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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 47, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 47, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 47, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 47, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 47, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 47, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Effect of Transport Stocking Density on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Muscle from Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus
Shim, Kil Bo ; Yoon, Ho Dong ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 707~712
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0707
The effects of transport stocking density (500, 600 and 700 kg of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus/per water tank) on the physicochemical characteristics of muscle were investigated. Transport of the animals took, on average, 10 days from Busan, Korea, to Long Beach, CA, USA. There was no significant difference in the breaking strength of muscle among the three groups. There was also no significant difference in the ATP, lactate, or glycogen content of muscle from the 500 and 600 kg/tank stocking density groups at the beginning and after transport. However, the ATP content decreased sharply while the lactate content increased in muscle from fish transported at a density of 700 kg/tank at the beginning of transport, and the ATP and lactate contents in this group were stable after transport.
Seasonal Variation in the Proximate Composition, pH and Glycogen Content of Oysters Crassostrea gigas Collected in Geoje and Jaran Bay in Korea
Kim, Min A ; Shim, Kil Bo ; Park, Jae Sung ; Oh, Eun Gyoung ; Shin, Soon Bum ; Park, Kunbawui ; Lim, Chi Won ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 713~718
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0713
The seasonal variation in the proximate composition, pH, and glycogen contents of oysters Crassostrea gigas collected in Geoje and Jaran Bays on the southern coast of Korea was studied between March 2012 and February 2013. In the Geoje Bay oysters, the moisture content was 77.49-81.50 g/100 g, lipids ranged between 1.22 and 2.47 g/100 g, proteins between 9.46 and 13.11 g/100 g, and ash between 1.88 and 2.58 g/100 g. In the Jaran Bay oysters, the moisture content was 74.22-82.05 g/100 g, lipids comprised 1.32-2.37 g/100 g, proteins 9.19-13.35 g/100 g, and ash 1.96-2.45 g/100 g. The moisture content was highest in October and January in Geoje and Jaran Bay, respectively, and tended to increase from July until September. The highest protein levels occurred in August in both bays, which coincided with the timing of oocyte maturation, and then decreased at the beginning of total spawning. The highest lipid levels occurred in April in Geoje Bay, and February in Jaran Bay. The glycogen content was 0.40-2.28 g/100 g in Geoje Bay, and 0.61-3.53 g/100 g in Jaran Bay, and was highest in February and decreased from March onwards. The lowest glycogen content occurred in September and then increased from October onwards. The pH ranged between 6.29 and 6.48, and 6.32 and 6.59, for Geoje and Jaran Bay, respectively, and was highest in February.
Processing and Characteristics of Canned Salt-fermented Anchovy Engraulis japonica Fillet using Tomato Paste Sauce
Kwon, Soon-Jae ; Lee, Jae-Dong ; Yoon, Moon-Joo ; Park, Jin-Hyo ; Je, Hae-Soo ; Kong, Cheung-Sik ; Noh, Yuni ; Kim, Jeong-Gyun ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 719~725
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0719
This study was investigated for the purpose of obtaining basic data for application to the canning process of salt-fermented anchovy Engraulis japonica fillet using tomato paste. The salt fermented anchovy fillet was prepared by fermenting anchovy fillet with salt 15% at
for 15 days and then cold air drying the salt-fermented anchovy fillet for 1 h at
. The dried salt-fermented anchovy fillet 85 g was filled with 60 g of tomato paste sauce (tomato paste 42%, gum guar 1.0%, salt 2.0%, starch syrup 2.0%, cooking wine 1%, water 52%) and seamed by vacuum seamer in 301-3 can, then sterilized at Fo 9 and 11 min in a steam system retort at
, respectively. The factors such as chemical composition, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), amino-N, color value (L, a, b), texture profile, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, sensory evaluation and viable bacterial count of the canned salt-fermented anchovy fillet were measured. Texture value of the product sterilized at Fo 11 min was higher than at Fo 9 min condition. In both sterilized cans, the viable bacterial counts were not detected. There was no remarkable difference in physicochemical between sterilization conditions. As a result of sensory evaluation, most sensory evaluation inspector judged that it was difficult to distinguish the sensory difference of both products sterilized at Fo 9 min and at 11 min. The results showed that sterilization of Fo 9 min was more desirable than that of Fo 11 min to prepare canned salt-fermented anchovy fillet using tomato paste sauce, because this condition is more economical.
Processing and Characteristics of Canned Salt-fermented Anchovy Engraulis japonica Fillet using Red Pepper Paste with Vinegar
Kwon, Soon-Jae ; Yoon, Moon-Joo ; Lee, Jae-Dong ; Kang, Kyung-Hun ; Kong, Cheung-Sik ; Je, Hae-Soo ; Jung, Jae-Hun ; Kim, Jeong-Gyun ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 726~732
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0726
A traditional Korean seafood (fermented anchovy) is made from the muscle and viscera of anchovies Engraulis japonica. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of retorting condition on the quality of canned, salt-fermented anchovy fillet using red pepper paste with vinegar. Salt-fermented anchovy fillets were prepared by fermenting anchovies with salt (15%) at
for 15 days, and then cold air drying the fillets for 1 hour. Each batch of dried fermented anchovy fillets (60 g) was filled with 35 g of mixed red pepper paste with vinegar (red pepper paste 64%, vinegar 2%, starch syrup 13%, sugar 14%, coke 6%, soju 0.4%, crushed garlic 0.3%, ginger 0.3%), placed in a can (RR-90), seamed using a vacuum seamer, and sterilized for either Fo 9 or 11 min in a steam system retort at
. After sterilization, we measured the pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), amino-N, color value (L, a, b), texture profile, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, sensory evaluation, and viable bacterial count of the canned fillets. We did not detect viable bacterial counts in cans subjected to either sterilization treatment, and there was no difference in physicochemical and sensory quality between the two. In fact, most sensory evaluators reported difficulty distinguishing the products. Thus, our results show that sterilization for Fo 9 min is preferable to that for Fo 11 min in the preparation of canned salt-fermented anchovy fillet using red pepper paste with vinegar.
Flavor Improvement of a Complex Extract from Poor-quality, Individually Quick-frozen Oysters Crassostrea gigas
Hwang, Seok-Min ; Hwang, Young-Suk ; Nam, Hyeon-Gyu ; Lee, Jae-Dong ; Ryu, Seong-Gwi ; Oh, Kwang-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 733~739
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0733
To develop an effective use for poor-quality individually quick-frozen (IQF) oysters Crassostrea gigas stored for a long period, the extract conditions, quality characteristics, and optimum reaction flavoring (RF) conditions of a complex extract from these IQF oysters were investigated. The moisture, pH, and volatile basic nitrogen contents of IQF oysters stored for 18 months (18M-IQFO) were 77.9%, 6.32, and 17.9 mg/100 g, respectively. Three different kinds of extract were prepared from 18M-IQFO: a hot-water extract (HE), scrap enzymatic hydrolysate (EH), and complex extract (CE). The respective extracts contained 5.5, 8.6, and 6.6% crude protein and 281.7, 366.0, and 343.0 mg/100 g amino nitrogen, and had 811, 359, and 1,170 mL/kg extraction yields. The CE was superior to the traditional HE in terms of the extraction yield, amino-nitrogen content, and organoleptic qualities, except for the odor. To improve flavor via the Maillard reaction, the reaction system used to produce a desirable flavor comprised CE (Brix
), 0.4 M glucose, 0.4 M glycine, and 0.4 M cysteine solution (4:2:1:1, v/v). The reaction time and pH were the independent variables, and the sensory scores for baked potato odor, masking shellfish odor, and boiled meat odor were the dependent variables. The surface response methodology (RSM) analysis of the multiple responses optimization gave a reaction time of 120.6 minutes and pH 7.33 at
. The reaction improved the flavor of CE considerably, as compared to that of the unreacted extract.
