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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Conservation Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society Of Conservation Science For Cultural Properties
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24 - Dec 2008
Volume 23 - Sep 2008
Volume 22 - Mar 2008
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Study of Adhesion Phenomena of Alkoxysilane-type Consolidants on Fresh Granites
Kim, Eun-Kyung ; Son, Seung-Hwan ; Won, Jong-Ok ; Kim, Jeong-Jin ; Kim, Sa-Dug ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 23, 2008, Pages 1~10
Consolidants based on tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) such as alkoxysilanes have been widely used for the consolidation of decaying stone heritages. Low-viscosity alkoxysilanes penetrate inside the decaying stone and polymerize within the porous structure of the decaying stone, significantly increasing the cohesion of the material. However, TEOS-based consolidants suffer from practical drawbacks, such as crack formation of the gel during the drying phase due to the developed capillary force, which is typical for TEOS-based consolidants. We prepared new consolidants TEOS-based consolidants containing flexible (3-glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and silica nanoparticles (or polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS)) in order to reduce capillary force development during gel drying. Since the consolidants should have a good interaction with the component of the stone in order to connect the isolate grains of decaying stone, the adhesion interaction of the developed consolidants on the surface of the granite was macroscopically investigated by the ISO 2409 cross cutting test. The adhesion interaction decreased with the addition of silica nanoparticle and POSS while it increased with the addition of GPTMS in TEOS solution.
Physicochemical Variation by Weathering Degree of Granite from the Mireuksaji Temple Stone Pagoda, Iksan, Korea
Yang, Hee-Jae ; Han, Min-Su ; Kim, Sa-Dug ; Lee, Chan-Hee ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 23, 2008, Pages 11~24
A physical characteristics and chemical compositions change by weathering on the granite were examined for the conservation treatment of the Mireuksaji temple stone pagoda. The natural weathered granite was collected from the Mt. Mireuk, and divided into the classification standards based on weathering degrees and strength measured by rock-test hammer. The results from comparison of the strength measured by undestructive rock-test hammer and the strength values converted from ultrasonic velocity showed that each strength measurement value was proportionate. The water absorption of the sample was 1.68 to 0.20%. The F-type of fresh rock was not naturally saturated and the WW-type was naturally saturated but took quite a long time. The water absorption was increased gradually in order of SW-type, the MW-type and the HW-type according to weathering condition. The CW-type samples showed the highest water absorption among the weathered classification samples. Through dyeing test, it was found out that only the feldspar was dyed out of the F-type and the WW-type. The SW-type and the MW-type were distinguished by the fact that plagioclase being dyed. And dyed area was expanded to quartz crack in HW-type and CW-type. Physical change by weathering of the rock-forming minerals could be classified with 3 grades. Through the XRD analysis, albite among the rock-forming mineral showed remarkable decrease. SEM-EDX analysis of the component change in the rock-forming minerals such as biotite, plagioclase, and orthoclase, showed that in case of highly-weathered grade samples compared with fresh samples, contents of the
increase and CaO, MgO decrease in the biotite, the CaO,
decrease in the plagioclase, the
a little increase and
decrease in the orthoclase. The results of extracted cation analysis using the powder samples of each weathering grade, the CaO,
and MgO are highly chemical variations in rock forming minerals and positive variation show high in the weathering grade of the WW-type and CW-type. This research will be used as an importance data to establish a plan for conservation treatment of composed stone in the Mireuksaji temple stone pagoda.
Material Characteristics and Provenance Interpretation for Chloritic Beads from the Boseong Geoseokri and Haenam Buntori Sites, Korea
Kim, Ji-Young ; Lee, Chan-Hee ; Kim, Jin-Young ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 23, 2008, Pages 25~37
This study focuses on identification of mineralogical and geochemical characteristics and interpretation of raw material sources for prehistoric chlorite beads excavated from Geoseokri site in Boseong and Buntori site in Haenam, Korea. These prehistoric beads consist of three grayish blue ring-shaped beads, one dark green tubular bead and one greenish black tubular bead that show acicular-columnar and fibrous microtexture. The beads are composed of
, MgO and FeO as majors and a trace amount of
, CaO and
. Mineral species is mostly chlorite with a small amount of quartz and feldspar. Quantitative analysis indicates that the grayish blue ring-shaped beads and the dark green tubular bead belong to clinochlore and the greenish black tubular bead does to the boundary between clinochlore and sheridantie. Chlorite is a hydrous phyllosilicate mineral and it shows various microtexture of acicular, sheeted, earthy, granular andfibrous shapes. As its hardness is 2, chlorite is easily engraved due to its softness. It has aesthetic worthy as it shows green, black and greenish gray colors and pearly to greasy luster as well. These factors would lead to the extensive use of chloritic beads as ornaments from prehistoric times. Though the mineral sources of the chlorite beads can be found in central western region of Chungnam and Iwon of Hamnam, those areas are too distant from the two relic sites. Instead, chlorite ores commonly occur as altered products in wall rock alteration zone of every hydrothermal deposit. Therefore, it is probable that raw materials of chlorite were supplied from neighboring hydrothermal environment rather than far deposits. The result needs further study to verify raw material provenance interpretation, supply, manufacture and distribution on the basis of archaeological points of view.
