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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 47, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 47, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 47, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 47, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 47, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 47, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Food Component Characterization and Efficient Use of Jellyfish
Lim, Chi-Won ; Kim, Jin-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 459~473
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0459
The recent mass appearances of jellyfish in Korea have caused economic and social damage, as they plague swimmers and fishermen. However, jellyfish have high economic and nutritional value, and contain low levels of calories and hydrolysates. Thus, jellyfish are a natural, healthy food that can improve high blood pressure, bronchitis, and a multitude of other diseases. Here, we present research on the ecology, classification, bloom, damage caused, food component characterization, and tissues of jellyfish, with the aim of facilitating further study. Research on use of jellyfish as salted products, and for collagen and qniumucin would also be valuable. A jellyfish body is classified into three parts: the body, termed the umbrella; the oral arm; and the tentacle. Jellyfish are planktonic marine members of a group of invertebrate animals comprising the classes Schypozoa (phylum Cnidaria) and Cuboza. In Korea in 2012, jellyfish damage resulted in decreases of annual catch and commercial value estimated at 177 and 141 billion won, respectively. Because concentrations of heavy metals are below the safety limits for seafood, dried jellyfish appear to be safe raw materials for food. The proximate compositions of Nemopilema nomurai and Aurelia aurita were 97.1% and 96.5% moisture, 0.9% and 1.2% crude proteins, undetected and 0.1% crude lipids, and 1.7% and 1.8% ash, respectively. According to their total contents of essential, total, and non-essential amino acids, jellyfish gonads were deemed good-quality protein. Because the major functional components of jellyfish are collagen and qniumucin, jellyfish can be used salted, or these components of healthy diets can be extracted from them. For more effective use of jellyfish, unit costs should be decreased and safety guaranteed. Additionally, dehydrators attached to conveyor belts should be developed. Since jellyfish can be used throughout the year, they should be listed in the Korean Food Standards Codex as a food source.
Quality of Steam Cooked Surimi Gel Prepared using Sandfish Arctoscopus japonicus Meat
Kim, Byoung-Mok ; Kim, Dong-Soo ; Jeong, In-Hack ; Kim, Young-Myoung ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 474~481
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0474
This study examined the effect of pretreated sandfish Arctoscopus japonicus meat as a surimi complex for preparing sandfish flavored fish paste. To prepare the sandfish-flavored paste, fine chopped sandfish meat including backbone was added in a ratio of 0 to 50 wt.% to thawed Alaska pollock Theragra chalcogramma surimi to make a mixed surimi gel. To prepare the sandfish-flavored paste, the mixed surimi was ground with salt using a silent cutter, mixed with starch and stabilizers 0.2% transglutaminase and gluconolactone 0.3%, stuffed in a rectangular container, left for 3 h at
, cooked in hot water for 30 min at
, and finally chilled for 20 min at
. The effects of the pretreatment of sandfish meat were investigated by analyzing the quality of the paste produced. The proximate composition of FP (fish paste containing 40% steam-cooked sandfish meat and 0.3% gluconolactone) was moisture 76.1%, crude protein 12.0%, crude fat 3.8%, carbohydrate 6.1%, and ash 2.0%. The major minerals in FP were Na (23.77 mg/L), Mg (1.46 mg/L), Zn (1.04 mg/L), and Fe (0.41 mg/L), and the major free amino acids were taurine, anserine, alanine, and glutamic acid. The monounsaturated fatty acid content of FP was 566.22 mg%, and the polyunsaturated fatty acid content was 498.43 mg%. The n-3 fatty acid content was 398.01 mg%, and C20:5n-3 (218.85 mg %) was a major component.
Physicochemical Characteristics of Salted Jellyfish Processed in Southeast Asia
Choi, Ji Il ; Shim, Kil Bo ; Yoon, Na Young ; Kim, Min A ; Park, Jae Sung ; Lim, Chi Won ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 482~488
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0482
The study investigated the chemical composition, pH, and texture of salted jellyfish processed in Indonesia, Thailand, and China as a pilot study for processing the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai, which occurs in Korean coastal waters. The 14 samples of salted jellyfish included processed umbrella and oral arms and consisted of 68.4-78.3 g/100 g moisture, 1.79-4.37 g/100 g crude protein, and 0.07-0.41 g/100 g crude lipid. The total amino acid content was 2.30-4.69 g/100 g and glycine accounted for 20.07-37.37% of the total amino acids. Salting jellyfish reduces the possibility of microbial growth and enhances the shelf life because the samples have a pH of 3.77-4.35, salinity of 18.53-24.02%, and lower water activity of 0.77-0.80. The lightness (L), redness (a), and yellowness (b) of the samples were 53.98-61.32, 1.76-6.26, and 14.08-29.0, respectively. The springiness, strength, and hardness of the salted jellyfish differed significantly among the products. The sample processed in Indonesia had the highest springiness. While the chemical composition, pH, water activity, and color differed significantly among the products, there were no significant effects of the country of manufacture. These results will enable the determination of quality index parameters for salted processed Nemopilema nomurai caught in Korean coastal.