Application of the β-lactamase (VPA0477) Gene for the Detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by Polymerase Chain Reaction
Park, Kwon-Sam ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 740~744
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0740
In this study, the
-lactamase (VPA0477) gene was used as a new target for the PCR-based detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Primers specific for the
-lactamase (VPA0477) gene of V. parahaemolyticus, were designed and incorporated into a PCR-based assay. The assay was able to specifically detect all of the 191 V. parahaemolyticus strains tested, but did not result in amplification of 39 other Vibrio spp. and non-Vibrio spp. strains tested. The detection limit of the assay was 10 CFU of V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633 from pure culture broth. The
-lactamase (VPA0477) gene-based assay developed in this study was sensitive and specific, and has great potential for the accurate detection and identification of V. parahaemolyticus in seawater or seafood samples.
Effects of Eco-friendly Squid Todarodes pacificus Liver and Patagonian Toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides Muscle Oils on the Serum Lipids and Adipose Tissues of Rats
Moon, Soo-Kyung ; Lee, Soo-Jung ; Sung, Nak-Ju ; Kim, In-Soo ; Jeong, Bo-Young ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 745~750
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0745
This study investigated the effects of squid Todarodes pacificus liver oil on the serum lipids and adipose tissue weight of rats. The rats in the soybean oil (SO) group received a basic diet prepared according to the recommendations of the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN-93G), with 7% SO as lipid source. The rats in the Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides muscle oil (PTFO) group received 5% PTFO and 2% SO as the lipid source, while the rats in the eco-friendly squid liver oil (EFSO) group received 5% EFSO and 2% SO. EFSO was prepared according to the method outlined in the author`s patent. PTFO was extracted from muscle using a physical method in the author`s laboratory. The prominent polyunsaturated fatty acids in the dietary oils were 18:2n-6 (54.3%) and 18:3n-3 (5.64%) in SO, DHA (6.77%) and EPA (3.61%) in PTFO, and DHA (26.2%) and EPA (9.94%) in EFSO. After feeding for 4 weeks, the serum lipid levels (e.g., triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) of the rats in the EFSO group were significantly reduced as compared with those in the SO group (P<0.05); those of the rats in the PTFO group were also reduced, albeit not significantly, compared with the SO group. On the other hand, the total white adipose tissue (visceral, epididymal, and perirenal) weight was significantly reduced in the EFSO and PTFO groups compared to the SO group. These results demonstrate that EFSO is an effective lipid modifying agent in rat blood, and that EFSO and PTFO have greater anti-obesity effects than SO.
Anti-inflammatory Activity of Ethanol Extract of Undaria pinnatifida Root in RAW 264.7 Cells
Kang, Bo-Kyeong ; Ahn, Na-Kyung ; Choi, Yeon-Uk ; Kim, Min-Ji ; Bark, Si-Woo ; Pak, Won-Min ; Kim, Bo-Ram ; Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri ; Ahn, Dong-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 751~756
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0751
The anti-inflammatory effects of the ethanol extract of Undaria pinnatifida root (UPREE) were investigated using the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells by measuring the production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-
, and IL-
, and cell proliferation. We found that NO levels were reduced by 34% at
. Moreover, the production of IL-6 and TNF-
was suppressed by the UPREE treatment. In particular, the IL-6 production was inhibited by more than 30% at
UPREE. The proliferation of RAW 264.7 cells was measured by MTT assay, and we found no cytotoxicity in those cells treated with UPREE compared to the control. Our results suggest that UPREE shows promise as a therapeutic anti-inflammatory treatment.
Anti-inflammatory Effects of Pyropia yezoensis Extract in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells
Lee, Ji Young ; Choi, Jeong Wook ; Lee, Min Kyeong ; Kim, Young Min ; Kim, In Hye ; Nam, Taek Jeong ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 757~764
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0757
Many researchers have studied algae as a source of material having potential biological activities, not least because many marine algae extracts have strong antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Pyropia yezoensis extract (PYE) on RAW 264.7 cells by measuring nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activity, inducible NOS (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-
), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-
). PYE decreased the production of intracellular ROS dose-dependently and increased SOD and catalase activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. PYE significantly suppressed the production of NO and reduced the expression of iNOS, COX-2, and NF-
. PYE treatment also inhibited the production of IL-
significantly and reduced the phosphorylation of Akt and MAPK significantly in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that PYE has potential anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
Protective Effects of Pyropia yezoensis Glycoprotein against Ethanol-induced Chronic Gastric Injury in the Rat
Soma, Saeidi ; Choi, Jeong Wook ; Lee, Min Kyeong ; Kim, Young Min ; Kim, In Hye ; Nam, Taek Jeong ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 765~769
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0765
We examined the protective effects of Pyropia yezoensis glycoprotein (PYGP) against ethanol-induced gastric damage. The experimental animals were divided into four groups. They were treated with distilled water (control), ethanol alone (EtOH), ethanol + PYGP 150 mg/kg BW (EtOH+150), or ethanol + PYGP 300 mg/kg BW (EtOH+300). The groups were treated for 4 weeks. We measured mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), the apoptotic signaling pathway, and PARP activity in gastric tissues obtained from the rats. Ethanol consumption increased apoptotic signal activity and ERK, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation. PYGP reduced the apoptotic signaling pathway activity and ERK, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation. Furthermore, PYGP regulated Bcl-2 family expression. In light of these findings, PYGP appears to prevent ethanol-induced gastric injury and oxidative stress.
Anti-inflammatory and Anti-cancer Effects of Sterol-rich Fraction from Nannochloropsis oculata by using Saponification
Kim, Junseong ; Lakmal, H.H. Chaminda ; Lee, Ji-Hyeok ; Lee, WonWoo ; Jeon, You-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 770~775
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0770
The green microalga of the genus Nannochloropsis (class Eustigmatophyceae) is a leading candidate for biofuel production due to its ability to accumulate high oil content (28.7% of cellular ash-free dry weight). We investigated the anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of sterol-rich fraction from nannochloropsis oculata n-hexane (NOH) extract after saponification of the microalga. Among the fractions with n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate, the n-hexane fraction showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage as well as anticancer activity against human leukemia HL-60 cells without the cytotoxity. And the sterol-rich fraction was obtained from the n-hexane fraction by open silica column under the gradient solvent condition with 100% hexane (1L), hexane : ethyl acetate (20 : 1, 10 : 1, 5 : 1, 1 : 1, v/v). Among the four fractions (NOH-1~4), especially NOH-1 contained the highest content of sterols. NOH1 showed the highest HL-60 (about 85%) and NO inhibitory activities at the concentration of
. These results demonstrated that the sterol-rich fraction from N. oculata might be a useful candidate as anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents for anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity.