The Research on Reproduction of White Bamboo Paper in Ming-Qing Dynasty : Reproduction of Paper Woven Painting and Repair Paper
Lee, Sang-Hyun ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 23, 2008, Pages 39~51
Adding chemical additives in bamboo paper making procedure in China became common in last decades to increase productivity. Supply of repair paper for paper based artefacts became more and more difficult due to this tendency. Furthermore, stains and spots on paper which happen to appear during dying procedure make it difficult to use modern bamboo paper for repair treatment. In this research, lime fermentation and sun bleaching were main elements which affect texture and color of paper. Impurities, however, add some effects on paper quality. Less thouroughly washed raw materials after fermentation also affects texture of paper substrate. One most significant impurity is lime. Minimum residue of lime can make stains and spots after dying. Reproduction of white bamboo paper would become useful resource in various conservation treatments as a repair paper, and also, for reproduction of paper woven painting. However, further research to improve quality at early stage of paper making procedure in China required.
Study on the Making Wall Techniques behind the Buddha in Main Building of Bongjeongsa Temple
Jeong, Hye-Young ; Han, Kyeong-Soon ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 23, 2008, Pages 53~65
This research investigated and analyzed the structure and material feature of the wall behind the Buddha of main temple in An-dong Bongjeonsa through applying the natural scientific method, in order to closely examine its production technique. As a result of the research, the structural and material feature of the wall has been clarified and its production technique applied to the structure has been understood in a comprehensive sense. The target sample basically adopted the two-layer wall system, which showed a symmetric structure to the center made with the wooden material, and is estimated to follow the structural tendency of a general wall which is organized with the first layer, the midterm layer, and the painting wall layer. Each layer formed by the production procedure showed difference in the material and production method according to its characteristics and roles. And it was identified that, in general, the higher a layer lies, the finer grains it has. Combination of the main materials and the additives, used for the wall forming, was presumed to contribute to improving its durability and conservativeness. Also interaction between the materials generating the conservativeness and the producer's technical effect seemed to fortify solidity of the wall.
Electron Microscopic Observation on the Decay of the Waterlogged Woods Excavated from Higokri, Pyungtaek
Kim, Soo-Chul ; Park, Won-Kyu ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 23, 2008, Pages 67~72
This study was conducted to examineboth the type of wood decay and the degree of degradation for the waterlogged woods (Alnus spp. and Fraxinus spp., about 5,700~5,900 year old), which were excavated at Higokri, Pyungteak in the west-coastal region of Korea. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation indicated the degradations by soft rot and bacteria were common in both woods. Erosion bacteria attacked gradually and irregularly from the secondary layer to compound middle lamella and often produced the cavity which was similar to soft-rot cavity but much smaller ones. Tunneling bacteria decomposed mainly
layer. Though of highly degraded walls, the cells almost kept the original form with intact lignin-rich middle lamella, which were saturated by water. No marine borer's trace indicated that the sealine rise in the western coast of Korean peninsula during the climate optimum period in the holocene might not be high enough to submerge the Higokri area which locates about 2 km from the present sealine.
Authentication Test of Archaeological Materials using Single Grain Regenerative Dose Method
Kim, Myung-Jin ; Youn, Min-Young ; Hong, Duk-Geun ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 23, 2008, Pages 73~80
This article aims to turn out the authentication of archaeological materials by using the paleodose measurement to fine sand-size quartz grains obtained by micro sampling technique. We firstly revealed the validity of micro sampling technique from the paleodoses of two bricks related to Muryong Royal Tomb of Baekje Kingdom. For the purpose of authentication test, four archaeological materials were selected, because they have been insisted that they were manufactured in Goguryeo Kingdom era. After obtaining very few quartz grains by micro sampling technique, each paleodose was evaluated by using SGR (single grain regenerative dose method). All values were very low below 0.2Gy and the reliability was found from those values by using SAR (single aliquot regenerative dose method). Considering the archaeological situation and the general paleodose, the burial time for 1,000 years generally corresponds to about 3.5Gy in Korea, it is concluded that these archaeological materials are all modern counterfeits.