Effect of Packaging and Electron Beam Irradiation on the Microbial Safety and Quality of Dried Undaria pinnatifida
Bark, Si-Woo ; Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri ; Kim, Min-Ji ; Kang, Bo-Kyeong ; Pak, Won-Min ; Kim, Bo-Ram ; Ahn, Na-Kyung ; Choi, Yeon Uk ; Lee, Ju-Woon ; Kim, Jae-Hun ; Byun, Myoung-Woo ; Ahn, Dong-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 489~494
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0489
This study determined the effect of packaging and electron beam irradiation on the quality of dried Undaria pinnatifida. Samples were air or vacuum packaged and irradiated at 7 kGy. The dried Undaria pinnatifida had total viable cells and coliform counts of 5.51 and 4.40 log CFU/g in total, respectively, and counts of 5.56 and 4.19 log CFU/g in surface. These counts were reduced by 2-4 log cycles after irradiation. Irradiation increased the lightness and yellowness of the dried Undaria pinnatifida, but not the redness. In the sensory evaluation, there were no significant differences among samples. Therefore, electron beam irradiation improves the microbial safety and quality of dried Undaria pinnatifida.
Relationship of pH, Glycogen, Soluble Protein, and Turbidity between Freshness of Raw Oyster Crassostrea gigas
Son, Kwang Tae ; Shim, Kil Bo ; Lim, Chi Won ; Yoon, Na Young ; Seo, Jeong Hwa ; Jeong, Sam Geun ; Jeong, Woo Young ; Cho, Young Je ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 495~500
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0495
We examined chemical changes in oysters Crassostrea gigas and packing water that were sold after storage at 5, 10, and
. The pH of oysters stored at
dropped to 5.81 after 10 days of storage, while that of oysters at
dropped to 5.37 after 8 days and to 5.04 after 4 days, respectively. The glycogen content of oysters stored at
decreased from 718.89 to 421.85 mg/100g during storage, while that of oysters at
decreased to 351.49 mg/100 g after 4 days. The turbidity and soluble protein in packing water increased slightly. The viable cell count of oysters did not exceed 6 log CFU/g after 10 days of storage at
, but that of oysters at
did so after 8 days. Additionally, the viable cell count of packing water was lower than that of oysters. We performed a principal component analysis, where the first principal component (55.03%-57.24%) and second principal component (42.76%-44.97%) described most variation. The first principal component included the pH of oysters and packing water, and the glycogen content of oysters. A Pearson correlation between the first two principal components had a higher R value than that between other components. Freshness was evaluated using the pH of oysters and packing water, and glycogen. We found that soluble protein content was significantly associated with a lower pH and glycogen content.
Norovirus Quantification in Oysters Crassostrea gigas Collected from Tongyeoung, Korea
Shin, Soon Bum ; Oh, Eun-Gyoung ; Lee, Hee-Jung ; Kim, Yeon Kye ; Lee, Tae Seek ; Kim, Ji-Hoe ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 501~507
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0501
Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of food poisoning outbreaks in Korea. Most NoV outbreaks originate from environmental contamination, but bivalves such as oysters are also important vectors. Oyster Crassostrea gigas contamination by NoV has been reported in Korea, but no quantitative analyses of NoV have been performed. We investigated the NoV concentration in 21 oyster samples from a Korean commercial oyster-growing area with confirmed fecal contamination from January to December 2012, using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, we assessed the NoV concentration after heating to investigate the effects of heat treatment on NoV-infected oysters. In NoV-positive samples, the cycle threshold (Ct) values were 37.43-39.41 and 36.77-39.30, while viral concentrations were
copies/g for genogroups I and II, respectively. After heat treatment, NoV genogroup I decreased by 83.4%, 88.0%, 89.4% and 100% at
, respectively, for 15 min, while genogroup II respectively decreased by 67.3%, 76.3%, 80.1%, and 89.8% under the same conditions.
Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Korean Shellfish
Yu, Hongsik ; Oh, Eun-Gyoung ; Shin, Soon Bum ; Park, Yong Su ; Lee, Hee-Jung ; Kim, Ji Hoe ; Song, Ki Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 508~515
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0508
The contamination status of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in commercially valuable shellfish from the south and west coasts of Korea and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of isolated V. parahaemolyticus were investigated from July through October, 2011. The range of V. parahaemolyticus concentrations in oysters Crassostrea gigas and short neck clams Venerupis philippinarum was <30~290 MPN/100 g and <30~46,000 MPN/100 g, respectively, and greater than 10,000 MPN/100 g of V. parahaemolyticus was detected from 7 of 40 short neck clams. During the survey period, 436 strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated (129 from oysters and 307 from short-neck clams) and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of all of the isolates were examined. Antimicrobial resistance against at least one antibiotic was seen in 79.8% of the oyster isolates (103 strains) and 63.8% of the short neck clam isolates (196 strains). The antimicrobial resistance patterns were relatively simple because the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates was simply due to resistance to ampicillin. Only one oyster isolate and three short neck clam isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance, i.e., resistance against more than four antibiotics.
Biochemical Characterization of α-Galactosidase-Producing Thermophilic Bacillus coagulans KM-1
Nam, Ki Ho ; Jang, Mi Soon ; Park, Hee Yeon ; Koneva, Elena ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 516~521
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0516
A bacterium producing
-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC 184.108.40.206) was isolated. The isolate, KM-1 was identified as Bacillus coagulans based on its 16S rRNA sequence, morphology, and biochemical properties.
-Galactosidase activity was detected the culture supernatant of B. coagulans KM-1. The bacterium showed the maximum activity for hydrolyzing para-nitrophenyl-
) at pH 6.0 and
. It hydrolyzed oligomeric substrates such as melibiose, raffinose, and stachyose liberating a galactose residue, indicating that the B. coagulans KM-1
-1,6 linkage. The results suggest that the decreased stachyose and raffinose contents in fermented soybean meal are due to the
Development and Application of Molecular Markers for Identifying Ulva species in Commercial Pyropia Seafoods
Ha, Dong-Soo ; Hwang, Mi Sook ; Kim, Seung-Oh ; Lee, Jee Eun ; Lee, Sang-Rae ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 522~526
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0522
Pyropia, economic red algae species, have been cultivated in Korea (referred to as 'gim'), Japan ('nori'), and China ('zicai') for over 300 years. Vegetable seaweed Pyropia species are sold in the public markets in various forms as commercial seafoods. In Korea, two kinds of Pyropia seafood made with species of Pyropia and Ulva (sea lettuce, referred to as 'parae') are also sold. These are referred to as 'parae-gim' (with Pyropia spp. and U. linza) and 'gamtaegim' (with Pyropia spp. and U. prolifera). There is currently no method for identifying the seaweed species that comprise Pyropia seafood products. Therefore, we developed novel molecular markers to identify Ulva species in commercial Pyropia seafoods. Based on rbcL molecular markers, we identified informative characteristics to discriminate U. linza and U. prolifera as seafood ingredients. Moreover, PCR with 3'-end mismatch primers successfully isolated the specific rbcL sequences of U. linza and U. prolifera from Pyropia seafoods. Therefore, our novel molecular markers will be useful for identifying the ingredient species of commercial seafoods.
Anti-inflammatory Effect of an Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Myagropsis yendoi on Lipopolysaccharides-stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells
Kim, Bowoon ; Kim, Jae-Il ; Kim, Hyeung-Rak ; Byun, Dae-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 527~536
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0527
An ethanolic extract from Myagropsis yendoi was fractionated using several solvents. Among these, an ethyl acetate fraction (Myagropsis yendoi ethyl acetate fraction: MYE) showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity based on inhibition of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells. We thus investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying MYE's inhibitory effects. Pretreatment of cells with up to
of MYE significantly inhibited NO production and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Similarly, MYE markedly reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-
, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-
, as well as their mRNA levels. While the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-
) was strongly suppressed by MYE, the activation of a nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) was increased. Moreover, MYE significantly reduced the phosphorylation of JNK, p38 MAPK, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt in LPS-stimulated cells. These results indicate that MYE contains anti-inflammatory compounds, and that it might be used as a dietary supplement for the prevention of inflammatory diseases.
