0 g in A. crassispina and 0.8 to 4.0 g in H. pulcherrimus. The gonad index (GI) for A. crassispina peaked in July and reached a minimum in December, whereas the GI for H. pulcherrimus was highest in February, and lowest in May.
Sedimentary and Benthic Environment Characteristics in Macroalgal Habitats of the Intertidal Zone in Hampyeong Bay
Hwang, Dong-Woon ; Koh, Byoung-Seol ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 694~703
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0694
To understand the characteristics of sedimentary and benthic environments in habitats of naturally-occurring intertidal benthic macroalgae, various geochemical parameters of sediment (grain size, ignition loss [IL], chemical oxygen demand [COD], and acid volatile sulfur [AVS]) and pore water (temperature, salinity, pH, and nutrients) were measured in the southern intertidal zone of Hampyeong Bay at two month intervals from April to October 2009. Ecological characteristics including the distribution and biomass of benthic macroalgae were also investigated. Benthic macroalgae were distributed below 4 to 5 m depth from mean sea level near the lower portion of the intertidal zone where air exposure time is relatively short. The distribution area and biomass of benthic macroalgae gradually decreased during the study period. The surface sediments in the benthic algal region were mainly composed of finer sediments, such as slightly gravelly mud and mud. The temperature, salinity, pH, and nutrient concentrations (except dissolved inorganic nitrogen) in pore water did not differ in regions with and without benthic macroalgae, whereas the mean grain size and the concentrations of IL, COD, and AVS in sediments were much higher in regions harboring benthic macroalgae. The correlation between mean grain size and IL in sediments displayed two distinct gradients and the slope was much steeper in regions harboring benthic macroalgae, indicating that the content of organic matter in benthic algal region is not solely dependent on mean grain size. Our results indicate that the benthic macroalgae in the southern intertidal zone of Hampyeong Bay play an important role in the accumulation of organic matter in sediment.
Temporal and Spatial Variation of Nutrient Concentrations in Shallow Pore Water in Intertidal Sandflats of Jeju Island
Hwang, Dong-Woon ; Kim, Hyung-Chul ; Park, Jihye ; Lee, Won-Chan ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 704~715
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0704
To examine temporal and spatial variation in salinity and nutrients in the shallow pore water of intertidal sandflats, we measured salinity and nutrient concentrations (dissolved inorganic nitrogen [DIN], phosphorus [DIP], and silicate [DSi]) in pore water of the intertidal zone along the coastline of Jeju Island at two and/or three month intervals from May 2009 to December 2010. Geochemical parameters (grain size, ignition loss [IL], chemical oxygen demand [COD], and acid volatile sulfur [AVS]) in sediment were also investigated. The surface sediments in intertidal sandflats of Jeju Island were mainly composed of sand, slightly gravelly sand and gravelly sand, with a range of mean grain size from 0.5 to 2.5
. Concentrations of IL and COD in sediment were higher along the eastern coast, as compared to the western coast, due to differences in biogenic sediment composition. Salinity and nutrient concentrations in pore water were markedly different across time and space during rainy seasons, whereas concentrations were temporally and spatially more stable during dry seasons. These results suggest that salinity and nutrient concentrations in pore water depend on the advective flow of fresh groundwater. We also observed an imbalance of the DIN/DIP ratio in pore water due to the influence of contaminated sources of DIN. In particular, nutrient concentrations during rainy and dry seasons were characterized by high DIN/DIP ratios (mean-127) and low DIN/DIP ratios (mean-10), respectively, relative to the Redfield ratio (16) in offshore seawater. Such an imbalance of DIN/DIP ratios in pore water can affect the coastal ecosystem and appears to cause outbreaks of benthic seaweed along the coastline of Jeju Island.
Larval Timing and Distribution of the Red Snow Crab Chionoecetes japonicus near Dokdo
Lee, Hae-Won ; Park, Won-Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 716~722
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0716
The larval occurrence of the red snow crab Chionoecetes japonicus was investigated near Dokdo in the East Sea of Korea, and the larval timing of the genus Chionoecetes in world oceans was reviewed. C. japonicus larvae were collected seasonally at 12 stations in February, May, August, and November in 2011. A Bongo net with a 303 mesh was deployed with a double oblique tow. Larvae appeared from February to August, but no larvae were found in November. Zoea I occurred at nine stations with a few zoea II in February, and were found until August. The larval densities in February were high near the northern. In May, megalopa were found at eight stations with a few zoea II. No larvae were caught in November. The larval abundance in the research area peaked in February. Overall, the larval duration of the genus Chionoecetes in the world's oceans persisted for a long time, and Chionoecetes larvae occurred during the warm season in each area. The cold temperature at the sea bottom, where gravid females are found, may prolong larval production along the distribution range of the genus Chionoecetes.
A Mass Mortality of the Finless Porpoise Neophocaena asiaeorientalis at a Dike of the Saemangeum Sea: Possible Effects of Unusually Low Temperatures
Park, Kyum Joon ; An, Du Hae ; Lim, Chae Woong ; Lee, Tae-Ho ; Kim, Doo Nam ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 723~729
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0723
On 3 February 2011, a mass mortality of finless porpoises Neophocaena asiaeorientalis occurred at a dike of the Saemangeum Sea dike. A total of 249 carcasses were collected; these had been stranded by a sea dike and had floated into the lake formed by the dike. Eight bodies were measured, and four of these were dissected to analyze stomach contents. The blubber thicknesses of five bodies were compared with those of caught finless porpoises in the Yellow Sea from 2010. Finless porpoises at the Saemangeum Sea dike exhibited better nutritive conditions than finless porpoises in the Yellow Sea. Air temperature in January 2011 was lower than the prior 5-year average (P<0.05). Water temperature when the mass mortality occurred was lower than values observed in 2009 and 2010: values below
had been recorded, and the majority of the dike lake had frozen over. The mass mortality of finless porpoises may have been caused by these unusually low temperatures.
Body Shrinkage of Juvenile Chub Mackerel Scomber japonicus after Preservation in Ethyl Alcohol
Lee, Jeong-Hoon ; Kim, Jung Nyun ; Kim, Joo Il ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 45, issue 6, 2012, Pages 730~733
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2012.0730
We investigated body shrinkage, defined as change in standard length and body weight of juvenile chub mackerel Scomber japonicus after preservation in 70% ethyl alcohol for 1, 8, or 12 days. Standard length (SL) was decreased by 3.6% and body weight (BW) was reduced by 27.5% after 8 day of preservation. There were no significant decreases in SL and BW after 8 or 12 days preservation. Linear regression equations for estimation of original body size from the size after preservation in 70% ethyl alcohol for 12 days were expressed as:
. These equations will be useful for improving accuracy the estimation accuracy for various size-related biological parameters in juvenile chub mackerel juvenile.