Immuno-stimulating Activities of Skipjack Tuna Katsuwonus pelamis Cooking Juice Concentrates on Mouse Macrophages and Spleen Cells
Kang, Bo-Kyeong ; Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri ; Ahn, Na-Kyung ; Choi, Yeon-Uk ; Kim, Min-Ji ; Bark, Si-Woo ; Pak, Won-Min ; Kim, Bo-Ram ; Park, Ji-Hye ; Bae, Nan-Young ; Ahn, Dong-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 776~784
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0776
Tuna cooking juice concentrate (TCJC) is by-produced during the canning processing of skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis and it is well known that TCJC contains various nutritional components. Therefore, the immuno-stimulating activity of TCJC was investigated using macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line and the spleen cell isolated from BALB/c mice. The TCJC increased the production of IL-6, TNF-
, and IL-
in a dose-dependent manner compared to the control in RAW 264.7 cells without any toxicity. In particular, the production of TNF-
was increased over 300-fold. The production of both Th1 cytokine (such as IFN-
, IL-2, and IL-12) and Th2 cytokine (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10) was also increased by TCJC treatment in splenocytes. Moreover, the TCJC increased the splenocyte proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner compared to control. These results indicate that TCJC may enhance immune function by promoting various cytokine production.
Growth of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Fed Different Formulated Diets with Different Feed Types (Powder, Crumble and Pellet)
Lee, Sang-Yoon ; Lee, Sang-Min ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 785~789
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0785
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding by different feed types (powder, crumble and pellet) of two different feed formulations with simple dried (D) or extruded (E) conditions on growth and body composition of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Triplicate groups of sea cucumber averaging
were fed each of the D1, D2, EP1 or EP2 diets for 12 weeks. Survival of sea cucumber fed D2-crumble was higher than that fed EP2-crumble diet (P<0.05). Weight gain of sea cucumber fed EP1-powder was higher than that fed EP1-crumble and EP2-crumble diets (P<0.05). These findings indicated that simple dried feed could use independently feed type for sea cucumber culture and powder type of extruded feed is also good for sea cucumber culture.
Effect of Dietary Carotenoids Sources on Growth and Skin Color of Red- and White-colored Fancy Carp Cyprinus carpio var. koi
Kim, Yi-Oh ; Lee, Sang-Min ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 790~795
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0790
A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary carotenoids sources on growth and skin color of red- and white-colored fancy carp Cyprinus carpio var. koi. Nine experimental diets (designated as Con, CP, PA, SP, OP, MB, TO, BE and PO) were formulated to contain Carophyll Pink, red paprika, Spirulina, Opuntia, mandarin bark, tomato, beet and Porphyra, respectively. Each experimental diet was fed to two replicate groups of fish (22.9 g/fish) to visual satiation three times a day for 8 weeks. Weight gain and feed efficiency of fish fed the diets containing Spirulina or Opuntia were higher than those of fish fed the control diet (P<0.05). The values of
of fish skin were significantly changed by dietary carotenoids sources (P<0.05). The
values of fish fed the diets containing Carophyll Pink, red paprika and Spirulina were higher than those of fish fed other diets (P<0.05). The skin total carotenoids of fish fed the diets containing Spirulina and Opuntia were higher than those of others (P>0.05). Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that dietary inclusion of red paprika and Spirulina pacifica could increase the skin redness of red- and white-colored fancy carp.
Growth of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in Integrated Culture with Rockfish Sebastes schlegeli or Abalone Haliotis discus hannai
Choi, Jin ; Lee, Sang-Min ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 796~800
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0796
A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the growth and body composition of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in integrated culture with abalone Haliotis discus hannai or rockfish Sebastes schlegeli. Triplicate groups of sea cucumber averaging
were cultured alone or with abalone or rockfish for 12 weeks. Survival of sea cucumber was not affected by co-culturing (P>0.05). Weight gain of sea cucumber cultured with rockfish was significantly higher than that of sea cucumber cultured alone (P<0.05), and did not differ from that of those cultured with abalone (P>0.05). These findings indicate that co-culturing sea cucumber with rockfish effectively improves the growth of sea cucumber.
Comparative Evaluation of Extruded and Moist Pellets for Development of High Efficiency Extruded Pellets in Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus
Kim, Kang-Woong ; Kim, Kyoung-Duck ; Lee, Bong-Joo ; Han, Hyon-Sob ; An, Cheul Min ; Lee, Kyeong-Jun ; Bai, Sungchul C. ; Kim, Sung-Sam ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 801~809
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0801
This study was conducted to compare an experimental extruded pellet (EP) and raw fish-based moist pellet (MP) on growth performance, whole-body and dorsal muscle composition, and textural properties of dorsal muscle for olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Four groups of 8,000 fish (initial mean weight
) per concrete tank (
) were fed the experimental diets for 16 months. After the feeding trial, no significant differences were observed in final mean body weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, feed intake, survival, and condition factor between EP and MP groups. However, feed efficiency of fish fed the EP was significantly higher than that of fish fed the MP. Moisture content in the whole-body of fish fed the MP was significantly higher than that of fish fed the EP. Significantly higher contents of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in whole-body and dorsal muscle were observed in fish fed the EP compared with fish fed the MP. Any notable differences in amino acid contents or textural properties of the dorsal muscle were not observed in fish fed either the EP or the MP. The results of this study indicated that the EP could be developed to replace MP for the market size of production in olive flounder without the adverse effects on growth performance. Formulation of the EP could be used as a practical feed for olive flounder.
Comparison of Extruded and Moist Pellets for Whole-body Proximate Composition and Growth Performance of Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus
Kim, Kang-Woong ; Lee, Jin-Hyuck ; Bae, Ki-Min ; Kim, Kyoung-Duck ; Lee, Bong-Joo ; Han, Hyon-Sob ; Kim, Sung-Sam ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 810~817
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0810
Two consecutive feeding trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of extruded pellet (EP) and raw fish-based moist pellet (MP) in the juvenile (experiment I) and sub-adult (experiment II) stages of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. The fish were distributed randomly to three aquarium tanks, as a group of 1,200 fish (initial mean weight
) in experiment I, and as a group of 390 fish (initial mean weight
) in experiment II. In experiment I, the weight gain, specific growth rate, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio, and survival of fish fed EP were all significantly higher than those of fish fed MP. In experiment II, no significant differences were observed in weight gain, specific growth rate and survival between the EP and MP groups. However, the feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratios of fish fed EP were significantly higher than those of fish fed MP. The results of this study indicate that EP could be developed to replace MP for market size production of olive flounder without any adverse effects on the growth performance. The dietary formulation used in this study could be used as an appropriate feed for olive flounder.
