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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Conservation Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society Of Conservation Science For Cultural Properties
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
Selecting the target year
Petrological Characteristics and Deterioration Aspect of the Pohang Chilpori and Shinheungri Petroglyphs
Lee, Sang-Hun ; Choi, Gi-Ju ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 25, issue 4, 2009, Pages 347~361
The Pohang Chilpori is the area with abundant petroglyphs in Korea. The form of the shield, female sex organs, and yut board on the outcrops or float rocks which are composed of the rhyolitic rock are engraved on Chilpori and Shinheungri Petroglyphs. The rhyolitic rock is composed of the phenocryst and groundmass with quartz and feldspar. The rock surface shows mostly yellowish brown color and the rock surface is very irregular by serious weathering, and illite and kaolinite, a kind of the clay minerals, are produced. Deterioration aspects are mainly of surface exfoliation, grain peel-off, damages, scribbling. Chilpori Petroglyph (1) plane has been eroded by running water, in (2) plane has been abrased is on the rock surface, in (3) plane shows surface exfoliation and the various part of the rock surface in plane (4) has become the soil. The corrasion and black phenomenon of the Shinheungri Petroglyph (1) plane was formed by running water, and surface exfoliation and scribbling in plane (2) is serious. Deterioration factors are geomorphologic states, plants, rock of weak to weathering, and artificial influence such as a scribbling and a forest fire. For conservation of the these petroglyphs, study for rock surface conservation and the arrangement of around petroglyphs and construction of water wall are necessary.
A Study on the Photographic Rubbing by using Photographic Lighting and Digital Techniques
Jang, Seon-Phil ; Hahn, Sang-June ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 25, issue 4, 2009, Pages 363~371
This study is purposed to investigate that current rubbing technique could be replaced by the photographic rubbing techniques with the photographic lighting and digital techniques. The lighting technique is based on the "texture description theory" using the electric flash and the intaglio epitaph was emphasized from the observation of the both side because it is purposed to decipher epitaph. The photographs were retouched using the photoshop to emphasize epitaph and the spots from the lichen on the tombstone were softened. Especially, it shows that faint epitaph could be deciphered if the digital techniques could be used practically even though some part of the epitaph was destroyed or peeled. Furthermore, it will help to investigate, protect and restore the cultural properties because it surely makes the recording of the material, weathering, peeling of the tombstone much easier than the current rubbing technique.
A Study on the Testing of Weather Resistance of Anti-corrosion Wax Covering Agents in the Locomotive at Jangdan Station of Gyeongui Line
Song, Won-Joon ; Kim, Mi-Hyun ; Ahn, Byong-Chan ; Jeong, Hee-Don ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 25, issue 4, 2009, Pages 373~381
To preserve steel cultural properties on display outdoors, the surface of these relics is processed with a covering treatment, which is a typical anti-corrosion method. Since the registered cultural heritage of Korea No. 78 Locomotive at Jangdan Station of Gyeongui Line will be treated by preservation process and displayed in the open outdoor area, effective surface covering agents were selected through testing to prevent the corrosion of the locomotive. The mixed wax are based on two types of microcrystalline wax which is one of regular surface covering agents for locomotives and bee‘s wax. For the weather resistance test, 3 types of wax were applied to each specimen of the locomotive and the specimens were tested in the Xenon-Arc Accelerated Weathering Tester for 1000 hours in accordance with the ISO 4892-1981 criteria and the test results were compared. As a result, on the surface of the specimen coated with the bee's wax, a whitening event appears after 400 hours which causes aging, and the specimens coated by the microcrystalline wax showed signs of a whitening event after 800 hours. The moisture contact angle with the microcrystalline wax coating was also less than with the bee's wax. Therefore, it was found that the high temperature microcrystalline wax is the most effective coating agent in terms of weather resistance and moisture blocking capability and the high temperature microcrystalline wax was adopted for coating the surface of the locomotive.
Pigment Analysis and Nondestructive Deterioration Diagnosis of the Wall Paintings in Gwanyongsayaksajeon (Yaksajeon Hall of Gwanyongsa Temple), Changnyeong, Korea
Chun, Yu-Gun ; Kim, Won-Kuk ; Jo, Young-Hoon ; Han, Doo-Roo ; Kim, Sun-Duk ; Lee, Chan-Hee ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 25, issue 4, 2009, Pages 383~398
We have investigated chemical properties of the pigments and carried out the deterioration diagnosis using nondestructive techniques of the wall painting in Yaksajeon Hall of Gwanyongsa Temple. As the results of pigments analysis, it was unusual that the cobalt was detected in the blue and green colors used to traditional paint background. According to the deterioration diagnosis, ultrasonic measurement and infrared thermography, dominant cracks and exfoliation caused by high content of moisture. Therefore, it should be devised effective plan to prevent penetration of water for the long term this wall painting.
