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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 6, Issue 3_4 - Dec 1973
Volume 6, Issue 1_2 - Jun 1973
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THE CONCENTRATIONS OF MERCURY, CADMIUM, LEAD AND COPPER IN FISH AND SHELLFISH OF KOREA
WON JongHeun ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 6, issue 1_2, 1973, Pages 1~19
Heavy metal concentrations have been determined in fishes and shellfishes sampled from October 1971 to April 1972 in Korea. In general, fish viscera, shellfish muscle and crustacean exoskeleton contained high concentrations of the metals. With regard to the regional variations of the metals, samples of the west coast of Korea contained relatively high concentrations of mercury, copper, cadmium and lead, but those of the south coast contained high levels of cadmium and lead. In particular, the concentrations of copper in the samples of the west coast were almost twice as much those of the other coasts. The concentrations of mercury in the samples, as a whole, ranged from 0.02 to 0.58 ppm with an average of 0.16 ppm. The concentrations of cadmium were higher in the fish viscera and shellfish than the fish muscle, ranging from less than 0.02 to 0.78 ppm with an average of 0.12 ppm in the fish and shellfish muscle samples. The lead concentrations were slightly high in the fish viscera. In the muscle and bone of fish and shellfish, the range was 0.06-4.84 ppm with an average of about 1 ppm. The concentrations of copper were very high in the viscera of fish and shellfish. The shellfish muscle contained almost four times as much copper as in the fish muscle, particularly cephalopods, i. e., squid and octopus, contained very high levels of copper, and oysters collected from Gunsan area on the west coast contained the highest levels of copper. The concentrations of copper ranged from 0.12 to 28.7 ppm with an average of 1.4 ppm in the fish muscle and of 5.9 ppm in the shellfish muscle.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus IN KOREAN COASTAL WATERS 3. The Ditribution of Vibrio Flora in the Public Beach of Busan City
LEE Won-Jae ; CHOF Wi-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 6, issue 1_2, 1973, Pages 20~26
Authors have investigated the monthly distribution of vibrio flora in sea water, mud, fish and shellfish in the public beaches at the suburbs of Busan in order to determine the possible origins of food poisoning. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The monthly distribution shows that V. parahaemolyticus occurs from May to November and V. alginelyticus all the year round. 2. A total of 40 strains of Vibrio flora were isolated from 40 sea water samples, 25 strains from 40 mud samples, If strains from 88 shellfish samples, and 3 strains from 30 fish samples. 3. More strains were isolated from the samples collected at Yongho and Suyeong that at the other localities. 4. A total of 80 strains of Vibrio flora, isolated from 198 samples, were divided into two groups : V. perahaemolyticus with 20 strains and V. alginelyticus 60 strains.
WATER ACTIVITY AND PIGMENT DEGRADATION IN DRIED LAVERS STORED AT ROOM TEMPERATURE
LEE Kang-Ho ; CHOI Ho-Yeon ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 6, issue 1_2, 1973, Pages 27~36
The effect of water activity on degradation of pigments in dried lavers, Porphyra tenera Kjellm. was examined when stored at room temperature for fifty days. Chlorophyll pigment was extracted with methanol-petroleum ether mixture solvent(2:1 v/v), partitioned in ether, and analysed spectrophotometrically at 662 nm as chlorophyll a. The degradation products of chlorophyll were isolated on sugar-starch column(85:15 w/w) with n-propanol-petroleum ether solution(1:200 v/v) as a developing solvent. The isolated green colored zones were analysed individually at the wavelengths of 650, 662, and 667 nm as allomerized product, chlorophyll a retained, and pheophytin formed respectively. Carotenoida were also extracted with the methanol mixture solvent, partitioned in ether, and finally redissolved in acetone after the evaporation of ether in a rotary vacuum evaporator. The total carotenoid content was measured as lutein at 450 nm. From the results, it is noted that the rate of chlorophyll degradation reached a minimum at 0.11 to 0.33 water activity while progressively increased at higher moisture levels resulting in rapid conversion of chlorophyll to pheophytin. At lower activity, autocatalysed oxidizing reaction like allomerization seemed prevailing the acid catalysed conversion reaction. The loss of carotenoid pigment was also greatly reduced at the range of 0.22 to 0.34 water activity with much faster oxidative degradation at both higher and extremely lower moisture levels. These two moisture levels indicated above at which the both pigments exhibited maximum stability are considerably higher than the BET monolayer moisture which appeared 7.91 percent on dry basis at Aw=0.10 calculated from the adsorption isothermal data of the sample at
. The rate of pigment loss in heat treated samples at 60 and
for 2 hours prior to storage somewhat decreased, particularly at higher moisture levels although the final pigment retention was not much stabilized.