Processing and Characteristics of Canned Kwamaegi Cololabis saira using Red Pepper Paste with Vinegar
Kwon, Soon-Jae ; Park, Tae-Ho ; Lee, Jae-Dong ; Yoon, Moon-Joo ; Kong, Cheung-Sik ; Je, Hae-Soo ; Jung, Jae-Hun ; Kim, Jeong-Gyun ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 537~544
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0537
Kwamaegi is a traditional Korean seafood made from the flesh of Pacific saury Cololabis saira. It is recognized as a valuable, healthy food containing the
-3 fatty acids EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). This study was conducted in order to obtain basic data for application to the canning process of Kwamaegi using red pepper paste with vinegar. Commercial Kwamaegi was cut into
lengths and 90 g was put into cans (301-3). Then, 60 g of water was added and precooked for 10 minutes at
. The water was drained after precooking. The precooked Kwamaegi was packed into cans, and 60 g of red pepper paste with vinegar was added. The cans were seamed using a vacuum seamer, then sterilized for differing times (8-12 minutes) in a steam system retort at
. Parameters such as: pH, TVB-N, amino-N, total amino acid content, free amino acid content, color value (L, a, b), texture profile, TBA value, mineral content, sensory evaluation and viable bacterial count of the product produced under varying sterilization times (8-12 minutes) were measured. There were no remarkable differences between sterilization conditions and textural characteristics. The results showed that product sterilized for 8 minutes proved to be the most desirable.
Optimizing Recipes of Korean-style Cut Noodles with Anchovy Engraulis japonicus Soup Base Residue Powder
Lee, So-Yeon ; Ryu, Hong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 545~555
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0545
To develop Korean-style cut noodles with enhanced protein and calcium levels, we manipulated the ratio of dried anchovy Engraulis japonicus soup base residue powder to wheat flour, using a response surface methodology based on trained panel trials to determine the optimum ratio. Texture analysis and nutritional evaluation were also performed on cut noodles containing dried anchovy soup base residue (CNAR). Higher umami taste and springiness, and lower fishy flavor were strongly correlated with overall acceptability. The optimal CNAR formulation consisted of wheat flour (96.02 g), anchovy residue powder (2.67 g), and water (50.64 mL). CNAR had lower gumminess and adhesiveness (P<0.001), but higher springiness, cohesiveness (P<0.001), and chewiness (P<0.05), than the control (original wheat flour cut noodles). The addition of anchovy soup base residue elevated protein, lipid, and ash levels relative to the control. Color values decreased with increasing residue powder content. In vitro protein and starch digestibility of CNAR were lower than in the control (P<0.001). CNAR yielded significantly higher total free amino acid content than the control (P<0.01), leading to CNAR's improved palatability. Dried anchovy soup base residue can be used in wheat flour cut noodles to improve nutrition, sensory acceptability, and profitability.
Quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Using a Most Probable Number-Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay Targeting the H-NS gene
Kim, Tae-Ok ; Park, Kwon-Sam ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 556~561
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0556
We applied a combination of most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) methods using a PCR procedure targeting the H-NS (VP1133) gene to detect Vibrio parahaemolyticus presence and density in seawater as well as within short-necked clam Ruditapes philippinarum tissues collected from Gomso Bay, Korea. In 30 seawater samples, V. parahaemolyticus levels ranged from less than 1.8 to
, and samples from August showed higher than those from other months. Furthermore, the levels of V. parahaemolyticus in six short-necked clam samples ranged from
, approximately 2.5 times higher than in seawater samples from the corresponding month. Our results provide data on V. parahaemolyticus contamination in seawater and short-necked clam tissues, and help to improve quantitative methods of assessing V. parahaemolytcius levels.
Effects of Three Diets on the Larval Growth of Pandalid Shrimp Pandalopsis japonica
Kwon, O-Nam ; Lim, Mae-Soon ; Park, Kie-Young ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 562~566
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0562
Larvae of pandalid shrimp Pandalopsis japonica are benthic, and may prefer bottom to planktonic food items. Three diets, enriched Artemia meta-nauplii (AR), clam meat (CM), and crumbled shrimp (CD), were evaluated as food for early larvae in terms of biometric growth R:D ratios. Larvae fed AR and CM had significantly greater total length and dry weight than did larvae fed CD (P<0.05). Survival was significantly greater in larvae fed CM than in those fed AR and CD (P<0.05). R:D ratios were also significantly higher in larvae fed AR and CM than in those fed CD (P<0.05). Planktonic Artemia meta-nauplii containing high levels of fatty acids and amino acids were not suitable for either normal somatic growth or survival at early benthic larval stages. Furthermore, it is necessary to determine the optimal feeding duration to increase digestibility of AD. Thus, we propose that clam meat is the best diet for pandalid shrimp larvae.