Development of High Efficiency Extruded Pellets with Tapioca Starch in Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus
Kim, Kang-Woong ; Lee, Jin-Hyuck ; Bae, Ki-Min ; Kim, Kyoung-Duck ; Lee, Bong-Joo ; Han, Hyon-Sob ; Lee, Kyeong-Jun ; Kim, Sung-Sam ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 818~823
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0818
This study compared the effects of feeding diets consisting of an experimental extruded pellet with tapioca starch (EEP), commercial extruded pellet (CEP), and raw-fish-based pellet (MP) on the growth, flesh quality, and apparent digestibility coefficient of the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Two replicated groups of 4,000 fish each (initial mean weight:
) were fed one of the experimental diets for 5 months. After the feeding trial, the final mean weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed efficiency of fish fed the EEP was significantly higher than those of fish fed the CEP and MP. Moisture content in the whole-body of fish fed MP was significantly higher than those of fish fed other diets. However, the highest crude protein in the whole-body was found in fish groups fed the EEP. Significantly higher contents of 24:1n-9, 20:5n-3, 22:6n-3 and lower 18:1n-7 was observed in fish fed the EEP compared with fish fed the MP. The amino acid contents in the whole-body showed significant differences in the composition depending on the feed, but the distribution of free amino acids showed similar patterns. Among amino acids, glutamic acid showed the highest content in all the experimental groups, and the threonine, cysteine, and lysine contents were significantly higher in the groups fed with EEP and CEP than in the group fed with MP. Digestibility of nutrients of the EEP was significantly higher than that of fish fed the CEP. This suggests that extruded pellets can be used to feed olive flounder without compromising growth and flesh quality in comparison to raw-fish-based moist pellets. Formulation of the EEP could be used as a practical feed for olive flounder.
Evaluation of Acid-concentrated Soybean Meal as a Fishmeal Replacement and its Digestibility in Diets for Juvenile Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus
Kim, Sung-Sam ; Oh, Dae-Han ; Cho, Seong-Jun ; Seo, Sang-Hyun ; Han, Hyon-Sob ; Lee, Kyeong-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 824~831
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0824
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fishmeal replacement with acid-concentrated soybean meal (ACSBM) on growth performance, blood biochemistry, and ingredient digestibility in juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Six experimental diets were formulated to replace fishmeal protein with ACSBM at 0%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% (designated ACSBM0, ACSBM20, ACSBM30, ACSBM40, ACSBM50, and ACSBM60, respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (initial fish mean weight:
) were fed the experimental diets to apparent satiation (twice daily at 08:00 and 18:00 h). After a 12-week feeding trial, a total of 180 healthy fish were randomly distributed into three Guelph system tanks at a density of 60 fish/tank (initial fish mean weight :
) to test the apparent digestibility coefficients of the ingredients (ACSBM, fishmeal, and soybean meal). Although negative effects were observed with ACSBM40, ACSBM50 and ACSBM60 after 12 weeks of feeding, up to 20% of the fishmeal protein could be successfully replaced with ACSBM without significant growth depression. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values of fish fed the ACSBM50 and ACSBM60 diets were significantly lower than those of fish fed the ACSBM0 diet. Glucose values of fish fed the ACSBM60 diet were significantly higher than those of fish fed the ACSBM0 and ACSBM20 diets. Digestibility of protein in ACSBM and soybean meal was 85.9% and 82.5%, respectively. Results indicated that at least 20% of fishmeal protein can be replaced by ACSBM in diets of juvenile olive flounder without supplementation of limiting amino acids.
Digestive Characteristics of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on Soybean Meal Based Diets
Kim, Pyong Kih ; Jeon, Joong-Kyun ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 832~839
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0832
To evaluate the digestive characteristics and bioavailability of dietary soybean meal (SBM), the post-prandial changes in the gastric contents of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were determined for 24 h after feeding of SBM diets. A curve estimation of regression diagnostics using a comparison of the adjusted
and probability was performed to test the tendency of the post-prandial changes and gave a quadratic polynomial (exponential) regression for all experimental groups. The gastric evacuations rates (GER) for higher-SBM groups were slower than those for lower-SBM groups. The estimated GER (digestion time) for 75% gastric content for fish fed a 70% SBM diet was 1.63 times longer than that for fish fed the control diet. Despite the fact that the pH values in the gastric contents rose from 4.05 at 0 h to 5.12-5.38 at 1 h after feeding, then dropped to 4.57-4.83 at 9 h, with no significant differences among experimental groups, the gastric moisture contents increased significantly in the higher-SBM groups. This is most likely due to an increase in digestive juices in the higher-SBM groups, rather than water introduced externally. The percentage of soluble nitrogen in the gastric contents of fish fed the higher-SBM diets was higher than that in the fish fed the control diet, and the SBRs (stomach weight/body weight
) in the higher-SBM groups (diets 4, 5, 6 and 7) were also significantly higher than the SBR of the control group (P<0.05). This may indicate that the protein in SBM can be digested slowly due to physiological digestive adaptation in rainbow trout.
Effect of Ammonia Concentration in Rearing Water on Growth and Blood Components of the Parrotfish Oplegnathus fasciatus
Park, Seongdeok ; Kim, Pyong Kih ; Jeon, Joong-Kyun ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 840~846
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0840
This study investigated growth and hematological changes in parrotfish Oplegnathus fasciatus (~200 g/fish) reared under different total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations (0, 4, or 8 mg/L) for 6 weeks. Survival rates of parrotfish in all experimental groups did not significantly differ, as they were all ~100%. Although specific growth rate (SGR), weight gain, and daily feed intake in the high TAN concentration group (TAN8) were significantly lower than in the other two groups, there was no significant difference between the TAN4 group and the control group, (TAN0), indicating that parrotfish have a strong resistance to ammonia toxicity. As for temporal changes of the major blood components, cortisol increased as a result of stress caused by the high ammonia concentration in the TAN8 group. For this reason, the concentrations of energy sources such as glucose and total cholesterol were reduced. However, there was little difference among all experimental groups in concentrations of liver function glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and nutrient factors, such as total protein and albumin.
Adaptive Characteristics of the Longtooth Grouper Epinephelus bruneus according to Stocking Density and Water Temperature
Yang, Sang Geun ; Ji, Seung Cheol ; Moon, Tae Seok ; Son, Maeng Hyun ; Kim, Kyong Min ; Hur, Sung Pyo ; Lee, Chi Hoon ; Lee, Young Don ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 847~852
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0847
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of stocking density and water temperature in the rearing of the longtooth grouper Epinephelus bruneus. Juvenile fish [mean body weight (BW)
Sperm Cryopreservation of Tetraploid Pacific Oysters Crassostrea gigas
Park, Mi Seon ; Min, Byung Hwa ; Lim, Hyun-Jeong ; Hur, Young Baek ; Do, Yong Hyun ; Myeong, Jeong-In ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 853~859
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0853
The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of cryoprotectants [dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), methanol, polyethylene glycol, and propylene glycol], cryoprotectant concentrations (10% and 20%), equilibration time (3, 10, and 30 min), cooling rate (
), and straw size (0.25 and 0.5 mL) for sperm cryopreservation of tetraploid Pacific oysters. There was a significant difference among the four cryoprotectants, with 10% DMSO yielding the highest post-thaw survival and activity index of sperm. A significant relationship was observed between the cryoprotectant and its concentration. The sperm with equilibration times of 30 min yielded higher post-thaw survival and activity indices than those with 3 and 10 min equilibration times. The sperm cooled at a rate of
yielded the highest post-thaw survival and activity index, and the results were significantly different from those observed for cooling at
. Post-thaw survival and activity indices of sperm using a 0.25-mL straw were significantly higher than those using a 0.5-mL straw.