A Study of Conservation and Desalination Methods for an Iron Stele of the Joseon Dynasty
Lee, Hye-Youn ; Cho, Nam-Chul ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 25, issue 4, 2009, Pages 399~409
Outdoor iron artefacts are easily corroded by affection of environmental pollutants directly. Especially they need to be removed
ions, but outdoor iron artefacts are excluded for desalination owing to their special features. Therefore this study contains the conservation processes of an iron stele of the Joseon Dynasty as the sample as well as desalination experiments that were carried out the desalting method using spill pads and the immersion desalting method together in order to compare. Desalting methods were compared by analyses such as an optical and metallurgical microscope, SEM-EDS, pH meter, Ion Chromatography and X-ray diffraction. As a result of the analysis, the optical and metallurgical microscopy show that the corrosion products are constituted by the layers and the metallurgical microstructure is a white cast iron. The SEM-EDS results of corrosion products detected mainly Fe, O, and especially Cl upto 2.48wt%. The results of pH and anion analysis for the washing solution, the desalting method using spill pads shows the similar effect to the immersion desalting method. As a result of XRD analysis before and after desalting corrosion products, goethite, magnetite, lepidocrocite and akaganeite are detected before desalting, but akaganeite is not detected after desalting at the desalting methode using spill pads, which indicates to have an effect on desalination. Therefore the results show that the desalting method using spill pads has an effect on desalination similar to the immersing desalting method.
A Study of the Microstructure and Provenance Area of Bronze Spoons Excavated from the Ok-dong Site in Andong
Chung, Kwang-Yong ; Lee, Joo-Hyun ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 25, issue 4, 2009, Pages 411~420
A series of scientific analyses, including ICP-AES, microstructure, and TIMS, were carried out on 5 bronze spoons among 14 bronze artifacts excavated from the Ok-dong site in Andong, North Gyeongsang Province. The results of analysis showed that the bronze spoons were formed from an alloy of no more than 75% Cu and 21~23% Sn, placing it in the category of brassware, with trace elements such as Pb, Fe, and Zn. In particular, plumbum Pb contents of which traces of 0.04% were found, appears to have been added as an impurity during smelting. The microstructure of the bronze spoons suggests that the casting process involved using a spoon-shaped hollow mold, followed by an ropid-cooling process after the shape was perfected at approximately
. After comparison of data measured from thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) of galena from Korea, China, and Japan, it appears that the raw materials for the bronze spoons included galena (lead sulfide) produced from the southern part of China.
Removal Methods of Paint Pollutants on the Stone Cultural Heritage using Poultices
Lee, Joo-Wan ; Ham, Chul-Hee ; Kim, Sa-Dug ; Lee, Chan-Hee ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 25, issue 4, 2009, Pages 421~430
This research was carried out focusing on the urgent treatment and related studies for paint scribbling on Samjeondobi Monument (Historic Sites No. 101) in 2007. Before the preliminary test, the paint lacquer used on the surface of Samjeondobi Monument was analyzed. The paint lacquer turned out to be the paint lacquer spray composed of
used for the red pigment in the market. It was proved that the poultice used with the organic solvent was the best way to remove the paint pollutants following the preliminary test for the removal of paint pollutants which was performed with various removal methods by the laser, etc. However, the removing the paint pollutants was found in difficulty in contrast to the preliminary tests because the paint on the spot was hardened so rapidly over time that there was difference from the situation of the laboratory. For that problem, the poultice method with ethylene dichloride of main component from Remover (goods in the market) was the most efficient, therefore the pollutants were removed with the solution of alkyds resin and nitrocellulose and the rest part was removed by the
Study on the Hardness Measurement of Earthenware : Focusing on the Cup of the Baekje
Moon, Eun-Jung ; Kang, Hee-Jun ; Kim, Su-Kyoung ; Lee, Han-Hyoung ; Hong, Jong-Ouk ; Hwang, Jin-Ju ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 25, issue 4, 2009, Pages 431~438
We have investigated the suitable measuring method and condition on the hardness testing for the earthenwares excavated from Poongnap mud castle in Hanseong Baekje period. The earthenwares which used on hardness testing have been classified according to Mohs hardness and external form and color. The Ultrasonic and Equotip testing method have used to the hardness testing on the surface of the earthenwares and the Rockwell and Micro-vickers testing methods have used to the hardness testing on the cross section of the earthenwares. As the results, the two methods applied to the surface of the earthenwares were very hard on the precise measurement and the measuring values were incompatible with the tendency classified according to Mohs hardness and external form and color. On the testing for the cross section of earthenware, the Rockwell-superficial hardness testing method was more suitable for the soft texture earthenware and highest reproducibility of the measuring value obtained at the test load and indentor are 15kgf and 1/16 “iron ball, respectively. The Micro-Vickers hardness testing method was suitable for the hard texture earthenware and highest reproducibility and accuracy of the measuring value obtained at the test load is 100gf. This results show strong possibility of progress on the classifying and comparing study for hardness of the earthenware and therefore active studies are expected on the field.