The Physiological Changes in the Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus Caused by a Diet Containing CaO
Moon, Hye-Na ; Namgung, Jin ; Yeo, In-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 567~576
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0567
This study investigated the physiological effects of a diet containing calcium oxide (CaO) on the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The results indicate that the amount of calcium in the blood was higher in the calcium group compared with the controls. The aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) levels were lower in the calcium group, while lysozyme activity was higher in the calcium group. Histologically, fish in the calcium group had more hepatocytes in the liver and more intact scales. In addition, an attack experiment using Vibrio anguillarum (KCTC-2711) and Edwardsiella tarda (KCTC-3657) showed that the survival was higher in the calcium group compared with the controls. These results suggest that feeding fish CaO when they require it, such as during periods of gonadal maturation and rapid growth, will increase their immunity and resistance to pathogens.
Effects of Feed Rate and Screw Speed of Extruded Diets on Growth and Body Composition of Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus
Kim, Kyoung-Duck ; Kim, Kang-Woong ; Lee, Bong-Joo ; Bae, Ki-Min ; An, Cheul-Min ; Han, Hyun-Sob ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 577~581
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0577
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diet extruder conditions, such as feed-loading rate and screw speed, on growth performance and biochemical responses in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Over 8 wks, we used four identical diets (triplicated per treatment) with differing ratios of feed-loading rate (kg/h):screw speed (rpm/min) in a laboratory-scaled twin-screw extruder of 50:640, 80:640, 120:640, and 80:400, designated as EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4, respectively. Screw speed impacted the buoyancy of experimental diets. Diets produced at a screw speed of 640 rpm/min floated for > 24 hrs, whereas those produced at a speed of 400 rpm/min sank between 10 s and 5 min. Fish that were fed EP1 and EP4 diets grew significantly faster than those fed EP2 and EP3 diets. Fish fed EP1 diets ate and gained weight most efficiently among treatments, a result that is likely to be related to feed-loading rate, i.e., ingredients extruded at a low feed-loading rate may have more time to cook in the pre-conditioner of the extruder. A cooked diet may be easier to digest in fish. Fish fed EP4 diets also showed significant weight gain, as compared to those fed EP2 and EP3 diets. However, we found no differences among treatments in proximate compositions of dorsal muscle, liver, and viscera of fish. Our results suggest that extruder conditions, may influence feed quality, impacting feed efficiency and growth of fish.
Optimum Feeding Rate for Sub-adult Olive Flounder (384 g) Paralichthys olivaceus Fed Practical Extruded Pellets at Optimum Water Temperatures (20-24.5℃)
Kim, Sung-Sam ; Kim, Kang-Woong ; Kim, Kyoung-Duck ; Lee, Bong-Joo ; Han, Hyon-Sob ; Kim, Jae-Won ; Bai, Sungchul C. ; Lee, Kyeong-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 582~587
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0582
We investigated the effects of feeding rate on the growth, blood components, and histology of sub-adult olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Optimum feeding rate (initial fish mean weight :
) was determined under the optimum water temperature. Two replicated groups of fish were fed a commercial diet at rates of 0%, 0.3%, 0.5%, and 0.7% body weight (BW) per day, and to satiation. The feeding trial was conducted using a flow-through system with ten 1.2-metric ton aquaria receiving filtered seawater at
for 3 weeks. After the feeding trial, the weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) were significantly higher in fish fed at 0.7% BW/day and those fed to satiation (0.9% BW/day) than in fish fed at other feeding rates or in the unfed fish. These parameters were negative and significantly lower in the unfed fish than in those fed the experimental diet at all feeding rates. There were no significant differences in WG and SGR among fish fed at 0.3 and 0.5% BW/day and among those fed at 0.7% BW/day and to satiation. The histological changes in the hepatopancreas, kidney, and anterior intestine of fish fed at 0, 0.5, and 0.9 % BW/day did not differ much. Broken-line regression analysis of weight gain showed that the optimum feeding rate of olive flounder weighing 384 g was 0.74% BW per day at the optimum water temperatures.