Changes in Hematological Responses and Antioxidative Enzyme Activities of Japanese Eel Anguilla japonica Exposed to Elevated Ambient Nitrite
Jo, Su-Hyun ; Kim, Heung-Yun ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 860~868
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0860
The study was performed to investigate changes in hematological responses and antioxidative enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT) of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica following exposure to 0 (control), 2.33, 4.60, 6,64 and 8.78 mM nitrite-N in fresh water for 48 h. Hematological parameters such as plasma nitrite, electrolytes, cortisol, glucose, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), hemoglobin (Hb), methemoglobin (metHb) and NADH-methemoglobin reductase (NMR) were measured. Plasma nitrite, cortisol, metHb and NMR increased directly with increasing ambient nitrite concentration, while Hb content showed a progressive decline. Levels of plasma potassium, GOT and GPT of the eel exposed to 6.64 mM ambient nitrite were significantly higher than the control fish. The activity of SOD and CAT in plasma, gill and liver of the eel following exposure to nitrite were augmented by increasing ambient nitrite. Levels of plasma nitrite, metHb, NMR, cortisol, glucose and antioxidative enzyme activities of the eel exposed to 2.33 mM ambient nitrite were significantly higher than the control fish. This study suggested that the eel acutely exposed to elevated ambient nitrite causes nitrite-induced stress responses, changes in antioxidative enzyme activities and hematological parameters.
Time-course Response of the Heart Function in Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus to CO
Lee, Kyoung-Seon ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 869~873
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0869
Cardiorespiratory variables were measured in flounder Paralicthys olivaceus exposed to acidified seawater equilibrated with a gas mixture containing 5%
gas for 72 h at
. It was found that
produced a significant increase in arterial
) and significant decreases in arterial pH (pHa).
transiently increased heart rate within 30 min of exposure. After cardiac output was elevated by the increase in heart rate within 30 min, was then reduced by the decrease in both stroke volume and heart rate. The heart responses of flounder differ from those of yellowtail to high
Chronic Effects of Copper on Antioxidant Enzymes and Acetylcholinesterase Activities in Rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus
Min, EunYoung ; Kang, Ju-Chan ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 874~881
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0874
A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine chronic effects of waterborne copper exposure on rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus using a panel of enzymes. The activities of the following biochemical biomarkers were determined at different concentrations of
for 10 and 20 days: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in plasma; antioxidant enzymes including glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver and gills; and acethylcholinesterase (AChE) in brain and muscle. After exposure to two
concentrations (200 and
), the activities of plasma ALT in the fish showed a tendency to increase with AST and LDH, depending on
concentration. Additionally, GSH levels and SOD activities significantly increased, depending on
concentrations in liver and gills. This involved the inactivation of reactive molecules formed during oxidative stress, which could provide protection against oxidative damage induced by
. However, GPx and AChE activities significantly decreased with
in liver and gills. In conclusion, these enzymes may represent convenient biomarkers for monitoring heavy metal pollution in coastal areas. Such chronic exposure studies are necessary for improving our understanding of complementary or deleterious effects of pollutants, and for developing metal toxicity biomarkers.
Steroid Metabolism in the Blacktip Grouper Epinephelus fasciatus during Oocyte Vitellogenesis
Kim, Seol Ki ; Baek, Hea Ja ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 882~887
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0882
We studied oocyte steroidogenesis in blacktip grouper Epinephelus fasciatus ovarian follicles during vitellogenesis. Vitellogenic oocytes with average diameters of 0.45, 0.48 and 0.50 mm were incubated in vitro in the presence of
-hydroxyprogesterone as a precursor. The steroid metabolites were analyzed using thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major metabolites in the vitellogenic oocytes were androstenedione (
), testosterone (T), estradiol-
), and estrone (
). The metabolites of androgen (
and T) were higher in the 0.50-mm oocytes than in the 0.45- and 0.48-mm oocytes, while the estrogen metabolites (E2 and E1) were lower in the 0.50-mm oocytes. These results suggest that 0.50-mm oocytes are fully vitellogenic following initiation of the maturation process.
First Morphological Description and the Distribution of Ophisurus macrorhynchos (Anguilliformes: Ophichthidae) Leptocephalus Collected from Southeastern Waters of Jeju Island
Ji, Hwan-Sung ; Choi, Jung Hwa ; Choi, Kwang Ho ; Yoon, Sang Chul ; Lee, Dong Woo ; Kim, Jin-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 888~894
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0888
Seventeen specimens of leptocephali [9.8-44.5 mm total length (TL)], of the family Ophichthidae, were collected from southeastern waters off Jeju Island and the Korea-Japan intermediate zone, and identified by means of morphology and genetics. These specimens were identified as belonging to the subfamily Ophichthinae based on various combinations of morphological characters: 211-215 total myomeres; 7 gut swellings; 2 liver lobes connected with the gall bladder on the second lobe; 6-7 postanal pigments present from anus to caudal margin. An analysis of the partial 12S rRNA sequences (849 base pairs) of mitochondrial DNA showed that our specimens must be Ophisurus macrorhynchos because their sequences were concordant with those of the adult O. macrorhynchos (genetic distance
Feeding Ecology of the Blackthroat Seaperch Doederleinia berycoides in the Southern Seas of Korea
Choi, Jung Hwa ; Choi, Seung Hee ; Lee, Dong Woo ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 895~900
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0895
The feeding ecology of Doederleinia berycoides from the southern sea of Korea was examined. Specimens were caught monthly from January 2007 to June 2008. The size of the specimens ranged from 6.8 to 39.8cm in total length (TL). The primary prey items of D. berycoides included fishes and shrimps. In autumn, feeding mainly crustacea and fishes feeding mainly in winter. The individuals of smallest size class (less than 15 cm TL) fed mainly on crustacea. The proportion of crustacea decreased as body size increased, whereas the consumption of fishes increased. Fishes accounted for almost (86%) stomach contents of larger individuals (more than 35 cm TL).
Population Ecology of Blackthroat Seaperch Doederleinia berycoides in the Southern Seas of Korea
Choi, Jung Hwa ; Choi, Seung Hee ; Lee, Dong Woo ; Ryu, Dong Ki ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 901~907
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0901
We investigated the population ecology of blackthroat seaperch, Doederleinia berycoides, from samples collected in the southern seas of Korea from January to December, 2006. Population ecological parameters included survival rate, the instantaneous coefficient of natural and fishing mortality, and age at first capture. The survival rate (S) of blackthroat seaperch was estimated as 0.4966 using the catch curve method. The instantaneous coefficient of total mortality (Z) was 0.8598/year. The instantaneous coefficient of natural mortality (M) was estimated as 0.4694/year. From the estimates of Z and M, the instantaneous coefficient of fishing mortality (F) was calculated as 0.3904/year. The age at first capture (
), based on the Pauly method, was 2.87 years.