NON-ENZYMATIC BROWNING REACTIONS IN DRIED ANCHOVY WHEN STORED AT DIFFERENT WATER ACTIVITIES
HAN Seong-Bin ; LEE Jong-Ho ; LEE Kang-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 6, issue 1_2, 1973, Pages 37~43
In this paper, non-enzymatic browning reactions as a factor of self stability of boiled and dried anchovy were studied to discuss the effect of water activity to the discoloring reaction and the preservative moisture content. The development of rancidity of the fish meat was also mentioned since the fish is fatty and the lipid oxidation is a functional deteriorative reaction. Fresh anchovies were boiled in
salt solution immediately after the catch, sun dried, and stored at room temperature (
) for two months in humidistat chambers maintaining different levels of water activity as described in Table 1. The pigments formed by non-enzymatic browning reations were extracted in two fractions, those were chloroform-methanol soluble and water dialyzed fraction, and analyzed spectrophotometrically at the wavelength of 460 nm. These two fractions were considered, respectively to be the brown pigments formed by lipid oxidation reactions for the formler and for the latter, to be the pigments developed by sugar-amino or Maillard reaction. The oxidation of lipid in anchovy meat during the storage was measured as the changes in Peroxide value and the color development of thiobarbituric acid reaction. It is summarized from the results that the rate of both reactions, lipid oxidation and browning, was affected by water activity levels. In regard to the changes in peroxide and TBA value during the storage, the propagation of lipid oxidation was obviously accelerated at lower humidities whereas the development of browning progressed at the higher. These two reactions occurring simultaneously and contrary in activity resulted in that the rate of deterioration occurring oxidatively or by browning, was the minimum at the water activity of 0.32-0.45 which were
as moisture content and slightly higher value than that of monolayer (Aw=0.21,
as moisture content). It is also noted that the lipid oxidative browning was presumed to dominate sugar-amino reactions so that the rate of browning of the meat was ultimately depended on the development of rancidity although sugar-amino reactions initiated earlier than the other at the first ten days of storage, particulary at higher humidity. At the lower humidity sugar-amino reactions were occurred gradually but lower levels in color development in contrast to the consistent increase in lipid oxidative browning.
A WINTERING TEST OF THE CRAWL-HELD ANCHOVY
LEE Byoung-Gie ; PARK Sing-Won ; SEO Young-Tae ; KIM Moo-Sang ; SON Boo-Il ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 6, issue 1_2, 1973, Pages 44~48
Since no medium-sized anchovies for skipjack baits are caught during the winter season in the Korean waters, the demand for the live baits in the winter season is met with crawl-stocked anchovies. Authors conducted a test on the wintering of the anchovies which were caught in the early November and acclimated for 22days in a crawl. The wintering crawl was kept in the inlet near Chungmu City, which is situated in the southern coast of Korea, for 4 months through December 1, 1971 to March 31, 1972. 1. The lowest water temperature of
recorded on March 1, caused no significant mortality of the wintering anchovies. However, two operations, moving the crawl and repacling the crawl webbing, brought about a considerable mortality. The mortality of the anchovies, due to the crawl moving to the wintering place two kilometers away from the transient acclimating place, amounted to 1.5 percent in 9 days following the crawl moving. The replacement of the fouled crawl webbing with a new one also caused a mortality amounting to 1.7 percent in 5 days. 2. It is judged that the favorable wintering waters lie in the south and southeast coasts of Keoje Island, the south and southwest coast of Chungmu City, coasts around Namhae Island, and the east coast of Dolsan Island. Jinhae Bay is not suited for the wintering because of its low water temperature in winter 3. The wintering anchovies wvere fed, once a day through the test period, with 4 kg of finely minced fresh anchovy for 57days in the early period, and with 2kg of compound pellet fish food for the rest of the period. Fatness coefficient of the wintering anchovies showed a slight increase in the latter half of the period.
STUDIES ON THE FISHERY BIOLOGY OF THE PACIFIC SAURY, COLOLABIS SAIRA OF THE EAST COAST OF KOREA 2. Migration
KIM Ki-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 6, issue 1_2, 1973, Pages 49~57
Based on the fork length data of 1960 and on the fishery statistical data of 1968, 1970 and 1971, a research was made on the migration of the Pacific saury in the waters off the eastern coast of Korea. The population is divided into four groups in terms of size as shown in Fig. 5. The four groups demonstrate more or less different pattern of migration, both temporally and spatially. Northward migration is brought out in order of size, i. e., the smaller move northward earlier than the larger do, and the order is reverse in the case of southward migration. The migration routes of each size group are presented in Fig. 8. Whether the fish takes its course to the north or the south, its distribution centroid within the fishing grounds is traced in general following the line between
x. long., although longitudinally a pronounced annual bias is found in its month position. The moving pattern of the distribution centroid is assumed to be related with the abundance of each group to a considerable extent.