Influences of Temperature and Density on the Feeding Growth, and Blind-side Malpigmentation of Fry Starry Flounder Platichthys stellatus
Kang, Duk-Young ; Kim, Won-Jin ; Kim, Hyo-Chan ; Chang, Young Jin ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 588~596
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0588
To examine the influences of water temperature and stocking density on feeding, growth and blind-side hypermelanosis of the starry flounder Platichthys stellatus, we performed an experiment with fry at two densities: 2 and 8 fish/L. The fry had a total length of
, body weight
, and pigmented patches (pigmented ratio
) on the blind side. Duplicate experiments were conducted in 93.7 L glass tanks for 120 days, from July to November. We determined daily food intake (DFI), food efficiency (FE), growth, survival rate, ratio of hypermelanic fish, and pigmented area rate on the blind side at 60-day intervals. The DFI was less than 50 mg/fish/day, and growth was delayed from July to September (water temperature [WT]>
). After October, when WT <
, the DFI increased significantly and the growth was accelerated, suggesting that the rearing temperature of starry flounder in artificial facilities should be <
. While the FE, and survival did no differ between the two density groups, DFI and growth were significantly higher at 2 fish/L than at 8 fish/L. There was no difference in the pigmented area ratio between the two density groups. Although the hypermelanosis was not correlated with body size, the malpigmentation increased with growth. These results suggest that a high stocking density is not the main cause of blind-side hypermelanosis, although it can accelerate hypermelanosis in the starry flounder.
Effects of Starvation, Water Temperature, and Water Flow on the Metamorphosis of Leptocephalus of Japanese Eel Anguilla japonica
Kim, Dae-Jung ; Lee, Nam-Sil ; Kim, Kyung-Kil ; Chang, Dae-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 597~602
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0597
We determined the effects of starvation, water temperature, and water flow on the onset of metamorphosis in leptocephali of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. Leptocephali larger than 50 mm (ca. 200 days old) were reared in 10-L tanks under different feeding, water temperature, and water flow regimes. Fasted leptocephali metamorphosed earlier and faster than did the fed ones. Metamorphosis was faster in the high water flow tank (1.2 L/min) than in the tank with flow at 0.6 L/min. The duration of metamorphosis was slightly shorter at
. To conclude, starvation induced the metamorphosis of artificially produced leptocephali larger than 50 mm TL. Increased water flow and water temperature both appear to induce and shorten metamorphosis.
A Nematode Infection in the Epithelial Tissue of Cultured Rockfish Sebastes schlegeli in Cheonsu Bay, Western Korea
Seo, Han-Gill ; Seo, Jung Soo ; Ryu, Min-Kyung ; Lee, Eun Hye ; Kwon, Se Ryun ; Kang, Jong Soon ; No, Yun-San ; Choi, Hye-Sung ; Jung, Sung Hee ; Han, Hyun-Ja ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 603~610
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0603
We investigated a nematode infection in the epithelial tissue of rockfish Sebastes schlegeli cultured in Cheonsu Bay, western Korea, from May 2013 to April 2014. Nematodes infected the epithelial tissues of various external organs, including the fins, operculum, nares, mouth, and head. Over a 1-year period, the overall nematode infection rate in rockfish was 55% (n=89/163): 56.7% (n=17/30) in May 2013, 88% (n=29/33) in August 2013, 0% (n=0/30) in October 2013, 70% (n=21/30) in January 2014, and 55% (n=22/40) in April 2014. During this study, the only mass mortality of cultured rockfish in Cheonsu Bay was in August 2013, when we identified skin wounds on the rockfish caused by the nematodes escaping from their hosts. During this period, the accumulated mortality for 2 weeks was 1.4-22.4% in different farms. In addition, several pathogenic bacteria (Photobacterium damselae, Vibrio spp., and Streptococcus iniae) were isolated from the moribund rockfish; these were thought to be transmitted through the skin wounds caused by the nematodes.
Monitoring Kudoa septempunctata in Cultured Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in Different Regions of Korea in 2013
Song, Jun-Young ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Choi, Hye-Sung ; Jung, Sung Hee ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 611~621
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0611
A nationwide survey was conducted to study the rate of Kudoa septempunctata parasitization in cultured olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, in Korea in 2013. Of 1107 olive flounder sampled randomly from 89 culture farms in five different regions in Korea, K. septempunctata was detected only in Jeju, where 10 of 318 fish (3.14%) were PCR positive, with genomic concentrations of
rDNA copies/g by real-time PCR. Of the ten Kudoapositive fish, K. septempunctata spores with 5-7 polar capsules were detected only in four fish. No samples of K. septempunctata were detected in olive flounder from the other regions surveyed. Furthermore, K. septempunctata was not detected in 326 samples of olive flounder seeds sampled from 39 hatcheries in seven different regions in Korea. Therefore, the parasite infection is restricted to Jeju and K. septempunctata infection is not spread from hatcheries.