Community Structure and Health Assessment of Macrobenthic Assemblages during Spring and Summer in the Shellfish Farming Ground of Wonmun Bay, on the Southern Coast of Korea
Jung, Rae Hong ; Seo, In-Soo ; Choi, Minkyu ; Park, Sang Rul ; Choi, Byoung-Mi ; Kim, Mi Hyang ; Kim, Yeon Jung ; Yun, Jae Seong ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 908~926
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0908
This study investigated the community structure and health assessment of macrobenthic assemblages in Wonmun Bay, in the southern coast of Korea. The total number of species and mean density were 170 species and
, respectively. The major dominant species were the bivalve Theora fragilis (
) and the polychaetes Lumbrineris longifolia (
), Sigambra tentaculata (
), Paraprionospio patiens (
) and Capitella capitata (
). Community statistics [cluster analysis and nonmetric multidimentional scaling (NMDS) ordination] revealed that the macrobenthic community structure in the study area was classified into three station groups for both seasons. Several biotic indices based on macrobenthic communities have been developed to assess the ecological quality of coastal ecosystems. In this study, the ecological status was assessed by four biotic indices Shannon`s H`, the AZTI Marine Biotic Index (AMBI), multivariate-AMBI (M-AMBI) and the Ecological Conservation Index (ECI). The ecological statuses of the macrobenthic communities in Wonmun Bay were poorer in the summer than in the spring. The results of the present study indicate that three biotic indices ( i.e.; Shannon`s H`, M-AMBI and ECI ) were better correlated with bottom dissolved oxygen than the AMBI in Wonmun Bay.
Seasonal Variability of Marine Algal Flora and Community Structure at Jungjado, on the South Coast of Korea
Yoo, Hyun Il ; Jeong, Bo Kyung ; Park, Jeong Kwang ; Heo, Jin Suk ; Park, Mi-Seon ; Choi, Han Gil ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 927~934
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0927
Marine algal flora and community structure were seasonally examined at Jungjado, on the southern coast of Korea, from July 2007 to May 2008. A total of 112 seaweeds, including 15 green, 24 brown, and 73 red algae, were identified and 33 species were found throughout the year. The average seaweed biomass was 145.78 g dry weight
, and the biomass was maximal in winter (184.74 g) and minimal in autumn (106.17 g). The dominant and subdominant species in terms of biomass were Sargassum thunbergii and Grateloupia elliptica in summer, S. thunbergii and Corallina pilulifera in autumn, S. thunbergii and Chondracanthus intermedius in winter, and Sargassum fusiforme and G. elliptica in spring. The vertical distribution patterns of seaweeds from the upper to lower intertidal zones at Jungjado were S. thunbergii - Ulva conglobata - Gelidium elegans in summer; Caulacantus ustulatus - Chondria crassicaulis - C. pilulifera in autumn; Ulva australis - S. thunbergii - G. elliptica in winter; and Gloiopeltis tenax - S. fusiforme - G. elliptica in spring. Seasonally the evenness, richness, and diversity indices tended to have their highest values during the winter and their lowest values in the summer. However, the dominant index was recorded as lowest in winter and highest in the summer. The C/P, R/P, and (R+C)/P values reflecting the flora characteristics were 0.58, 3.04, and 3.62, respectively.
Community Structure of Fisheries Resources Caught by Dredge in the Uljin Marine Ranching Area, Korea
Yoon, Byoung Sun ; Park, Jeong-Ho ; Yoon, Sang Chul ; Yang, Jae Hyeong ; Sohn, Myoung Ho ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 935~944
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0935
To elucidate the variation of species composition, biomass and size distribution of fishery resource in the Uljin marine ranching area was investigated at the 4 stations from 2009 to 2010 based on the dredge sampling. During the survey period, a total of 41 fishery resource species were sampled with a mean density of
and mean biomass was
. A total 36 fishery resource species were sampled with a mean density of
and mean biomass
in 2009 and it were sampled a total 31 species, mean
in 2010. The major individual-dominant species, occupying over 1% of total individuals, were Gomphina veneriformis (2,491,818 ind., 82.2%), Umbonium costatum (221,973 ind., 8.7%), Mactra chinensis (49,879 ind., 2.0%), Glossaulax didyma hayashii (49,879 ind., 1.9%), Blepharipoda liberate (37,714 ind., 1.5%) and Paguridae spp. (27,266 ind., 1.1%). The major biomass-dominant species, occupying over 1% of total biomass, were G. veneriformis (25,124 kg, 76.3%), G. didyma hayashii (2,596 kg, 7.9%), M. chinensis (2,024 kg, 6.1%), Ovalipes punctatus (921 kg, 2.8%) and Glossaulax didyma didyma (567 kg, 1.7%). From the cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis similarity matrix of fourth root transformed data of species number and individuals was divided into 2 different groups of the fishery resource community (Group A-St.1, Group B-Sts. 2, 3, 4). The 2009 and 2010 mean Shell length (mm) of G. veneriformis was 37.73 mm, 29.76 mm and M. chinensis was 62.03 mm, 44.94 mm, respectively.
Species Composition and Distribution of Trammel Net Catches in the Coastal Waters of Gangwon Province, Korea
Sohn, Myoung Ho ; Yoon, Byoung Sun ; Park, Jeong-Ho ; Choi, Young Min ; Yang, Jae Hyeong ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 945~959
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0945
This study was conducted to provide basic data for optimal fisheries management through the accurate understanding the catches, fishing level, species composition, distribution characteristics and fisheries status of trammel net in Gangwon Province. As the results of trammel net survey, Pisces were collected 77 species, 1,983.0 kg, Crustacea 9 species, 569.0 kg, Cephalopoda 5 species, 75.3 kg, Gastropoda 12 species, 16.5 kg in the coastal waters of Sokcho and Pisces 55 species, 3,681.5 kg, Crustacea 6 species, 2,229.8 kg, Gastropoda 10 species, 72.8 kg, Cephalopoda 4 species, 10.1 kg in the coastal waters of Donghae, respectively. The catches of important species with season and depths showed that the main target species is Pleuronectidae spp. at all depth and Aptocyclus ventricosus at <100 m in Sokcho, Liparis spp. and Dasycottus setiger at 200-500 m in Donghae, respectively. The mean total length (cm) of Gadus macrocephalus and Aptocyclus ventricosus didn`t appear significant difference, but the mean total length of Pleuronectidae spp., Liparis spp. and D. setiger in Donghae is bigger than in Sokcho. From the cluster and MDS analysis based on Bray-Curtis similarity matrix of fourth root transformed, catches data of dominant species in the coastal waters of Sokcho and Donghae was divided into three different groups of the demersal organisms community in 12 survey of Donghae (Group A) and Jul., Oct.-Dec. survey of Sokcho (Group B) and Jan.-Jun. and Aug.-Sep. survey of Sokcho (Group C).
Marine Algal Communities around Oryukdo, Busan, Korea
Choi, Jung Hwa ; Choi, Chang Geun ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 960~972
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0960
Marine algal flora and community structure were seasonally investigated at Oryukdo, on the southeast coast of Korea, from March 2011 to February 2014. A Total of 66 seaweed species including 6 green, 7 brown and 53 red algae were identified and 23 species were found throughout the survey period. Seaweed biomass was maximal during summer in 2012 (2276.2 g wet weight
) and minimal in winter in 2012 (9.1 g wet weight
). The dominant species in term of biomass were Undaria pinnatifida, Dictyopteris prolifera, Dictyota dichotoma, Sargassum horneri, Rhodymenia intricata, Acrosorium polyneurum, and Polyneura japonica during the suvery period. The flora could be classified into six functional groups: coarsely branched form (30.3%), filamentous form (24.2%), thick leather form (19.7%), sheet form (15.2%), jointed calcareous form (7.6%), and crustose form (3.0%). The numbers of marine algal species in the Oryukdo area were markedly reduced when compared with previous studies at Dongbaekseom in 1971. These results suggest possible future changes in the algal vegetation, considering the physical and chemical pollution loadings in the coastal marine environment of this area.