Characteristic Analysis on Mixed Filler of Conservation Materials for Stone Cultural Heritage
Song, Chi-Young ; Han, Min-Su ; Lee, Jang-Jon ; Jun, Byung-Kyu ; Do, Min-Hwan ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 25, issue 4, 2009, Pages 439~450
The purpose of this study is to find out characteristics of the fillers made by epoxy resin (L-30) and filling epoxy resin (L-50) with talc, quartz sand and wollastonite with different mixture ratio of 5%, 50%, 80%, 120%, and 150%. The viscometer and colorimeter were used to measure the viscosity and chromaticity of the fillers. Additionally, IC and SEM were used to reveal characteristics of the filler, and checked ultrasonic wave velocity, compressive strength and contact angle to estimate the stability between the filler and stones which are essential for conservation treatments. The filler mixed with the talc had the lowest value in the ultrasonic wave velocity analysis, and its compressive strength decreased as the mixing rate of talc increased. On the other hand, wollastonite had higher values than others in the ultrasonic wave velocity and the compressive strength regardless of epoxy resin type, also, these values increased as mixing rate increased. The properties of the filler, which include the granularity and shape, have influence on characteristics of the stone conservation adhesives. Thus, the filler type, characteristic, and mixture ratio must be considered for effective conservation treatment.
Stability Evaluation of Cleaning Agent for Ceramics
Park, Daw-Woo ; Kang, Hyun-Mi ; Nam, Byeong-Jik ; Jang, Sung-Yoon ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 25, issue 4, 2009, Pages 451~464
To do conservation for ceramics, sometimes it needs to clean the ceramics chemically to remove stains on the ceramics, which should be performed with caution. This study will provide quantitative data about the extraction characteristics of major elements from ceramics through the soaking test to evaluate the stability of ceramic cleaning agents. As soft textured pottery(fired at
) had high absorption, it showed higher extraction characteristics in short soaking time. Especially the strong acid among chemical cleaning agents caused the expoliation and the color change on the surface of soft textured pottery. But these color change had no effect on the physical characteristics of soft textured pottery. The hard textured pottery(fired at
) is relatively stable in the cleaning agent because it is ascertained the extraction of that was not enough and also it had little chromatic and physical change by strong acid. Porcelains(Celadon, Whiteware and Puncheong ware) was safer than the soft textured pottery due to their low extraction. But it should take precautions to clean the porcelains with lots of cracklewares such like Puncheong ware chemically in connection with the extraction characteristics and their cracklewares.
The 2nd Stability Appraisement on Cultural Property Material with the Replacing Fumigation Gas of Methyl Bromide II
Kang, Dai-Ill ;
Journal of Conservation Science, volume 25, issue 4, 2009, Pages 465~471
In this study, the substitution fumigation gases (15% Ethylene Oxide + 85% HFC 134a, 20% Ethylene Oxide + 80%
, 99% Sulfuryl Fluoride + 1% Inert Gas) were applied on the metal, pigment, fabric and paper specimen. The result of the fumigation treatment with 15% Ethylene Oxide + 85% HFC 134a (200g/
, 48hours) is the color changes (
) of 1st and 2nd Cu specimens showed significant difference as 3.40, 4.17. On the other hand, other specimens except for Cu showed less than 3.0 in chrominance values. The result with 20% Ethylene Oxide + 80%
, 48hours) is that the color changes (
) of 1st and 2nd specimens were overall less than 3.0 so that color differences were subtle and hardly recognized with naked eyes. So it is proved that the fumigation treatment with Ethylene Oxide 20% +
80% is relatively stable on materials in this study. In the case of 99% Sulfuryl Fluoride + 1% Inert Gas (50g/
, 48hours), the color difference of Lead red (
) of pigment was more than 3.0 that was compared with contrast specimens. But chrominance values in the other specimens were less than 3.0 on average.