Nitrification and Denitrification of Land-based Fish Farm Wastewater using an Anaerobic-Aerobic Upflow Biological Aerated Filter
Park, Noh-Back ; Lee, Hyun-Young ; Kim, Seong-Min ; Lee, Jun-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 622~629
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0622
This study induced biological denitrification and nitrification via a biofiltration process with the view of removing nitrogen from land-based fish farm effluent. To achieve this, we operated an aquaculture nitrogen-removal system that includes a denitrification and nitrification reactor [working volume 40 L, flow rate 64.8 L, HRT (hydraulic retention time) 14.8 h, HRT considering recycling of NOx 7.4 h]. In the continuous process, the nitrification rate of ammonium nitrogen exceeded 90% at a steady state and the denitrification efficiency exceeded 80% with recycling to a pre-anoxic reactor. In addition, the pH in the final effluent was lower with a low influent water alkalinity averaging 100 mg/L (as
). For effective denitrification reactions, carbon must be supplied via particulate organic matter (POM) hydrolysis because of the low C/N (carbon/nitrogen) ratio in the water.
Developmental Speed of Hybrid Fertilized Egg Between Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus Female and Starry Flounder Platichthys stellatus Male at Different Water Temperatures and Larval Growth
Do, Yong Hyun ; Min, Byung Hwa ; Choi, Myeoung Lyeoul ; Lim, Han Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 630~636
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0630
To investigate the characteristics of hybrid eggs and larva produced by olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus females and starry flounder Platichthys stellatus males, we examined the developmental speed of hybrid eggs at different water temperatures. The developmental speed of hybrid eggs tended to increase with increasing water temperature. Specifically, the hatching times were 91 hrs, 62 hrs and 43 hrs at
, respectively. The mean biological minimum temperature of the hybrid was
, which is in between that of the olive flounder and the starry flounder. In high water temperatureseasons, slower growth was observed in hybrids of the starry flounder which is a coldwater fish.
Reproduction and distribution of Chionoecetes crabs (C. opilio and C. japonicus) in the East Sea
Cha, Hyung Kee ; Yang, Jae Hyeong ; Lee, Sung Il ; Yoon, Sang Chul ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 637~644
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0637
Two Chionoecetes crabs, C. opilio and C. japonicus are primary targets of trap fisheries in the East Sea. To promote the sustainable management of these species, we investigated their reproductive biology and spatial distribution based on samples collected in standardized traps in the coastal waters of eastern Korea from September 2007 to August 2008. The estimated spawning season of C. opilio was March-April, whereas that of C. japonicus continued year-round. The estimated molting period of both species was September-October. Fecundity of C. opilio was proportional to female, size, ranging from 44,791 to 151,538 eggs, and the estimated body size at 50% sexual maturity was 63.9 mm carapace width. Egg bearing female C. opilio were mostly collected depths of 200-300 m, particularly off Hupo and Chuksan, suggesting that these areas are their major spawning grounds. In contrast, female C. japonicus were mostly collected at depths of 400-600 m, peaking at 600 m. The species-specific catch rate was higher for C. opilio above 400 m, similar at ca. 450 m, and higher for C. japonicus below 500 m. These vertical differences indicate apparent spatial segregation of the species, suggesting that spatially-explicit fisheries management plans may be necessary for mitigating conflicts between the respective crab fisheries and maintaining these crabs.
Seasonal Variation of Species Composition of Fish in the Coastal Waters off Wolseong Nuclear Power Plant, East Sea of Korea by Otter Trawl Survey
Choi, Jung Hwa ; Kim, Jung Yun ; Kim, Jin Koo ; Kim, Jung Bin ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 645~653
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0645
We examined seasonal variation in fish species composition in coastal waters near Wolseong Nuclear Power Plant in the East Sea of Korea. A total of 72 species, 39 families, 14 orders, 46,214 individuals, and 4,639,667 g were collected. Glyptocephalus stelleri was the most dominant species by number of individuals (35%), followed by Clupea pallasii (26%). Liparis tanakai and Lophius litulon were the dominant species by biomass, accounting for 46% and 28%, respectively. We showed that bottom salinity and temperature are the most important environmental factors influencing fish species composition. Although bottom salinity did not differ statistically among seasons or stations, we detected some variation among stations. Additionally, bottom temperature differed among seasons and stations (P<0.05), affecting numbers of individuals and biomass. Thus, seasonal variation in fish assemblages can be classified into two groups: spring/summer and autumn/winter.