Seabird Distribution Patterns by Strip Transect in the Yellow Sea in Spring
Kim, Hyun Woo ; Kim, Yeong Hye ; An, Yong-Rock ; Park, Kyum Joon ; An, Du Hae ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 973~977
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0973
We studied distribution of seabirds using strip transect counts from May
, 2011. we observed 322 individuals from nine seabird species. Black-tailed gulls (Larus crassirostris, 48.4%) were numerically dominant. Ancient murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiques, 18.6%), Vega gulls (Larus vegae, 17.7%), red-throated divers (Gavia stellata, 4.7%), Pacific divers (Gavia pacifica, 4.3%), streaked shearwaters (Calonectris leucomelas, 1.9%), and common terns (Sterna hirundo, 1.6%), were also frequently observed. The overall seabird density was 0.55 birds
, lower that of the East Sea.
Reappearance and Distribution Tendency of Finless Porpoises Neophocaena asiaeorientalis after their Mass Mortality in the Saemangeum Dyke
Park, Kyum Joon ; Lee, Seung Yong ; An, Yong-Rock ; Kim, Hyun Woo ; An, Du Hae ; Kim, Doo Nam ; Kim, Yeong Hye ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 978~982
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0978
A mass mortality of 249 finless porpoises Neophocaena asiaeorientalis occurred in the Saemangeum Dyke in February 2011. It was an extraordinary event, notable due to the death toll and the location of the occurrence, a semi-isolated lake enclosed by a man-made structure. We conducted sighting surveys that consisted of a land-based sighting survey recorded from three different platforms, and a ship-based sighting survey in the lake. The land-based survey was dedicated to clarifying the distribution of finless porpoises and whether they passed through two water gates (Shinsi and Garyek) of the dyke from 2011 to 2013. No finless porpoises were observed in the 2011 or January 2012 surveys. In April 2012, two months and one year after the mass mortality, one finless porpoise, swimming 400 m from the Shinsi water gate, was observed by a land-based survey. The number of observed individuals increased to nine in 2012 and reached 10 by May 2013 at the time of the surveys. Most of the porpoises were detected near the Garyek water gate. The density of the animals was
in 2012 and
in 2013. The density of porpoises was
at the time of the mass mortality.
Species Composition and Seasonal Variations of Fishes Collected by Set Net in Coastal Waters of Gijang, Korea
Lee, Dong Jin ; Kang, Sukyung ; Choi, Kwang Ho ; Jung, Kyung-Mi ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 983~996
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0983
Fish catches by a set net from January 2007 to November 2009 were analyzed to assess fish species composition and seasonal variations in the coast of Gijang, Korea. Over 389 kg fish representing 78 species, 45 families and 17 orders were collected during three years of the study. Dominant species were jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus, anchovy Engraulis japonicus and herring Clupea palasii, and these three species comprised 67.3% of the total number of individuals and 60.7% of the total biomass. Size distribution of the dominant species for jack mackerel, anchovy and herring ranged from 2.2 cm to 22.6 cm, from 2.5 cm to 14.8 cm, from 4.0 cm to 29.0 cm in fork length, respectively. Anchovy was the only species that occurred throughout all seasons in the Gijang coast. Generally, species richness was highest in spring (April to June) when sea temperature began to increase.
Species Composition and Distribution of Set-net Catches on the Coast of Dapo, Geoje Island
Jung, Kyung-Mi ; Lee, Dong Jin ; Kang, Sukyung ; Choi, Kwang Ho ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 997~1005
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.0997
We analyzed annual and seasonal variations in fish species composition and distribution patterns using both daily catch and quantitative analysis data collected from a set-net fishery over a period of two years (2011-2012) on the coast of Dapo, Geoje Island. Set-net fishing season in this area is from May to November, and the annual yield based on the daily catch data was 171,412 kg in 2011, and 102,611 kg in 2012. In total, there were 46 species (belonging to 36 families and 12 orders) in 2011, and 41 species (belonging to 25 families and 9 orders) in 2012. The dominant species in terms of numbers were Trachurus japonicus, Engraulis japonicus, Clupea pallasii, Scomber japonicus, and Sphyraena pinguis. The range in fork length for T. japonicus and E. japonicus was from 3.2 to 23.9 cm, and from 2.6 to 13.3 cm, respectively. The fork length of recruiting juveniles to the Dapo set-net fishing ground ranged from 4.6 to 7.8 cm (median) for T. japonicus, and from 4.1 to 5.0 cm (median) for E. japonicus. The fact that most of the fish caught from the two species were at immature growth stages implies that the coast of Dapo can act as a nursery area for these migratory species.
Distribution of Fecal Sterols and Nonylphenolic Compounds in Sediments from Busan Suyeong Estuary, Impacted by Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents
Baek, Seung-Hong ; Yoon, Sera ; Lee, In-Seok ; Hwang, Dong-Woon ; Choi, Minkyu ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 1006~1013
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.1006
Wastewater organic compounds, that is, nonylphenolic compounds (NPs) and fecal sterols, were measured in surface sediments from Busan Suyeong Estuary, where two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are located, to assess contamination from municipal effluents. The NPs analyzed were nonylphenol, and nonylphenol mono- and di-ethoxylates, all synthetic endocrine disruptors. The fecal sterols analyzed were coprostanol (COP), cholestanol, and epicoprostanol. Concentrations of NPs in the sediments ranged from 146 to 3,723 ng/g, and those of COP ranged from 366 to 13,018 ng/g. Their detection in all of the sediments analyzed indicates widespread pollution by municipal effluents. The highest concentrations of NPs and COP were detected at stations close to outfalls of WWTPs. Their levels in sediments are categorized in the higher range of those previously reported in Korean coastal areas. Moreover, in comparison with screening values of NPs in the Netherlands, Norway, and Canada, more than 50% of the sampling stations exceeded the guidelines. This indicates that the estuary may be adversely influenced by municipal effluents.
Distributions of Organic Matter and Trace Metals in Sediment around a Tidal-flat Oyster Crassostrea gigas Farming Area on the Taean Peninsula, Korea
Hwang, Dong-Woon ; Lee, In-Seok ; Choi, Minkyu ; Choi, Hee-Gu ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 1014~1025
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.1014
We measured the concentrations of various geochemical parameters [grain size, ignition loss (IL), chemical oxygen demand (COD), acid volatile sulfide (AVS), and trace metals (Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, As, Zn, and Hg)] in the surface sediments of two intertidal oyster Crassostrea gigas farming areas (Iwon and Mongsan tidal flats) on the Taean Peninsula, Korea, to evaluate the pollution level of organic matter and trace metals in sediment. The intertidal sediments in the study region comprise mostly sand with a mean grain size of 2.5-3.5 Ø. The concentrations of IL, COD, AVS, and trace metals in the sediment of two study regions were either similar or lower in oyster farming areas relative to non-farming areas, apparently due to biological uptake or physical and biological sediment reworking. Based on the results for the pollution evaluation of organic matter and trace metals derived from sediment quality guidelines, enrichment factor, and geoaccumulation index, our results suggest that the sediment in these two intertidal oyster farming regions is not polluted by organic matter and trace metals.