STUDIES ON THE FISHERY BIOLOGY OF THE PACIFIC SAURY, COLOLABIS SAIRA OF THE EAST COAST OF KOREA 3. Quantitative Variations
KIM Ki-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 6, issue 1_2, 1973, Pages 58~64
Changes in stock size of the Pacific saury, Cololabis saira, were studied on the basis of fishery statistics compiled from 1964 to 1972 and body size composition of the fish collected from 1968 to 1972. During the period from 1964 to 1972 there was a direct correlation between the stocks of fall (september-february of the following year) and spring (March-August) season. The sizes of stocks in both seasons showed a three-year cyclic change, and the mode of stock in the fall always proceeded one year that in the spring. Exceedingly high fishing effort was observed in the spring as well as the fall of 1967. But very low fishing effort was noticed in the spring of 1969. In spring a large stock size has a high proportion of large sized group. On the other hand, in fall a large stock size tends to have a high proportion of medium sized group instead. When the medium sized group outnumbers the large sized group, stock size becomes larger. In contrast, it tends to be smaller when the large sized group exceeds the medium sized group. The patterns of distribution centroid seems to be related to the amount of fish landings. Northward moving trend of the centroid was accompanied by a large amount of landing, while westward (or north-westward) moving trend was followed by a poor landing of the fish.
BIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON OYSTER CULTURE(II) Morphological Charaeteristics of the Oyster, Crassostrea gigas
YOO Sung Kyoo ; YOO Myung Suk ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 6, issue 1_2, 1973, Pages 65~75
Morphological variations of the Korean Oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were studied on the basis of the oyster samples collected from seven ecologically different areas in May and October of 1972 respectively. The sampling areas were Daecheon and Buan in the west coast, Namseong, Cha-myeon, Imyeong and Chubong in the south coast and Pohang in the east coast. The average sizes of the oysters of the west coast were smaller than those of the south coast as well as those of the east coast. The oysters of the east were largest in size, The oysters from subtidal habitats (Chubong and Pohang) had elongated shells and those from intertidal habitats (Buan, Namseong, Imyeong and Chamyeon) had slanted shells. The samples from subtidal habitats showed size variations depending on cultural methods applied. The oysters from Chubong reared by hanging method had their shells as compared to those from Pohang reared by bottom culture method. The ratio of shell height to shell length showed a great variation froms areas to areas with a significant differences. The fatness (meat weight / shell weight) of all the samples collected in October revealed higher value than those collected in May. The oysters from Chubong showed maximum fatness, and those of Pohang showed minimum fatness. Seasonal variations in fatness was not significant in Chubong. On the other hand, it was relatively significant in the oysters from Pohang, Chamyeon, Imyeong and Buan. Water content of the oyster meat was greater in October than in May. It also showed variations in the sampling areas with higher values in the oyster from Imyeong and Chamyeon than those from Chubong, Pohang and Daecheon.
STUDIES ON THE ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF CYCLINA SINENSIS
CHOI Shin Sok ; SONG Yong Kyoo ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 6, issue 1_2, 1973, Pages 76~80
Cyclina sinensis is an edible bivalve inhabiting wide tidal flats which are exposed to the air at ebb tide along the western coast of Korea. Over the period of June to September 1971, some specimens from a tidal flat near Inchon were submerged in sea water with various concentrations of ammonium hydroxide added and careful observations were made on their fertilization, early development, and metamorphosis of the larvae. The highest rate of fertilization was demonstrated by individuals treated with 1/1000 normal solution of ammonium hydroxide and their fertilized eggs followed normal development, i.e., two cell stage 1.5 hours after fertilization, blastular stage after 4 hours, and trochophore stage after 6 hours. Within 24 hrs after fertilization C. sinensis larvae have acquired the form of early straight-hinge veliger with the mean prodissoconch I with the length of
. It takes seven days to get the umbo stage with the mean shell length of
and twenty days to get the morphosing stage with the mean shell length of
. The larvae were cultured to the metamorphosing stage with the shell length of
in the laboratory condition.
THE POLYCHAETOUS ANNELIDS IN KOREA(II) Description of Nectoneanthes latipoda, sp. nov.
PAIK Eui-In ;
Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, volume 6, issue 1_2, 1973, Pages 81~84
Nectoneanthes latipoda is reported new to science as a new species, and added new to Korean fauna.