A Paleogenetic Analysis of Human Skeletal Remains from the Myeongam-ri Site, Asan in Korea
Jee, Sang-Hyun ; Kim, Yun-Ji ; Chung, Yong-Jae ; Seo, Min-Seok ; Pak, Yang-Jin ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 23, 2008, Pages 81~93
The analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) in paleogenetics has become an increasingly important subject of archaeological, anthropological, biological as well as public interest. In this study, paleogenetic analyses were carried out on the human skeletal remains from a historical cemetery site in Myeongam-ri, Asan, Korea. Archaeological records show that this particular location had been used as a habitation or mortuary site as early as the Bronze Age and up until the Joseon Dynasty. Human remains of twenty individuals out of forty-nine tombs from the Goryeo to Joseon Dynasty were selected for the analysis of this study. In order to identify the genealogy of the population and traditional burial pattern of the cemetery, we conducted comparative analyses of the hyper variable regions (HVRs) in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of each sample. A number of cautious steps were taken at all experimental stages in order to avoid erroneous recombination by the segmental and modern contaminations derived from the researchers. We sequenced segmental amplicons of HVRs andassigned relevant haplogroups according to the sequence polymorphism on the basis of the known mtDNA database. The result shows that diverse haplogroups were unexpectedly present in the small population group of the Myeongam-ri site. This diversity appears to be related to the geographical conditions and archaeological properties of the Myeongam-ri site.
Antifungal and Insecticidal Activity of Methanol Extract from 11 Korean Wood Species
Lim, Jin-A ; Choi, Yun-A ; Jung, Mi-Hwa ; Kang, So-Yeong ; Chung, Yong-Jae ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 23, 2008, Pages 95~102
To investigate bioactive materials for development of natural conservative agent on organic cultural heritage, methanol extracts from 11 wood species which populate in Korea were screened for antifungal and insecticidal activity against 9 wood contaminant fungi and adult of Lasioderma serricorne. Antifungal activity of extracts was tested by using paper disc soaking method and feeder strip test against wood-rot fungi and wood surface contaminant fungi. Among these extracts, the most significant antimicrobial activity was observed from the extract of Phellodendron amurense at 5 mg/disc against Coniophora puteana, Lentinus lepideus, Tyromyces palustris and Aspergillus niger. The insecticidal activity of extracts was examined by topical application against L. serricorne adults. The extracts from Taxus cuspidata and Abies holophylla gave 56.7 % mortality at 25
/adult for 24 hr. From these result, the methanol extract from T. cuspidata, A. holophylla and P. amurense described could be useful for conservation of organic cultural heritage against biological deterioration by insect and wood contaminant fungi.
Investigation of the Korean Traditional Hobun(Oyster shell W.) Manufacturing Technique : Centering on Calcination Method
Lee, Han-Hyoung ; Kim, Soon-Kwan ; Kim, Ho-Jeong ; Jeong, Hye-Young ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 23, 2008, Pages 103~118
Hobun(Oyster shell W.) is a traditional material used as extender and white pigment from ancient times. The production method of it, however, has been discontinued. We have studied the traditional production method of Hobun through calcination of oyster shell, which is one of the traditional ways for preparing Hobun. Our work has the important meaning in that we can reproduce the manufacturing method of the discontinued traditional material and also it provides a solid background knowledge to stabilize the production and supply of Hobun for the cultural asset repairing materials. The result can be summarized as followings: The production processes of Hobun by calcination method are divided into 4 steps - calcination
separating fine powder by submergence in water
drying. In calcination step, the temperature is required to exceed
to get pure white color of Hobun, since organic materials in the shell cause the final powder to be less white below
. And the calcination methods produce significant amount of calcium hydroxide, which is incongruent for pigment materials without additional treatments. The experimental study also demonstrated that the additional treatment process introduced in traditional paintings can be a probable process since the calcium of potassium hydroxide is observed to be promoted by this treatment. It is also concluded that, the calcination method of Hobun is appropriate for a small amount and high quality production.
Fire Safety Administration Way of Tradition Buddhist Temple Cultural Heritage
Shin, Min-Seob ; Kong, Ha-Sung ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 23, 2008, Pages 119~124
Have difficult controversial point to suppress fire effectively by geographical special quality that fire is transmitted and is during the mountain with the fast speed if our country's tradition Buddhist temple makes of most wood and most of construction structure of country importance tradition Buddhist temple are ignited once because combustibility is high as wood. By fire safety supervision improvement way of tradition Buddhist temple cultural heritage in this treatise law and systematic side, Side that is construction room robbers, disaster and prevention of disasters basis system construction and stream tube engine combination check, training courtesy call activity reinforcement present.