Evaluation of Simple CO
Budget with Environmental Monitoring at an Oyster Crassostrea gigas Farm in Goseong Bay, South Coast of Korea in November 2011
Shim, JeongHee ; Ye, Miju ; Lim, Jae-Hyun ; Kwon, Jung-No ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 1026~1036
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.1026
Real-time monitoring for environmental factors (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, etc.) and fugacity of carbon dioxide (
) was conducted at an oyster Crassostrea gigas farm in Goseong Bay, south coast of Korea during 2-4th of November, 2011. Surface temperature and salinity were ranged from
and 32.7-33.8, respectively, with daily and inter-daily variations due to tidal currents. Surface
showed a range of
and was higher than air
during the study period. Surface temperature, salinity and
are showed significant correlations with chl.-a and nutrients, respectively. It means when chl.-a value is high in surface water of the oyster farm, active biological production consume
and nutrients from environments and produce oxygen, suggesting a tight feedback between biological processes and environmental reaction. Thus, factors affecting the surface
were evaluated using a simple mass balance. Temperature and biological productions by phytoplankton are the main factors for
drawdown from afternoon to early night, while biological respiration increases seawater
at night. Air-sea exchange fraction acts as a
decreasing gear during the study period and is much effective when the wind speed is higher than
. Future studies about organic carbon and biological production/respiration are required for evaluating the roles of oyster farms on carbon sink and coastal carbon cycle.
Characteristics of Korean Coastal Fisheries
Yoon, Sang Chul ; Jeong, Yeon Kyu ; Zhang, Chang Ik ; Yang, Jae Hyeong ; Choi, Kwang Ho ; Lee, Dong Woo ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 1037~1054
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.1037
In this study, the status of coastal fisheries was examined based on the catch and number of fishing vessels of coastal fisheries in Korea. Comparing the status on coastal fisheries of the East Sea, Yellow Sea and South Sea in Korea, scientific evidence was made for fisheries management on coastal fisheries based on characteristics of each sea area. From 1990 to 2011, the catch of coastal fisheries in Korean waters ranged from 150,000 mt to 230,000 mt, with an average of 190,000 mt, and it accounted for 15% in average of total catch fished in adjacent waters of Korea. In order of catch by coastal fisheries, gillnet (36.7%) was the primary fishery, followed by coastal complex (24.7%), stow net (18.3%), trap (12.9%), lift net (3.9%), purse seine (3.0%) and beam trawl (0.4%) fisheries. In order of catch by species, anchovy (15.0%) had the largest proportion of total catch, followed by common squid (10.3%), akiami paste shrimp (5.2%), blue crab (3.9%) and octopus (3.7%). Of the average catch by sea area from 1990 to 2011, Yellow Sea, South Sea and East Sea were 37.4%, 34.6% and 28.0%, respectively. Since 2000s, however, the average catch of South Sea has accounted for the largest proportion. The number of permitted fishing vessels involved in 8 coastal fisheries was 55,336 vessels in average from 1997 to 2011. The number of vessels was about 47,000 vessels in 1997, and increased to 61,300 vessels until 2000, then has decreased to 44,000 vessels operating in 2011. In order of the number of permitted fishing vessels by fisheries, complex (52.4%) took the first place, followed by gillnet (31.5%), trap (13.4%), stow net (0.8%), beam trawl (0.8%), purse seine (0.6%), lift net (0.4%) and seine net (0.0%). In order of the number of permitted fishing vessels by sea area, South Sea (29,994 vessels) took the first place, followed by Yellow Sea (18,185 vessels) and East Sea (7,158 vessels). In order of the catch per unit effort (CPUE, mt/vessels) which was analyzed using catch and number of vessels in average by fishery, stow net is the highest followed by lift net, trap, purse seine, gill net, beam trawl and complex fisheries. In particular, the CPUE of complex and gill net fisheries, which accounted for the largest number of vessels were 4.0 mt/vessels and 1.6 mt/vessels, respectively. Since those are too low relative to other fisheries, it was judged to need systematical management on both fisheries.
Hydroacoustic Survey of Fish Distribution and Aggregation Characteristics in the Yongdam Reservoir, Korea
Lee, Hyungbeen ; Lee, Kyounghoon ; Kim, Seonghun ; Kim, In-Ok ; Kang, Donhyug ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 1055~1062
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.1055
Hydroacoustic surveys were conducted for spatio-temporal distribution and size estimation of fish in the Yongdam reservoir, Korea, from April to July 2014. Acoustic data were collected along acoustic transects using a 120 kHz scientific echosounder. The received acoustic data were the in situ acoustic target strength (dB) and nautical area scattering coefficient (
). Data on fish behavioral patterns and size were collected using a DIDSON acoustic camera at stationary stations. Fish were mainly distributed in the center channel and close to the outer Yongdam reservoir. Acoustic density of fish in the summer season were higher than in the spring season. The seasonal vertical distribution pattern of fish aggregations may be strongly related to the vertical temperature structure. The size distribution of fish obtained from an acoustic camera correlated well with the acoustic size of fish from an echosounder.
Optimum Feeding Rate for Sub-adult Olive Flounder (370 g) Paralichthys olivaceus Fed Practical Extruded Pellets at Low Water Temperature (12-14℃)
Kim, Sung-Sam ; Kim, Kang-Woong ; Kim, Kyoung-Duck ; Lee, Bong-Joo ; Han, Hyon-Sob ; Lee, Kyeong-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 47, issue 6, 2014, Pages 1063~1068
DOI : 10.5657/KFAS.2014.1063
We investigated the effects of feeding rate on the growth performance and blood components of sub-adult olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Optimum feeding rate (initial fish mean weight :
) was determined under the low water temperature. Two replicated groups of fish were fed a commercial diet at rates of 0%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%, and 0.6% body weight (BW) per day, and to satiation (0.75%). Feeding trial was conducted under a flow-through system with 12 1.2-metric ton aquaria receiving filtered seawater at
for 4 weeks. Weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) for fish fed at 0.6% BW per day was significantly higher than that of unfed fish (0%) and fish fed at 0.3% and 0.4% BW per day. There were no significant differences in WG and SGR among fish fed at 0.5%, 0.6%, and 0.75%. These parameters were negative and significantly lower in the starved fish than in fish fed the experimental diet at all feeding rates. Survival for unfed fish (0%) was significantly lower than that of fish fed at 0.4%, 0.5%, and 0.6%. Hematocrit and hemoglobin content of fish fed at 0% and 0.75% (satiation) were significantly lower than that of fish fed at 0.4% BW per day. Total protein content in unfed fish was significantly lower than those in other treatments. Broken-line regression analysis of weight gain showed that the optimum feeding rate of olive flounder weighing 370 g was 0.51% BW per day at the low water temperature.