Occurrence of Eggs and Larvae of Blackfin Flounder Glyptocephalus stelleri (Pleuronectidae, Pisces) off Wangdol-cho, East Sea
Lee, Hae Won ; Lee, Soo Jeong ; Yang, Jae Hyung ; Lee, Jae Bong ; Cha, Hyung Kee ; Kim, Jin-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 654~658
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0654
We report the first identification of a spawning ground of the blackfin flounder Glyptocephlaus stelleri near the Wangdol-cho sea mountains, located in the southern East Sea. Eggs and larval fish of G. stelleri were collected during April and June, 2014, when an abundance of eggs was found in the southern area of Wangdol-cho. Our findings suggest that G. stelleri prefers to spawn in the vicinity of the off-shore sea mountains, where the temperature is between 10 and
and the water depth is 100 m, rather than inshore.
Change of Structure Community of Fish Collected by a Gape Net with Wings after 12 Years in the Coast of Wando Island, Korea
Yoo, Joon-Taek ; Kim, Jin-Koo ; Choi, Mun-Seong ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 659~666
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0659
Our aim was to compare the community structure of fish in the coast of Wando Island between 2001 and 2013. Using a gape net with wings, we collected 61 taxa, wherein the most dominant species was Engraulis japonicus. The sea temperature in the middle layer of the survey station in 2001 (after June) was obviously higher than that in 2013, which was <
. Except for Thryssa kammalensis in 2013, the log transformed individuals of seven dominant species, selected using a SIMPER (similarity-percentages procedure) analysis, decreased. Decreases in the individuals of Gobiidae spp., the warm-water species Trichiurus japonicus and Conger myriaster, and the migratory species Syngnathus schlegeli, Setipinna taty and Sardinella zunasi, which arrive in the southern coastal waters of Korea during summer-autumn, could be due to decreasing sea temperature in 2013. Thus, fish species diversity, estimated from rarefaction and k-dominance curves, declined in the coastal waters of Wando Island from 2001 to 2013, resulting in a significant difference in fish community structure.
Morphological Characteristics of Laemonema nana (Moridae) Collected from the Southern Coastal Waters of Korea
Kim, Maeng Jin ; Choi, Jung Hwa ; Choi, Kwang Ho ; Song, Choon Bok ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 667~670
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0667
Six adult fish of Laemonema nana, belonging to the family Moridae, were collected in a bottom trawl in the southern coastal waters of Korea. These specimens were characterized by having 46-52 second dorsal fin rays (vs. 57-67 for Lotella phycis and 68 for Physiculus japonicus), two pelvic fin rays (vs. 9 for L. phycis and 6-7 for P. japonicus), and lateral line descending abruptly below the anterior part of the second dorsal fin.
Distribution and Abundance of Japanese Anchovy Engraulis japonicus and Other Fishes in Asan Bay, Korea, estimated Hydroacoustic Survey
Lee, Hyung-Been ; Kang, Don-Hyug ; Im, Yang-Jae ; Lee, Kyoung-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 5, 2014, Pages 671~681
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0671
The distribution and abundance of coastal fish species in Asan Bay, Korea, were estimated from hydroacoustic survey and net catches. Acoustic data were collected with 38 and 200 kHz from July to October of 2012, and converted to the nautical area scattering coefficient (NASC,
along ten transects. Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus was the dominant specie in the net catches. The virtual echogram technique was used to distinguish E. japonicus from other species based on the differences in the mean volume backscattering strength (
) at 38 and 200 kHz. Engraulis japonicus and other fishes are mainly distributed in the center channel and outer part of Asan Bay. E. japonicus tends to move from inner to outer Asan Bay in summer and fall. From NASC data, the target strength and length-weight function of E. japonicus and other fishes were used to estimate the E. japonicus stock at 24.1-93.3 tons, and other fish at 40.6-88.4 tons from July to October 2012. The estimated anchovy biomass compared well with the cumulative catch weight from stow net catches. The hydroacoustic method offers an approach to understanding spatial/temporal structure and estimating the biomass of fish aggregations in coastal areas.